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SFPN Final
SFPN Final
2405
Agriculture
Undergraduate 4
12/06/2016

Additional Agriculture Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
% K2O of carnallite
Definition
17% K2O
Term
% K2O of kainite
Definition
18% K2O
Term
% K2O of langbeinite
Definition
22% K2O
Term
% K2O of sylvinite
Definition
30% K2O
Term
% K2O of sylvite
Definition
60-62% K2O
Term
% composition of K in plants
Definition
1-5%
Term
% plant dry matter taken up by Ca
Definition
0.2 – 1.0% of dry matter; in some extreme cases, it can be up to 5%
Term
2 N compounds that are in broiler litter
Definition
-Water-soluble organic N
-Uric acid
Term
2 Origins of Charge in clay minerals
Definition
-Isomorphic substitution
-Broken edges
Term
2 equations for measuring P adsorption
Definition
-Freundlich
-Langmuir
Term
2 micronutrients that broiler litter is rich in
Definition
-Zn
-Cu
Term
2 purposes of the root cap
Definition
-helps protect the tip of the root
-helps it stay lined up with the force of gravity
Term
2 sources of pH dependent charge
Definition
broken edges on clay minerals and soil OM
Term
2 states where there's deposits of elemental S
Definition
-Texas
-Louisiana
Term
2 steps to developing a soil test
Definition
-soil test correlation
-soil test calibration
Term
2 substances that are crucial in elongation of many cells, especially in fruit
Definition
K and malate
Term
2nd largest deposit of K is in...
Definition
Carlsbad, New Mexico
Term
3 mechanisms of ion movement in soil
Definition
-root interception
-mass flow
-diffusion
Term
3 rxns from which pH dependent CEC originates
Definition
-neutralization of H+ on sesquioxide (Al, Fe(OH)x) by way of liming -neutralization of H+ associated with the interlayer Al(OH)x as pH increases -neutralization of Al3+ and Al(OH)x+n as pH increases with liming
Term
4 additional elements that have been established as beneficial micronutrients in some plants
Definition
-Na
-Co
-V
-Si
Term
A disulfide bridge between 2 cysteine molecules does this to a protein
Definition
changes the shape of a protein
Term
A drop in petiole K+ indicates that...
Definition
K+ may be becoming deficient
Term
AEC vs. soil pH
Definition
AEC incereases as soil pH decreases
Term
AMT
Definition
ammonium transporters
Term
Accumulation of potassium in cells does this
Definition
brings in water
Term
Active transport can occur against...
Definition
electrochemical gradients
Term
Advantage of slow release fertilizer
Definition
releases nutrients as needed
Term
Aminization
Definition
Org N --> R-NH2 (amines) organic N turning into amines R is organic residue
Term
Ammonification
Definition
R-NH2 + H+ + H2O --> R-OH + NH4+ amines turning into ammonium
Term
Ammonium polysulfide (NH4Sx) acidifies soil as ______ and ______ are oxidized
Definition
NH4+ S2-
Term
Ammonium polysulfide (NH4Sx) can be mixed with...
Definition
NH3, UAN solutions
Term
Ammonium thiosulfate [ATS; (NH4)2S2O3] acidifies soil as these chemicals are oxidized
Definition
-NH4+ -S0
Term
Applying fertilizer in a band can lead to...
Definition
bacteria being dehydrated
Term
Average Ca and Mg in Calcareous Soils
Definition
1 – 25%
Term
Average Ca and Mg in Non-calcareous humid region soils
Definition
0.7 – 1.5%
Term
Average Ca and Mg in Tropical Soils
Definition
0.1 – 0.3%
Term
Average K content in soils
Definition
0.83%
~ 16,600 lb/A
Term
Average K content of soils compared to N
Definition
about 6 times more K than N
Term
Average K content of soils compared to P
Definition
about 13 times more K than P
Term
B is important for this aspect of plant growth
Definition
quality of growth
Term
BS vs. soil pH
Definition
BS increases with increasing soil pH
Term
Behavior of Ammonium Nitrate in Soil
Definition
NH4NO3 --> NH4+ + NO3- NH4+ + 2O2 --> NO3- + H2O + 2H+
Term
Behavior of ammonium sulfate in soil
Definition
(NH4)2SO4 --> 2NH4+ + SO42- 2NH4+ + 4O2 --> 2NO3- + 2H2O + 4H+
Term
Boron distribution in leaves depends on...
Definition
whether it is phloem-mobile or not (i.e. species-dependent)
Term
C/N ratio that leads to immobilization
Definition
C/N > 30
Term
C/N ratio that leads to mineralization
Definition
C/N < 30
Term
C/P ratio that leads to net immobilization
Definition
>300
Term
C/P ratio that leads to net mineralization
Definition
<200
Term
C/P ratio that leads to no net gain or loss
Definition
200-300
Term
C:N ratio is an indicator of...
Definition
the stability of the soil supplement
Term
C:N ratio of bacteria
Definition
uaually 6-8
Term
C:N ratio of fungi
Definition
usually 10-12
Term
CEC of Sphagnum peat moss
Definition
80-100 meq/100g
Term
CEC of clays
Definition
20-50 meq/100g
Term
CEC of grass roots
Definition
10-30 meq/100g
Term
CEC of legumes
Definition
40-100 meq/100g
Term
CEC of loams
Definition
10-15 meq/100g
Term
CEC of organic soils
Definition
50-100 meq/100g
Term
CEC of pure soil OM
Definition
estimated to be 100-300 meq/100g soil
Term
CEC of sands
Definition
3-10 meq/100g
Term
CEC of silt loams
Definition
15-25 meq/100g
Term
CEC of soils in MW
Definition
15-30 meq/100g
Term
CEC of soils in Piedmont
Definition
3-10 meq/100g if lucky
Term
CEC of zeolite
Definition
100-300 meq/100g
Term
CRH
Definition
critical relative humidity
Term
Ca content of Single and triple superphosphate
Definition
12 to 21% Ca
Term
Ca deficiency makes the cell wall lose this
Definition
its integrity
Term
Ca is this type of messenger
Definition
2ndary
Term
Ca is transported to...
Definition
shoots in the xylem
Term
Ca pretty much the only nutrient which is transported within plants using...
Definition
primary active transport
Term
Ca transport is driven by...
Definition
transpiration
Term
Ca+ saturation vs. K+ adsorption
Definition
the greater the degree of Ca+2 saturation, the greater the K+ adsorption
Term
CaCO3 coprecipitated in the form of what structure?
Definition
spiral growth
Term
CaSO4 coprecipitated in the form of what structure?
Definition
needle shape
Term
Calcium can inhibit uptake of this nutrient
Definition
K
Term
Calcium in the phloem results in the production of...
Definition
callose
Term
Carl Sprengel and Justus von Liebig
Definition
19th century scientists who developed the Law of the Minimum
Term
Chemical processes control these nutrients
Definition
-P
-K
-etc.
Term
Cotton can store large amounts of K+ in...
Definition
petioles
Term
Cu accumulation can be toxic to...
Definition
sheep
Term
Cu can complex w/...
Definition
organic acids
Term
Cu is ______ with its movement like Fe is
Definition
reactive
Term
Cu taken up as...
Definition
Cu2+
Term
Cu toxicity often occurs as a result of too much...
Definition
fungicide
Term
Cu vs. Fe in the redox rxns
Definition
Fe and Cu do somewhat similar things in the redox rxns
Term
DCP
Definition
dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4)
Term
Diammonium phosphate (DAP)
Definition
(NH4)2HPO4
Term
Drop in solute potential causes...
Definition
water to get into the guard cells
Term
Ectomycorrhiza
Definition
sheath around root tip, hyphae do not penetrate plant cells (mainly trees of temperate zones)

