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SIS 201 Week 1-3
International Studies
Undergraduate 2

Additional International Studies Flashcards




Refers either to (1) the extreme antiwar faction of the Russian socialist movement (Frieden 137) or (2) the revolution by said faction leading to the installation of Lenin, and later Stalin [The Bolshevik Revolution].

(1) Bolshevik
a member of the extremist wing of the Russian Social Democratic party that seized power in Russia by the Revolution of November 1917 ( Merriam-Webster Dictionary Definition )

Led "radical revolts against European capitalism" post-WWI (Frieden 138). Strongly favored the industrial proletariat over investing, trading or agrarian classes (Frieden 215-216).

(2) Bolshevik Revolution:
collective term for a series of revolutions between 1917 and 1918 that led to the abdication of Tzar Nicholas II and the overthrow by the Bolsheviks of the provisional government that replaced him. Led to the formation of the Soviet Union. ( Wikipedia Article )
"The Bolshevik Revolution ... involved the embrace of concentrated authority as a means of overthrowing class enemies and consolidating a base from which a proletarian revolution would spread throughout the world" (Gaddis 8)
Berlin Blockade

The Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway and road access to the sectors of Berlin under Allied control.
(24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949) Post WW2
Berlin, multinationally occupied Germany
Soviet Union (Stalin)
The aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food and fuel, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city.
The Western Allies responded with Berlin Airlift, which delivered the supplies to the people in West Berlin by air. The airlift carried more supplies than the railways used to, bringing humiliation to the Soviets who had refused to believe it could make a difference, and thus resulted in lifting the blockage.

Gaddis page33-34

The reasons for Stalin to undertake the Berlin Blockage are not clear to this day.
"He may have hoped to force the Americans, British, and French out of their respective sectors of the divided city, taking advantage of their dependence on supply lines running through the Soviet occupation zone. Or he may have sought to slow their efforts to consolidate their own zones, which seemed likely to produce a powerful west German state within which Moscow would have no influence" (33).

Berlin Blockage was a failure because,
"The western allies improvised an airlift....., thereby winning the emphatic gratitude of the Berliners, the respect of most Germans, and a global public relations trumph that made Stalin look both brutal and incompetent" (33-34).

American economic assistance encouraged its European recipients to request the creation of a North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which committed the US to the peacetime defence of Western Europe.
"By the time Stalin grudgingly lifted the Berlin blockage in May, 1949, ...the Federal Republic of Germany had been proclaimed in Bonn---another result that Stalin had not wanted" (34).
Bretton Woods and offspring
Bretton Woods & their offspring:

An international monetary system that established commercial and financial rules among industrial countries. The result was the formation of the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

Examples from the text:

“The resulting Bretton Woods system was unique. There had never been an international agency like the IMF, to which member governments agreed to subject their decisions on important economic policies” (Frieden 259).

“The United States bankrolled the two functioning Bretton Woods institutions, the IMF and the World Bank, and provided them with their Washington headquarters” (Frieden 269).
Ø Containment: the policy, process, or result of preventing the expansion of a hostile power or ideology.

According to Gaddis and Kennan:

Ø Iran, Turkey, The Mediterranean-And Containment (28)

Ø “Long term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies.” (Gaddis 29 and Kennan)

Ø “It was an unusually uneven performance from the normally elf-confident Kremlin dictator, and it suggested the extent to which the strategy of containment, with the Marshall Plan at its center, was already disrupting his own set of priorities.” (32)

Ø “The fact of the matter is that there is a little bit of the totalitarian buried somewhere, way down deep, in each and every one of us,” Kennan told students in 1947. “It is only the cheerful light of confidence and security which keeps this evil genius down. If confidence and security were to disappear, don’t think that he would not be waiting to take their place.” This warning from the founder of containment – that the enemy to be contained might as easily lie within the beneficiaries of freedom as among its enemies – showed how pervasive fear had become in postwar international order. (46)
Monetary System
A system which allows for a standardized exchange of goods using a commonly available set of representative tokens or symbols.
Definition: McCarthyism is the practice of accusing someone without proper evidence.

