# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Show Production Systems
Final Exam Review
65
Engineering
02/26/2013

Term
 What is the purpose of setting good console and system gain structure?
Definition
 To avoid clipping and any given point in the system, Never have distortion, Minimize system noise
Term
 What is the most common device to clip in a sound reinforcement system?
Definition
 Amplifier
Term
 Describe two ways that signal polarity can be reversed besides the polarity button on a mixing console.
Definition
 1. Positive and Negative crossed from Amp to Speakers 2. XLR Pins 2 and 3 are reversed
Term
 How much additional amplifier power is required to double the loudness of a loudspeaker system?
Definition
 10x the power = 2x loudness
Term
 What is the +4dBu standard, and what equipment uses this standard?
Definition
 Pro Line Level = 1.23v
Term
 When adjusting a level control on a sound system, a change in _________________ is being made.
Definition
 Voltage
Term
 Describe the inverse square law
Definition
 For every doubling of distance away from the sound source, the acoustical reduces by 6dB. 20xLog(distance1/distance2). Distance can be in either feet or meters.
Term
 The decibel change be used to express _______________ or _________________ levels within an audio system.
Definition
 Absolute or Relative
Term
 0dBm
Definition
 0.001 watt
Term
 0dBW
Definition
 1 watt
Term
 dBu
Definition
 0.775 v
Term
 0dBV
Definition
 1 volt
Term
 0dBSPL
Definition
 0.00002 pa
Term
 Define the term “acoustic gain.”
Definition
 The amount of gain a system provides to an un-amplified sound source.
Term
 Define the term “potential acoustic gain.”
Definition
 AKA "Gain before feedback" or "PAG" The amount of gain a system can achieve before feedback.
Term
 Define the term “loop unity gain.”
Definition
 When the source and the loudspeaker reinforcing the source are equal in level at the mic capsule.
Term
 Name three things that factor into the potential for feedback.
Definition
 1. Response of speaker2. Mic Response3. Acoustic Enviroment
Term
 How does changing the distance between the source and the mic affect acoustic gain?
Definition
 Doubling the distance = lose 6dBHalf the distance = gain 6dB
Term
 How does changing the number of open microphones on stage affect acoustic gain?
Definition
 Doubling the mics = lose 3dBMore mics = less acoustic gain
Term
 Define the term “loudspeaker Q”
Definition
 A measure of directional properties of a loudspeaker.
Term
 Name 3 ways that you can improve gain before feedback.
Definition
 1. Use as few mics as possible.2. Mic as close to the source as possible.3. Take advantage of mic and speaker directionality.
Term
 What attributes of a loudspeaker affect acoustic gain?
Definition
 Frequency response, Polar Pattern, Sensitivity
Term
 What attributes of a microphone affect acoustic gain?
Definition
 Frequency response, Polar Pattern, Sensitivity
Term
 What type of cabling does an Avid Venue system use to connect the stage rack to the FOH rack?
Definition
 75 Ω COAX w/ BNC connectors
Term
 Digico consoles use the __________ protocol for digital audio transmission.
Definition
Term
 Multiple Digico consoles can share a single stage rack using a system called______________ ___________________.
Definition
 Gain Tracking
Term
 A single Avid HDx card can output _______ channels of digital audio into a Pro Tools HD2 system.
Definition
 64
Term
 In order to connect a second stage rack to an Avid Venue system, you must add a______________ card to your __________ rack.
Definition
 Snake 2/FOH
Term
 What is a “virtual soundcheck?”
Definition
 The process of using multitrack recordings instead of a live band for soundcheck input material.
Term
 Most consoles fix the slope of a HPF at _______ or ________ dB/Octave.
Definition
 12 or 18
Term
 The frequency setting on a high pass filter can also be called the ___________________ ___________________.
Definition
 Knee Frequency
Term
 What are the three parameters of a parametric EQ?
Definition
 1. Center frequency2. Gain3. Bandwidth (Q)
Term
 What are the two parameters on a traditional shelving EQ?
Definition
 Gain and Frequency
Term
 What is the one parameter of a high pass filter?
Definition
 Frequency
Term
 The frequency at which a system crosses over from one driver to another is called the ________________ ______________.
Definition
 Crossover Point
Term
 The area in which two drivers’ frequency response overlaps is called the _______________ ________________.
Definition
 Crossover Region
Term
 Crossover filter slopes are described in orders. Fill in the slope in dB/Octave for the following filter orders…1st Order: _______/Octave5th Order: _______/Octave8th Order: _______/Octave
Definition
 6dB, 30dB, 48dB
Term
 List the three most common crossover filter shapes/topologies.
Definition
Term
 A passive crossover network divides frequency ________________ the amplifier.
Definition
 After
Term
 An active crossover network divides frequency ________________ the amplifier.
Definition
 Before
Term
 A simple stereo 3-Way system with bi-amped front fills would require a crossover with a minimum of _______ inputs and _______ outputs.
Definition
 2 in/6 out
Term
 A stereo 4-way system with mono tri-amped delays would require a crossover with a minimum of ________ inputs and ________ outputs
Definition
 3 in/8 out
Term
 A loudspeaker’s nominal impedance is an _________________ across its usable frequency range.
Definition
 Average
Term
 Name three types of amplifier input connectors?
Definition
 XLR, TRS, Phoenix, Network
Term
 Name three types of amplifier output connectors.
Definition
 Speakon, 5-way Binding Post, Barrier Strip, TS
Term
 Name the three most common amplifier operating modes.
Definition
 Stereo, Parallel, Bridged
Term
 A loudspeaker’s axial sensitivity is defined as the…
Definition
 dbSPL output at 1 watt/1 meter (frequency dependent)
Term
 What does the term system drive refer to?
Definition
 A map that shows the connection between output busses of your console and your speakers.
Term
 Describe two benefits of driving subwoofers from an aux send.
Definition
 1. Reduce potential for low frequency feedback2. Control what goes to the subs
Term
 List three purposes for using a center cluster of loudspeakers.
Definition
 Vocals, Speech and Surround Center Channel
Term
 There are two different ways to use front fills, describe one of these methods in as much detail as you can…
Definition
 1. Matrix sum of the left and right stereo bus -> Everything to front fills2. Use an aux -> VOX only submix
Term
 When wiring loudspeakers via Neutrik speakon connectors, the highest numbered pin is wired to the…
Definition
 Highest frequency driver
Term
 Define the term “bi-amped loudspeaker”
Definition
Term
 What is the purpose of a paralleled input panel on an amplifier rack?
Definition
 To jump signal from one mix to the next.
Term
 What is the purpose of a paralleled output panel on an amplifier rack?
Definition
 To parallel multiple speakers on to the same amp output.
Term
 Delays
Definition
 Matrix
Term
 Front Fills
Definition
 Matrix or Aux
Term
 Mains Left
Definition
 Stereo bus or Matrix Bus
Term
 Subwoofers
Definition
 Stereo Bus or Aux
Term
 Side Hangs
Definition
 Matrix
Term
 Rear Hangs
Definition
 Matrix
Term
 70v Speakers
Definition
 Matrix
Term
 Mains Right
Definition
 Stereo Bus or Matrix Bus
Term
 Center Cluster
Definition
 Mono Bus or Aux
Term
 Surrounds
Definition
 Stereo Aux or Dedicated System
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