-these act kinda like root hairs
Term
Elemental S evolves from...
Definition
the decomposition of organic matter
Term
Endomycorrhiza
Definition
extends surface area of roots – penetrate plant cells (widespread)
Term
Excess zinc can accumulate in...
Definition
older leaves
Term
FRO2
Definition
ferric reductase
Term
Factors affecting K availability
Definition
-Clay minerals
-Capacity to fix K
-Soil water content
-Soil temperature
-Competition by Ca and Mg
Term
Factors affecting root surface area
Definition
-Thinner, multiple roots have more surface area per unit volume
-Root branching, which can be influenced by lateral roots
-Root hairs
-Association with mycorrhizae
Term
Factors that Control Ca & Mg in Solution
Definition
-CEC
-Type of clay
Term
Fe accepts or donates an electron depending on...
Definition
oxidation potential
Term
Fe has to be ______ to other molecules
Definition
bound
Term
Fe taken up as...
Definition
Fe2+/Fe3+
Term
Fe toxicity common problem in...
Definition
African marigolds and rice, resulting in bronze speckles on leaves
Term
Fe/Al oxide adsorption vs. pH
Definition
Fe/Al oxide adsorption declines as pH increases above 5
Term
Ferrous form of Fe brought in by...
Definition
iron transporter which can transport some other kinds of cations
Term
Fertilizers containing NH3
Definition
-Anhydrous NH3 -Aqua NH3
Term
Forms of S in Soil
Definition
-Soil Solution Sulfur
-Adsorbed Sulfur
-Coprecipitated Sulfur
-Reduced Inorganic Sulfur
-Organic Sulfur
Term
Freundlich equation for measuring P adsorption good for...
Definition
after a certain amount, since soils get saturated
Term
Function of Nitrogen in Plants
Definition
-proteins
-nucleic acids
-adenosine
Term
Functions of K in the plant
Definition
-Potassium is involved as something in osmosis to help in cell expansion
-Potassium helps water enter the plant
-Stomatal movement
-Carbohydrate transport
-Cell elongation
-Enzyme activation
-ATP production
Term
Functions of Magnesium in plants
Definition

-About 70% of Mg2+ is diffusible (often associated with organic acids)

-Component of chlorophyll

-Stored in seeds as Mg phytate

-Crucial in many enzymatic reactions (binds ATP to proteins)

Term
GOGAT
Definition
Glutamine: 2-oxo-glutarate amido transferase (Glutamate synthase)
Term
GS
Definition
Glutamine synthetase
Term
GS-GOGAT pathway
Definition
[image]
Term
GS-GOGAT uses how many ATP?
Definition
1 ATP
Term
Green Revolution was part of the ______ inprovement of ag.
Definition
scientific
Term
H+ must be neutralized by...
Definition
OH- or HCO3-
Term
H2S rxn that forms pyrite
Definition
H2S + Fe2+ --> FeS --> FeS2 (pyrite)
Term
HA
Definition
hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH)
Term
How much of the soil N is organic?
Definition
about 95%
Term
IFA
Definition
international fertilizer association
Term
If soil has been ______, S oxidation of S won’t happen
Definition
sterilized
Term
If soil has been sterilized, S this won’t happen
Definition
oxidation of S
Term
Importance of Soil Fertility
Definition
-Agriculture depends on soil productivity
-Soil productivity depends in part on soil fertility
Term
In most plants, the bulk of S goes towards...
Definition
the generation of cysteine
Term
K availability is somewhat dependent on its concentration relative to...
Definition
Ca+2 and Mg+2
Term
K content in the Northeast
Definition
1-2.5%
Term
K content in the Southeast
Definition
<0.3%
Term
K content in the West
Definition
1.7-2.5%
Term
K content of lettuce
Definition
8% K
Term
K content of plants
Definition
Large differences among species (0.5 -8%). That is, different species have different compositions.
Term
K fixation
Definition
the reentrapment of K+ between the layers of 2:1 clays, predominantly hydrous mica
Term
K from organic sources can be rapidly leached in compost that is...
Definition
not covered
Term
K helps do this for phloem
Definition
K helps load stuff into the phloem
Term
K is generally absorbed by plants in larger amounts than any other nutrient except...
Definition
N
Term
K is involved in these functions in plants in cells and across membranes
Definition
-water relations
-charge balance
-osmotic pressure
Term
K is usually expressed as...
Definition
% K2O
Term
K+ moves into the cell through...
Definition
a K+ channel and a possible K+/H+ symporter (carrier)
Term
K+ uptake is influenced by...
Definition
the presence of other cations
Term
K2O content of Sul-Po-Mag (langbeinite)
Definition
22% K2O
Term
K2O content of potassium chloride
Definition
60 to 62.5 % K2O
Term
K2O content of potassium nitrate
Definition
44% K2O
Term
K2O content of potassium sulfate
Definition
50-53% K2O
Term
Langbeinite often sold as...
Definition
K-Mag or Sul-Po-Mag
Term
Langmuir equation for measuring P adsorption good for...
Definition
telling you max adsorption capacity for particular soil
Term
Lateral roots derived from...
Definition
pericycle
Term
Lateral roots increase...
Definition
root mass and surface area
Term
Latest nutrient to be established as essential for plants
Definition
Ni