Examples from text:

“The fact that Stalin mounted a major operation to spy on his allies in the middle of a war he and they were waging together is another strong indication of his lack of trust in them – although it has to be acknowledged, as well, that the Anglo-Americans themselves did not choose to tell Stalin about the bomb until after the first successful test in the New Mexico desert (Gaddis 25).”

“There was, however, a growing sense of insecurity at the highest levels in Washington, London, and Moscow, generated by the efforts the wartime allies were making to ensure their own postwar security (Gaddis, 27).”

Other examples:

The first Red Scare of 1917-1920 was inspired by communism which was a huge factor contributed to McCarthyism.

The second Red Scare of 1935-1945 occurred after WWII which was coincided with the increased fear of communism.
Five Year Plan
"The first five year plan of 1938-1933, called for a substainal expansion of the state control economy and for enormous new investments in industry. The Soveit Industrialization drive had many domestic sources especially the Communists' concern at rulin a preindustrial socety with only the support of a tiny urban industrial sector, but in international conditions were also an important impetus for the turn inward" Frieden (116). "The collaspe of world commdity markets made these proposals workable. So in the Soviet Union and in so many other countries, the depression reinforced an economic turn inward" Frieden (117)

"Soviet economic practice of planning to augment agricultural and industrial output by designated quotas for a limited period of usually five years. Nations other than the former USSR and the Soviet bloc members, especially developing countries, have adopted such plans for four, five, or more years. Joseph Stalin in 1928, launched the first Five-Year Plan; it was designed to industrialize the USSR in the shortest possible time and, in the process, to expedite the collectivization of farms. ."
UDHR stands for Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It is created by UN General Assembly on December 10, 1948 in France to protect human beings.


"Throughout the 1990s labor unions, students, and other activists mobilzed against the threat that economic integration would erode wages and social policies."(466)

"Global integration meant "free trade for corporations, but severe controls upon nations and citizens that try to protect the safety of their food, their jobs, small businesses or Natire" or that globalization was "homogenizing global cultures and values.""(466)

According to Wikipedia:

"The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). The Declaration arose directly from the experience of the Second World War and represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled. It consists of 30 articles which have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions and laws. The International Bill of Human Rights consists of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its two Optional Protocols. In 1966 the General Assembly adopted the two detailed Covenants, which complete the International Bill of Human Rights; and in 1976, after the Covenants had been ratified by a sufficient number of individual nations, the Bill took on the force of international law."
John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes is a revolutionary economist from the middle third of the 20th C. He was born in Cambridge in 1883 (148). Keynes said, "my old master who made me into an economist" although his first interest was philosophy (148). He was very interested in politics but had very little respect for politicians (148). Keynes worked for the the government for a few years, then retired and taught economics at Cambridge. He was a kick-ass economist. He focused on India for a while pointing out what he called "a gold exchange standard", India's modification to the gold standard, which from his perspective was improvement from the 'original gold standard' (149). Keynes political views were very liberal for the time. He introduced free trade. Keynes was a part of the Bloomsbury Group. After WWI Keynes was advised as the "Treasury's principle financial expert" (150). He found it very difficult to keep his "antiwar" views separate from his work done on war finance, though he was determined to find a way for the government to fund war with out going bankrupt (150). Keynes later became the chief Treasury representative on the British delegation to the Paris Peace Conference. Keynes's emerged WWI as a powerful critic of the great powers and was acclaimed for his honesty of the failed attempt to restore the pre-1914 world order (151).*

*All of the above from Frieden.

Keynes is best known for his 'General Theory' because "it introduced the notion of aggregate demand as the sum of consumption, investment, and government spending" by demonstrating that full employment can only exist by means of government spending (Encyclopedia of Economics). The General Theory was introduced during the long period of high unemployment in Great Britain.
The Truman Doctrine
The Truman Doctrine was a speech made in order to persuade the government to support his policy of helping countries financially who were at risk of joining the Soviet Union.

"We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way" (Harry S Truman, March 12, 1947).
-Gaddis (31)

"Three months after the Truman Doctrine committed the United States to global efforts against the Soviets and their allies, Secretary of State Marshall launched the Economic Recovery Plan, the Marshall Plan" (267).

The Truman Doctrine was a policy set forth by U.S. President Harry S Truman on March 12, 1947 stating that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere.
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