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A technique for organizing individual pieces of information into groups or broader categories. 


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(Analysis of Variance) A statistical test for identifying significant differences between process or system treatments or conditions. It is done by comparing the variances around the means of the conditions being compared. 


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Data which on one of a set of discrete values such as pass or fail, yes or no 


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Also called the mean, it is the arithmetic average of all the sample values. It is calculated by adding all of th sample values together and divididing by the number of elements in the sample. 


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A graphical method which depicts how data falls into different categories 


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An individual who receives approximately four weeks training in DMAIC, analytical problem solving, and change management methods. A Black Belt is a full time six sigma team leader solving problems under the direction of a Champion. 


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A rate of improvement at or near 70% over baseline performance of the asis process characteristic. 


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A comparison of the required operation width of a process or system to its actual performance width. Expressed as a percentage (yield), a defect rate (dpm, dpmo), an index (Cp, Cpk, Pp, Ppk), or as a sigma score (z) 


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(Fishbone Diagram) A pictorial diagram in the shape of a fishbone showing all possible variables that could afford a given process output measure. 


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A measure of the pooint about which a group of values is clustered; two measures of central tendency are the mean, and the median. 


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A Champion recognizes, defines, assigns and supports the succesful completion of six sigma projects; they are accountable for the results of the project and the business roadmap to achieve six sigma within their span of control. 


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A process input or output which can be measured and monitored. 


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Common Causes of Varitation 

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Those sources of variability in a process which are truly random, i.e. inherent in the process itself 


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The level of difficult to build, solve, or understand something based on the number of inputs, interactions and uncertainty involved. 


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The most powerful tool fo statistical process control. It consists of a run chart, together with statistically determined upper and lower control limits and a centerline. 


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Upper and lower bounds in a control chart that are determined by the process itself. They can be used to detect special or common causes of variation. They are usually set at a +standard deviations from the central tendency. 


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A measure of the linear relationship between two variables 


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Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) 

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The costs associated with any activity that is not doing the right thing right the first time. Itis the financial qualification any waste that is not integral to the product or service which your company provides. 