1987
Term
Leaves can take up small amounts of SO2 (by-product of coal combustion) by...
Definition
diffusion
Term
Leibig’s Law of the Minimum
Definition
The level of plant production can be no greater than that allowed by the most limiting growth factor
Term
Losing the H on cysteine can lead to...
Definition
a disulfide bridge
Term
Lyotropic series for anions
Definition
(strongest on left) OH- > H2PO4- > SO42- > NO3- > Cl-
Term
MCP
Definition
monocalcium phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2)
Term
Main osmoticum in plant cells
Definition
K
Term
Man-Made Causes of Acid Rain
Definition
-Exhaust from cars, trucks, and buses
-Power plants that burn coal
-Pollution from industry
Term
Mechanisms of nutrient movement to roots
Definition
1: Mass flow
2: Diffusion
3: Root Interception
Term
Mg content of Sul-Po-Mag (langbeinite)
Definition
18% Mg
Term
Mg content of the suspensions Sul-Po-Mag (K2SO4.MgSO4) is used in
Definition
11% Mg
Term
Mg is stored in seeds as...
Definition
Mg phytate
Term
Microbial processes control these nutrients
Definition
-N
-S
-etc.
Term
Micronutrients are often talked about in...
Definition
ppm; some can even be in ppb
Term
Mn taken up as...
Definition
Mn2+
Term
Mn toxicity can be depressed by increasing...
Definition
Mg2+
Term
Mo availability vs. pH
Definition
Availability increases with increasing pH
Term
Mo c'tration at which Mo deficiency can occur
Definition
< 0.2ppm
Term
Mo can accumulate up to these levels and not be toxic to plants
Definition
200 – 1000 ppm
Term
Mo is an important component of...
Definition
nitrate reductase and nitrogenase
Term
Monoammonium phosphate (MAP)
Definition
NH4H2PO4
Term
Most S in organic molecules is in ______ form, so SO42- needs to be ______
Definition

oxidized

reduced

Term
Multiple nitrate transporters needed for nitrate movement...
Definition
withiun plant
Term
N content of Ammonium polysulfide (NH4Sx)
Definition
20% N
Term
N content of Ammonium thiosulfate [ATS; (NH4)2S2O3]
Definition
12% N
Term
N content of Diammonium phosphate (DAP)
Definition
18-21% N
Term
N content of Monoammonium phosphate (MAP)
Definition
11-12%
Term
N content of ammonium chloride
Definition
25% N
Term
N content of ammonium nitrate
Definition
33 to 34 % N
Term
N content of ammonium polyphosphate
Definition
10-15% N
Term
N content of ammonium sulfate
Definition
21% N
Term
N content of diammonium phosphate
Definition
18-21% N (18-46-0 to 21-53-0)
Term
N content of monoammonium phosphate
Definition
11-12% N (11-48-0 to 12-61-0)
Term
N content of potassium nitrate
Definition
13% N
Term
N loss pathways and cropping systems around the world
Definition
they differ
Term
N mineralization
Definition
organic N being turned into NH4+
Term
N rate vs. chlorophyll meter reading
Definition
as the N rate goes up, the chlorophyll meter reading goes up
Term
N rxn that produces the most acidity
Definition
nitrification
Term
N transported by...
Definition
xylem
Term
N-P-K of ammonium polyphosphate
Definition
10-34-0
Term
N-P-K of diammonium phosphate
Definition
18-46-0 to 21-53-0
Term
N-P-K of monoammonium phosphate
Definition
11-48-0 to 12-61-0
Term
N-P-K of potassium phosphate
Definition
- 0-52-35
- 0-41-54
Term
N-P-K of single superphosphate
Definition
0-21-0
Term
N-P-K of triple superphosphate
Definition
0-46-0
Term
N/P ratio of manure
Definition
low; 2:1 to 4:1
Term
NADP+/H
Definition
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate
Term
NADPH
Definition
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate
Term
NADPH is one of the end products of...
Definition
photosynthesis
Term
NH3
Definition
ammonia
Term
NH3 is compatible with...
Definition
- Carbon steel
- Stainless steel
- Fiberglass, rubber, PVC, polyethylene
Term
NH3 is not compatible with...
Definition
- Aluminum [Al(OH)3] - Copper [Cu(NH3)4]2+ - Zinc [Zn(NH3)4]2+ because it binds with these materials and forms a precipitate
Term
NO3- uptake
Definition
NO3- turning into NH2
Term
NRT
Definition
nitrate transport
Term
Natural Causes of Acid Rain
Definition
-Lightning
-Volcanoes
-Decomposing plant biomass
Term
Ni taken up as...
Definition
Ni2+
Term
Ni uptake competes with...
Definition

-Zn2+

-Fe2+

-Cu2+

-Mn2+

Term
Nitrate needs to be ______ before it can be used
Definition
reduced
Term
Nitrate reduction requires...
Definition
energy
Term
Nitrate transport mechanisms in plants
Definition
low affinity transport system (LATS) and high affinity transport system (HATS)
Term
Nitrogen Immobilization
Definition
ammonium turning into organic N NH4+ + R-OH --> R-NH2 + H+ + H2O
Term
Nitrogen Immobilization is controlled by...
Definition
C/N ratio
Term
Nitrogen Mineralization
Definition
Org N --> NH4+ organic N turning into ammonium
Term
Nitrogen mineralization from broiler litter varies depending on...
Definition
litter characteristics
Term
Nutrient transporters are present in these zones of roots
Definition
uptake related zones of roots
Term
Nutrients in solution controlled by
Definition
-Microbial processes (N, S, etc.)
-Chemical processes (P, K, etc.)
-Physical processes (P, etc.)
Term
One of the first processes that gets affected by Cu deficiency
Definition
reduced p’synth
Term
One of the main routes by which Ca enters
Definition
the apoplastic pathway
Term
One of the molecules that iron is often complexed with
Definition
citric acid
Term
One of the processes that drives growth
Definition
cell expansion
Term
Optimum pH for nitrification
Definition
7.5-8.5
Term
Organic matter protected by...
Definition
clay
Term
Other S containing compounds come from...
Definition
cysteine
Term
Other monovalent cations, such as Na+ and Li+, as substitutes for K in enzymes
Definition
less effective than NH4+ and Rb+
Term
P content of plants
Definition
0.1-0.5% P
Term
P fixation vs. amount of OM
Definition
P fixation decreases as OM increases
Term
P is considered this type of resource
Definition
strategic
Term
P mineralization
Definition
Org. P --> Inorg. P
Term
P solubizing bacteria are part of the effort to...
Definition
improve the availability of P
Term
P stored as phytate (phytic acid) especially in...
Definition
grain and seed
Term
P2O5 content of ammonium polyphosphate
Definition
34-37% P2O5
Term
P2O5 content of diammonium phosphate
Definition
46-53% P2O5
Term
P2O5 content of monoammonium phosphate
Definition
48-55% P2O5
Term
P2O5 content of phosphoric acid
Definition
39-55%
Term
P2O5 content of rock phosphate
Definition
27-41% P2O5
Term
P2O5 content of single superphosphate
Definition
16 to 22% P2O5 (0-21-0)
Term
P2O5 content of triple superphosphate
Definition
44-52% P2O5 (0-46-0)
Term
Passive transport occurs along...
Definition
concentration and electrical (electrochemical) gradients
Term
Phloem cells are connected by...
Definition
sieve plates
Term
Phloem loading is stimulated by ______, especially at high pH (apoplast).
Definition
K
Term
Phloem loading is stimulated by potassium, especially at ______ pH (apoplast).
Definition
high
Term
Physical processes control these nutrients
Definition
-P
-etc.
Term
Polymer-coated compounds (Osmocote)
Definition
Coated N-P-K fertilizer granules
Term
Primary minerals
Definition
minerals that were already present in the parent material
Term
Q10 of S mineralization/immobilization
Definition
Q10=1.9
Term
Rate of uptake dependent on...
Definition
nutrient availability
Term
Regions with predominantly acidic soils
Definition
[image]
Term
Root interception can be enhanced by...
Definition
mycorrhiza
Term
S content of Aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3)
Definition
14.4 % S
Term
S content of Ammonium polysulfide (NH4Sx)
Definition
45% S
Term
S content of Ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4]
Definition
21% S
Term
S content of Ammonium thiosulfate [ATS; (NH4)2S2O3]
Definition
26% S
Term
S content of Potassium sulfate (K2SO4)
Definition
18% S
Term
S content of Sul-Po-Mag (langbeinite)
Definition
22% S
Term
S content of elemental S
Definition
85 to 90% S
Term
S content of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O)
Definition
18% S
Term
S content of manure
Definition
0.2 to 1.5 % S
Term
S content of potassium sulfate
Definition
18% S
Term
S content of single superphosphate
Definition
22% S
Term
S content of soils (%)
Definition
0.06 to 0.10 %
Term
S content of soils (lb S/A)
Definition
~ 1200 to 2000 lb S/A in upper 6 inches
Term
S content of triple superphosphate
Definition
very little S
Term
S deficiency is characterized by...
Definition
reduced plant growth rate, in which plants are...
-stunted
-thin-stemmed
-chlorotic
Term
S deficiency symptoms that can occur in cruciferous crops, such as cabbage, broccoli, and canola/rapeseed
Definition
-they initially develop a reddish color on the undersides of the leaves, where leaves are also cupped inward
-as the deficiency progresses, reddening of both upper and lower leaf surfaces occurs
Term
S deficient plants accumulate non protein N as...
Definition

- --NH2

-NO3-

Term
SO42- is transported faster in xylem or phloem?
Definition
xylem
Term
Se is essential to animals, but...
Definition
toxic at high concentrations in plants
Term
Secondary minerals
Definition
minerals that form in the soil
Term
Soil Fertility
Definition
Soils’ capacity to supply elements essential for plant growth
Term
Soil Productivity
Definition
Capacity of a soil to support the production of a specific crop
Term
Solution K is mainly in this form
Definition
ionic K+
Term
Source of K Minerals
Definition
Soluble salts deposits beneath soil surface
Term
Spin out
Definition
a compound used to reduce root growth
Term
Steenberg effect
Definition
when under severe deficiency, rapid increases in yield with added nutrient cause a small decrease in nutrient concentration
Term
Sulfur-coated urea (SCU)
Definition
Sulfur shell around each urea granule
Term
Sulfur-coated urea (SCU) designed to...
Definition
reduce leaching and denitrification
Term
Sulfuric acid has to be...
Definition
neutralized
Term
Summary of nitrate Assimilation
Definition
[image]
Term
Swine manure has a lot of ______, which compete w/ P
Definition
organic acids
Term
Symptoms of B deficiency depend on...
Definition
mobility in a particular species
Term
Symptoms of N deficiency may be similar to those of...
Definition
–Drought (older leaves abscise) –Mo deficiency (Mo needed for NO3- reduction) –S deficiency (required for synthesis of chlorophyll and many amino acids)
Term
TCP
Definition
tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2)
Term
The bond between glutamate and cysteine that occurs in glutathione
Definition
pseudopeptide bond
Term
The bulk of Ca movement in the vascular tissue is thru...
Definition
the xylem
Term
The form of Fe used and brought into plant systems...
Definition
the Fe2+ form (ferrous)
Term
The immediate taking in of P that’s available creates...
Definition
a zone of low P c’tration
Term
The majority of Ca intake in plants could be ______, though there could be some ______
Definition
apoplastic
symplastic
Term
The p'synth process in green plants converts ______ into ______.
Definition
CO2 and H2O simple carbohydrates
Term
The phosphate that gets released supports...
Definition
the growth of the seed
Term
The reason some of the fertilizer doesn’t even get taken up
Definition
because it gets adsorbed onto the surface of soil particles
Term
There’s a whole class of ______ involved with transporting Ca
Definition
proteins
Term
This is pretty hard to do in an artificial setting, but plants can do it
Definition
splitting a water molecule
Term
Two possible routes for apoplastic uptake
Definition
-Elongation zone
-Emerging laterals
Term
Two separate long distance transport systems in plants
Definition
xylem and phloem
Term
UAN
Definition
urea ammonium nitrate (liquid fertilizer)
Term
UAN solutions are OK with these substances
Definition
-PVC
-fiberglass
-stainless steel
-carbon steel
Term
UAN solutions are corrosive to these materials
Definition
Cu and Zn alloys, and to an extent, Al alloys
Term
UAP
Definition
urea-ammonium phosphate
Term
UGA method of titration
Definition
Add Ca(OH)2 in 1:1 mix -20 g soil (0.02 kg) -20 mL 0.01 M CaCl2 (measure pH1) -this is shaken for 30 minutes because you need that reaction time I think 1:1 means 1mg/mL
Term
US phosphate reserves
Definition
1,100 million tons
Term
Uptake is inhibited by high ______ (and stimulated by ______)
Definition
SO42- phosphate
Term
Uptake of K results from...
Definition
an electrochemical gradient
Term
Urea synthesis from arginine catabolism is one of the processes involved in...
Definition
the breakdown of amino acids (ask Dr. Malladi for clarification)
Term
Vacuolar potassium represents...
Definition
storage for future use (luxury consumption)
Term
Very high Cl levels may reduce uptake of these nutrients
Definition

-NO3-

-SO42-

Term
What's #10?
[image]
Definition
root cap
Term
What's #11?
[image]
Definition
mucigel sheath
Term
What's #12?
[image]
Definition
apex
Term
What's #13?
[image]
Definition
meristematic zone
Term
What's #14?
[image]
Definition
elongation zone
Term
What's #15?
[image]
Definition
maturation zone
Term
What's #1?
[image]
Definition
root hair
Term
What's #1?
[image]
Definition
shoot
Term
What's #2?
[image]
Definition
cortex
Term
What's #2?
[image]
Definition
root
Term
What's #3?
[image]
Definition
stele
Term
What's #3?
[image]
Definition
primart root
Term
What's #4?
[image]
Definition
xylem
Term
What's #4?
[image]
Definition
lateral root
Term
What's #5?
[image]
Definition
phloem
Term
What's #5?
[image]
Definition
root hairs
Term
What's #6?
[image]
Definition
endodermis w/ casparian strip
Term
What's #6?
[image]
Definition
root tip
Term
What's #7?
[image]
Definition
epidermis
Term
What's #7?
[image]
Definition
root cap
Term
What's #8?
[image]
Definition
region of rapid cell division
Term
What's #9?
[image]
Definition
quiescent center (few cell divisions)
Term
When there’s no more of this, there’s no more oxidation of S
Definition
oxygen
Term
When you apply P, how much is taken up?
Definition
only about 20% is taken up
Term
YS
Definition
yellow stripe
Term
Zn deficiency causes short internodes, which can cause...
Definition
some stunting
Term
Zn is transported in the (xylem or phloem) as ______
Definition

xylem

Zn2+

Term
Zn taken up as...
Definition
Zn2+
Term
a bad effect of cleaner air
Definition
more S deficiency
Term
a common function of Fe compounds regarding oxygen and water during respiration
Definition
reduction of oxygen to water during respiration
Term
a common way CaSO4 precipitates on top of the CaCO3
Definition
CaSO4 in the form of needles on top of CaCO3 in the form of spiral growth
Term
a deficiency high Ni can induce
Definition
Fe deficiency (interveinal chlorosis)
Term
a deficiency that can be induced by Mn toxicity
Definition
Fe deficiency
Term
a depiction of phytate
Definition
[image]
Term
a form of S other than SO4-2 that can be taken up by plant roots
Definition
thiosulfate (S2O3-2)
Term
a good effect of flooding
Definition
increases the availability of some nutrients, such as Fe and P
Term
a good thing about K fixation
Definition
can conserve K, which can later be released
Term
a loading that's stimulated by K
Definition
phloem loading, especially at high pH (apoplast).
Term
a mechanism used by grass roots to tolerate low Fe availability
Definition
using phytosiderophore-Fe complexes to release amino acids called phytosiderophores w/ a high affinity for Fe+3
Term
a molecule in plants that contains Cu
Definition
plastocyanin
Term
a nutrient that is not measured in Georgia
Definition
S
Term
a place S can accumulate
Definition
deeper in the soil; sometimes, roots can access this
Term
a place in the plant cell where phosphate can be stored when there's more phosphate than needed
Definition
vacuole
Term
a protein in the chloroplasts that S is a vital part of
Definition
ferredoxin (an Fe-S protein)
Term
a reason Fe is important for chlorrophyll
Definition
needed for chlorophyll synthesis
Term
a reason some say silicon may be important to plants
Definition
Some say that w/o silicon, plants may become susceptible to pathogens and/or injury
Term
a species where B is more mobile
Definition
apple
Term
a species where B is not very mobile
Definition
walnut
Term
a symptom of B deficiency
Definition
leaf tips getting pink, such as in cereal rye
Term
a transformation of S that causes soil acidity
Definition
mineralization
Term
a transformation of S that increases soil pH
Definition
SO4-2 uptake
Term
a type of 2:1:1 clay mineral
Definition
chlorite
Term
a type of soluble Al that's toxic
Definition
Al(OH)4-
Term
a way around the problem of sieve tube elements getting blocked
Definition
material usually gets around it
Term
above the critical pH, you don’t see much...
Definition
aluminum
Term
abundance of Fe
Definition
4th most abundant, comprising about 5% of the Earth's crust
Term
abundance of hormones in phloem tissue
Definition
pretty abundant
Term
acid
Definition
donates protons (H+)
Term
active acidity
Definition
H+ in soil solution
Term
activity of nitrate reductase depends on...
Definition
-nitrate
-light
-carbohydrates
Term
acute symptoms of S toxicity in plants
Definition
membrane disruption and necrosis (generally spotty in appearance)
Term
additions of OM to these soils can improve Fe availability
Definition
well-drained soils
Term
adsorption
Definition
goes from solution to surface
Term
adsorption of SO42- vs. pH
Definition
Adsorption decreases with increasing pH (6)
Term
advantage of Fertilizers containing only nitrate
Definition
no soil acidification
Term
advantage of Sul-Po-Mag (langbeinite)
Definition
has S and Mg
Term
advantages of K2SO4 over KCl
Definition
-supplies S
-has lower salt index than KCl
Term
advantages of Slow release N fertilizers
Definition
-release rate more closely matches plant requirements
-no extra N in soil (less leaching)
-less frequent applications
Term
advantages of potassium phosphates
Definition
-they are high analysis -they have a low salt index -useful for preparation of clear fluid fertilizers high in K2O -polyphosphate as a P source -well suited for use on potatoes and other crops sensitive to excessive amounts of Cl-
Term
after bacteria get into the root, this allows for more exchange of material
Definition
bacteria infiltrate internal cells as well; bacteria start invading root system
Term
after the excessive growth of plants, algae, and other stuff due to such excessive N, this leads to depleted oxygen supply
Definition
microbes later lead to depleted oxygen supply
Term
agriculture depends on...
Definition
soil productivity
Term
all of the N fixing organisms contain this enzyme
Definition
nitrogenase
Term
all the plant cells are connected by...
Definition
plasmodesmata
Term
aluminum starts to appear in the exchangeable process at this pH
Definition
4.8
Term
ammonia
Definition
NH3
Term
ammonia volatilization
Definition
ammonium turning into ammonia that gets into the air
Term
ammoniacal nitrogen
Definition
nitrogen in the form of ammonium and ammonia; can be used to determine pH
Term
ammonium can be incorporated into various amino acids, such as...
Definition
-glutamate
-aspartate
-glutamine
-asparagine
Term
ammonium gets taken up thru...
Definition
the roots
Term
ammonium phosphates account for how much of world N fert use?
Definition
about 5%
Term
ammonium polyphosphate can be used with urea ammonium nitrate (liquid fertilizer) (UAN) applied in a...
Definition
band
Term
ammonium polyphosphate can be used with...
Definition
urea ammonium nitrate (liquid fertilizer) (UAN) applied in a band
Term
ammonium sulfate is how much of world's fertilizer use?
Definition
about 3%
Term
ammonium uptake
Definition
to me, it seems to be a type of immobilization
Term
amount at which B toxicity can occur
Definition
May occur at concentrations only slightly higher than those needed to prevent deficiency; therefore, must have just the right amount
Term
amount of Al in soil
Definition
Present in high concentrations in the soil; seems to be 2nd most abundant behind Si
Term
amount of B in manure
Definition
Low concentrations (0.001 to 0.005%)
Term
amount of Cl in manure
Definition
low c'trations
Term
amount of Cl in soil for plants
Definition
almost always present in adequate amounts
Term
amount of Cl supplied by precipitation
Definition
10 to 30 kg/ha in precipitation
Term
amount of Co that's needed
Definition
Co needed in ppb amounts; any greater can lead to toxicity
Term
amount of Diammonium phosphate (DAP) that should be used with seed
Definition
Use < 10 kg N/ha with seed
Term
amount of Fe in soil
Definition
total soil Fe varies widely (1-55%)
Term
amount of Fe in the soil solution
Definition
very low; 10-6-10-20 M Fe+3, depending on pH
Term
amount of K present in cytosol
Definition
~100 mM
Term
amount of Mg in plants that is in chlorophyll
Definition
15-20% of total Mg in plants
Term
amount of Mn in the cell
Definition
When Mn is in the cell, it don’t really accumulate much in the cytoplasm
Term
amount of Mn vs. amount of Mg
Definition
Mn present in much larger quantities
Term
amount of Mo in manure
Definition
Low concentrations (0.0001 to 0.0005 %)
Term
amount of Mo in soil
Definition
Present in low concentrations (< 1 ppm)
Term
amount of N gas vs. pH
Definition
amount of N gas increases as you become more alkaline
Term
amount of P in manure that is plant available
Definition
About 50-90% P plant available
Term
amount of P needed to obtain good yield
Definition
0.003 to 0.3 mg P/L
Term
amount of S crops require
Definition
5 to 30 kg S ha-1
Term
amount of S released yearly from OM
Definition
5 to 15 kg S ha-1
Term
amount of S that's in organic matter
Definition
95%
Term
amount of SO42- in soil solution
Definition
5-20 mg/L
Term
amount of Si in plants
Definition
Si levels can be 10% of the plant dry weight
Term
amount of V normally present in plants
Definition
1 ppm
Term
amount of V required by plants
Definition
< 2 ppb
Term
amount of biuret that can be tolerated
Definition
up to 2%
Term
amount of charge on 1:1 clays that's pH dependent due to broken edges
Definition
>50%
Term
amount of charge on 1:1 clays that's permanent due to isomorphic substitution
Definition
<50%
Term
amount of charge on 2:1 clays that's pH dependent due to broken edges
Definition
5-10%
Term
amount of charge on 2:1 clays that's permanent due to isomorphic substitution
Definition
90-95%
Term
amount of citrate-soluble P in rock phosphate
Definition
5-17% citrate soluble
Term
amount of exchangeable sodium vs. dispersiveness of the clay
Definition
the more exchangeable sodium, the more dispersive the clay
Term
amount of nitrate leaching depends on...
Definition
- Rate, timing of N fertilization
- Nitrification inhibitors; some fertilizers come with these and they last for about 2 weeks
- Crop uptake; reduces nitrate leaching
- Soil characteristics
- Precipitation patterns
Term
amount of organic matter vs. places for nutrient retention
Definition
increasing organic matter increases places for nutrient retention
Term
amount of plants that form mycorrhizal associations
Definition
>80% of plants
Term
amount of potential acidity vs. rate of change in active acidity
Definition
the more potential acidity, the slower the change in active acidity

the less potential acidity, the faster the change in active acidity
Term
amount of soil K that's available to plants
Definition
about 2%
Term
amount of soil K that's not available to plants
Definition
about 98%
Term
amount of total P in manure that is organic
Definition
10 to 70% of total P is organic
Term
amount of water-soluble P in rock phosphate
Definition
no water-soluble P
Term
amount of weathering vs. amount of Ca in soil
Definition
low weathering, high Ca; high weathering, low Ca
Term
amounts of these amino acids increase with increasing S content in leaves
Definition
cysteine and methionine
Term
an advantage of the UGA method for measuring soil pH
Definition
this gets you close to the true pH, no matter how much salt
Term
an effect of K deficiency that often goes undetected and why
Definition
reduced p'synth because that's before visual symptoms
Term
an effect of blossom-end rot
Definition
Blossom-end rot leaves fruits susceptible for infection; a variety of different pathogens can infect the vulnerable tissue
Term
an element is considered essential to plant growth and development if...
Definition
-the element is directly involved in the nutrition of the plant
-a deficiency makes it impossible for the plant to complete its life cycle, and
-a deficiency is specific to the element and can only be prevented or corrected by supplying the element
Term
an enzyme for which S is essential for the synthesis of it
Definition
coenzyme A
Term
an enzyme that needs Mg and why
Definition
-Rubisco
-needs Mg to activate it so that it can be effective in p’synth
Term
an example of N remobilization within plants
Definition
some N stored within older leaves gets remobilized to where it's needed
Term
an example of a 2:1 clay that fixes K
Definition
illite
Term
an example of regulation of nitrogen uptake
Definition
-High N uptake rates result in high N levels in the leaves
-Leaves contain high levels of amino acids
-Amino acids are transported back to the roots
-Amino acids inhibit nitrogen uptake by the roots
Term
an important function of antipiorters in plant cells
Definition
can help mitigate toxicities inside the cells
Term
an inducible P transporter
Definition
PHT1 transporters
Term
analysis of these plant parts provides an indication of nutrient reserves in plants
Definition
-petioles
-stem sections
-leaf midribs
Term
anatomy of a dicot root
Definition
[image]
Term
anatomy of a monocot root
Definition
[image]
Term
anatomy of a sieve tube in plants
Definition
[image]
Term
anion exchange capacity (AEC)
Definition
Total amount of positive charges
Term
another detail about potassium nitrate
Definition
Low salt effect (used in tobacco)
Term
another nutrient that affects Zn
Definition
P
Term
another thing that can happen in plants as a result of Cu deficiency
Definition
collapsing of the outermost cells
Term
apatites
Definition
rock phosphates
Term
apoplast
Definition
space outside plasma membrane, even the space costituted by dead functioning xylem tissue
Term
appearance of Ammonium thiosulfate [ATS; (NH4)2S2O3]
Definition
clear liquid
Term
apply lime based on...
Definition
pH
Term
apply lime how long in advance?
Definition
3-6 months
Term
are there B transporters in plants?
Definition
yes, they have been identified
Term
artificial sources of N cause this
Definition
increased growth of plants, algae, and other stuff
Term
at a low pH, this adsorption is stronger
Definition
the adsorption to the Fe oxides
Term
at the cellular level, plants can do this in response to nutrient deficiencies
Definition
make more of certain kinds of transporters and increase the concentration of them, such as the specific one for P when there's a shortage of P
Term
at this depth, you retain nitrate
Definition
below a meter or so
Term
atom
Definition
smallest unit of matter that maintains the distinguishing features of an element.

Example: N (nitrogen)
Term
atomic #
Definition
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Term
atomic mass unit
Definition
1/12 mass of the nucleus of carbon (amu)
Term
atomic weight
Definition
mass of atom in amu

Example:
C → 12 amu
N → 14 amu
H → 1 amu
Term
atomic weight of N
Definition
14
Term
availability of CaCO3-CaSO4 vs. pH
Definition
Availability increases as pH decreases (CaCO3 more soluble)
Term
availability of single superphosphate in the US
Definition
not available in the US
Term
bacteria can also use this for reduction
Definition
ferric iron
Term
bacterial enzyme that requires Mo
Definition
nitrogenase
Term
base
Definition
accepts protons (H+)
Term
base saturation (BS)
Definition
% of total CEC occupied by Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+
Term
be careful of this when doing biological tests to evaluate plant health
Definition
be careful extrapolating results to other conditions
Term
because of how K exists in plants, K functions are related to this in plant cells
Definition
solution ionic strength
Term
behavior of Ca compared with Mg in soil
Definition
very similar
Term
behavior of ammonium compared to behavior of K+
Definition
Ammonium behaves very similarly to K+ in the soil
Term
best conditions for ammonia volatilization...
Definition
windy and hot
Term
biological N fixation can be inhibited by...
Definition
–Low soil pH
–Low Mo (component of nitrogenase)
–High N
–Low carbohydrate supply (low light, drought, low temperature)
Term
biological tests to evaluate plant nutrition are easier for what thing than what other thing?
Definition
easier for plant nutrient content than for fertilizer rates
Term
bottom line for signaling w/ Ca
Definition
the initial change is sensed downstream
Term
bottom line regarding Zn in plants
Definition
there’s quite a few functions of Zn in plant system
Term
brucite
Definition
chlorite w/ a Mg hydroxide layer
Term
buffer solution
Definition
mix of equal amounts of conjugate acid and conjugate base that resists pH changes; this is the important concept for soil
Term
buffer solution method of determining lime requirement
Definition
add a buffer, measure pH
Term
buffering capacity vs. nutrient adsorption
Definition
when you have a bigger buffering capacity, you have more nutrients being adsorbed onto the soil particles
Term
c'tration in plant tissue where Fe deficiency occurs
Definition
<50ppm
Term
c'tration in plant tissue where Fe toxicity can occur
Definition
> 300 ppm
Term
c'tration of Mg in soil
Definition
Present in relatively high concentrations in most soils
Term
c'trations of Mo that can be toxic to cattle and sheep
Definition
as low as 15-20ppm
Term
can phosphate and potash resources get depleted?
Definition
yes
Term
casparian strip found in...
Definition
endodermis
Term
casparian strip is (hydrophobic or hydrophilic)
Definition
hydrophobic
Term
cations that can interfere with Mg availability
Definition
High levels of K+ or NH4+ can reduce availability of Mg
Term
cells in the maturation zone no longer do this
Definition
grow or divide
Term
change in CEC of clay vs. change in CEC of organic C as pH increases
Definition
CEC of OM increases faster than the CEC of clay with increasing pH
Term
change in pH vs. change in c'tration of Fe+2
Definition
for each pH unit increase, Fe+2 c'tration decreases a hundredfold, which is similar to other divalent cations
Term
change in pH vs. change in c'tration of Fe+3
Definition
for each pH unit increase, Fe+3 c'tration decreases a thousandfold
Term
characteristic of soil particles that affects oxidation and how fast the pH decreases in response to SO42-
Definition
Particle size affects oxidation and how fast the pH decreases; large particle size slows down the release
Term
characteristics of root morphology and architecture that can have effect on nutrient uptake
Definition
-Root length, thickness
-Branching
Term
characteristics of the soil where rice tends to be grown
Definition
The soil where rice is tends to be more acidic and have more iron
Term
chart of N, P, and K in Animal Manures
Definition
[image]
Term
chart showing pH related to nutrient supply
Definition
[image]
Term
chart showing some details of normal, saline, sodic, and saline-sodic soils
Definition
[image]
Term
chelated Fe diffuses to the root surface in response to...
Definition
c'tration gradient
Term
chemical formula for monoammonium phosphate
Definition
NH4H2PO4
Term
chemical formula for triple superphosphate
Definition
Ca(H2PO4)2
Term
chemical name for single superphosphate
Definition
monocalcium phosphate
Term
chemical name for triple superphosphate
Definition
monocalcium phosphate
Term
chemical used for measuring S in Australia
Definition
0.25 M KCl
Term
chemical used for measuring S in New Zealand
Definition
0.2 M KH2PO4
Term
chlorophyll meters can be used to estimate the status of these nutrients in a crop
Definition
-N
-S
-K
Term
chronic symptoms of S toxicity
Definition
-sulfite accumulation in leaves
-chlorosis
-growth and yield reduction
-early senescence
Term
citrate-insoluble P
Definition
residue insoluble in 1N ammonium citrate
Term
citrate-soluble P
Definition
residue soluble in 1N ammonium citrate
Term
climate factors that affect plant growth and yield
Definition
-rain
-temp
-light
-wind
-etc.
Term
collect soil samples in this container
Definition
clean, plastic container
Term
color and odor of Ammonium polysulfide (NH4Sx)
Definition
Black solution with H2S odor
Term
color of potassium chloride
Definition
Red if not refined; white if highly refined
Term
composition of 2:1:1 clay minerals in acid soils
Definition
interlayer Al hydroxide sheet in addition to the 2:1 structure
Term
composition of 2:1:1 clay minerals in basic soils
Definition
interlayer Mg hydroxide sheet in addition to the 2:1 structure
Term
composition of UAN
Definition
about half urea and half ammonium nitrate
Term
compost has a 30:1 ratio, but what's the disadvantage?
Definition
it breaks down quickly in the soil
Term
conditions in which Mn toxicity can occur
Definition
-low pH
-waterlogged soils
Term
conditions in which Zn toxicity occurs
Definition
-Generally occurs at concentrations above 150 - 200 ppm
-Most common at low pH
Term
conditions in which measuring SO42- is not reliable and why
Definition
humid regions because of leaching
Term
conditions under which B deficiency can occur
Definition
-high pH
-dry conditions
Term
conditions under which Ca deficiency symptoms are more common
Definition
drought conditions (reduces transpiration)
Term
conditions under which severe Mo deficiencies can occur
Definition
dry conditions
Term
conditions when calcium phosphates are not soluble
Definition
alkaline conditions
Term
coprecipitation of S as CaSO4 mainly happens when...
Definition
you have lotta CaCO3
Term
corn does better on fumigated or unfumigated soil?
Definition
unfumigated
Term
countries with significant amounts of rock phosphate
Definition
-USA
-Morocco
-Russia
-S.Africa
-China
Term
country with the most rock phosphate
Definition
Morocco
Term
criteria for importance of nutrients in plant life cycle
Definition
1: importance in plant growth and development
2: involved in the a plant’s biochemical or physiological process
Term
critical concentration of a nutrient in a plant may depend on...
Definition
weather and cropping conditions
Term
critical range
Definition
the nutrient concentration in the plant below which a yield response to added nutrients occurs
Term
critical relative humidity (CRH)
Definition
relative humidity at which urea dissolves
Term
crop K2SO4 is commonly used on
Definition
-Cl- sensitive crops, like tomatoes and tobacco -tree fruits and veggies
Term
crop factors that affect plant growth and yield
Definition
-variety
-planting date
-pests
-etc.
Term
crops in which B is important
Definition
high value hort crops
Term
current estimates state that ______% of future crop production increases will come from ______ compared to ______.
Definition
90%
intensification
expansion of cropland
Term
cytoplasm needs pH of...
Definition
7.2
Term
deficiencies of these nutrients can cause chlorosis
Definition
-N
-S
-Mg
-Fe
-Mo
Term
deficient
Definition
when the concentration of an element is low enough to severely limit yield and distinct deficiency symptoms are visible
Term
denitrification
Definition
NO3- turning into N2
Term
denitrification
Definition
nitrate turning into nitrogen gas or nitrous oxide 2NO3- + 2H+ --> N2 + 21/2 O2 + H2O
Term
depiction of 2ndary active transport
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of Ca transport in plant cells
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of Exchangeable and Non-Exchangeable K in illite
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of Exchangeable and Non-Exchangeable K in mica
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of N fixation using nitrogenase
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of Nitrogen movement and assimilation at the whole-plant level
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of Primary Active Transport in Plants
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of a Long-Distance Feedback Mechanism
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of a Sodium-proton antiporter
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of a stomatal closing
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of a stomatal opening
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of a uniporter
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of cells in the endodermis
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of combination strategy of Fe uptake
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of cysteine
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of ectomycchoriza
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of endomycchoriza
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of field scanning of electrical conductivity
Definition
[image]

the currents traveling between the disks that are further apart go deeper into the soil
Term
depiction of flow of P in United States after WW2
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of flow of P in United States before WW2
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of forms of K in soil
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of how Ca helps bind proteins
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of how S is mined
Definition
[image]
[image]
Term
depiction of how phosphate is incorporated into ATP
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of how plants take up HPO42- and H2PO4- through a symporter in secondary active transport
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of interaction of fertilizer with soil
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of ion movement in soil
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of micronutrient being sequestered by polyphosphates or pyrophosphates
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of nodule formation on legume roots
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of passive transport across membrane
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of phospholipid structure
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of phytate synthesis
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of plant cells
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of primary active transport across membrane
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of primary active transport in plants
Definition
see slide 7 of the powerpoint titled "Nutrient Uptake - II", but be sure to remove that white block
Term
depiction of proteoid roots
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of signaling that uses Ca
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of strategy 1 of Fe uptake in plants
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of strategy 2 of Fe uptake in plants
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of symporter
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of the Effect of P-solubilizing Bacteria on Yield compared to chemical fertilizers
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of the P cycle in soil
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of the challenge of P fertilization in soils
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of the difference between roots under nutrient deficiency and roots not under nutrient deficiency
Definition
see slide 16 of the powerpoint titled "Nutrient Uptake - II"
Term
depiction of the global P cycle
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of the process of recovering P from broiler litter
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of the shaft mining process of mining potash
Definition
[image]
Term
depiction of the solution mining process of mining potash
Definition
[image]
Term
depth of 1 acre furrow slice
Definition
6in
Term
depth to sample in pastures and no-till
Definition
4 inches (10 cm)
Term
depth to sample in tilled fields
Definition
6 inches (15 cm)
Term
description of intergrade 2:1 minerals
Definition
-similar to smectites and vermiculites except the interlayer area contains discontinuous "islands" of chlorite
-non-expansive and exhibit a much lower CEC than than vermiculites and smectites
Term
desorption
Definition
goes from surface to soultion
Term
details about testing fresh tissue in the field
Definition
-tests for specific nutrients (N, P, K)
-quick and often not very accurate
Term
details about total analysis of plant tissue
Definition
-tests for lab analysis of overall nutrient concentrations of tissues
-takes longer, but accurate
Term
deveolpment of mycorrhizae can be inhibited by some nutrients such as...
Definition
P
Term
diagram of potential and active adidity in soil
Definition
[image]
Term
different labs use different ______ to analyze soil
Definition
extractants
Term
diffusability of Mg2+ in plants
Definition
About 70% of Mg2+ is diffusible (often associated with organic acids)
Term
diffusion
Definition
low solubility ions move only by random thermal motion; this is very slow, only 1-2 cm/season
Term
diffusion as a mechanism of nutrient movement to roots
Definition
low solubility ions move only by random thermal motion
Term
diffusion of K vs. diffusion of P
Definition
-potassium diffuses much faster than phosphorus
Term
diffusion of these Fe ions occurs
Definition
Fe2+ and Fe3+
Term
direction of transport in the xylem
Definition
unidirectional (roots to shoots for nutrients)
Term
disadvantage of Slow release N fertilizers
Definition
cost
Term
disadvantage of using chlorophyll meters
Definition
does not tell you which nutrient is causing the low chlorophyll
Term
disadvantage of using manure to supply Cl
Definition
Cl is easily leached from manures, just like K
Term
dispersiveness of the clay vs. hydraulic conductivity
Definition
the more dispersive the clay, the less the hydraulic conductivity
Term
distribution of nutrients in plants
Definition
may differ among different parts of the plant
Term
disulfide bonds
Definition
bonds of --S--S-- between polypeptide chains within a protein causing the protein to fold
Term
do animals have mechanisms to manage ammonium?
Definition
yes
Term
do this to the critical listed pH
Definition
add 0.6 to it
Term
do this with lime for a faster rxn
Definition
mix it with the soil
Term
does P2O5 exist in fertilizer or soil?
Definition
no
Term
does hydroponics use silicon?
Definition
no
Term
does hydroponics use silicon?
Definition
no
Term
does sulfur have an atmospheric part?
Definition
yes
Term
does the presence of CaCO3 alone induce Fe deficiency?
Definition
not necessarily
Term
doing this can cause B deficiency
Definition
overliming
Term
double acid
Definition
0.05 N HCl + 0.025N H2SO4
Term
dry weight content of plants
Definition
normally 1-5%
Term
effect of K deficiency on growth
Definition
Reduced leaf, stem, and fruit growth
Term
effect of K deficiency relating to drought
Definition
more susceptible
Term
effect of UAN dribbling
Definition
leaves a yellow streak where it burned it, but didn‘t kill it; disappears soon after
Term
effect of adequate K on crop yield and resistance to disease and insect infestation
Definition
positive effect
Term
effect of compost on K
Definition
usually no significant effect on K availability
Term
effect of disulfide bridge
Definition
has effect on shape and properties of protein
Term
effect of humic acid on K
Definition
increases K availability
Term
effect of pH on Cu2+
Definition
for each unit of pH increase, the c'tration of Cu2+ in soil decreases 100-fold
Term
effect of pH on Fe2+ c'tration in soil solution
Definition
with each unit of pH increase, the c'tration of Fe2+ decreases 100-fold
Term
effect of pH on Fe3+ c'tration in soil solution
Definition
with each unit of pH increase, the c'tration of Fe3+ decreases 1000-fold
Term
effect of pH on Mg uptake
Definition
Uptake of Mg reduced at low pH
Term
effect of pH on Mn2+
Definition
for each unit of pH increase, the amount of Mn2+ decreases 100-fold
Term
effect of pH on Zn2+ in solution
Definition
with each unit of pH increase, the c'tration of Zn2+ decreases 100-fold
Term
effect of pH on availability of B
Definition
B availability decreases as pH increases
Term
effective CEC (ECEC)
Definition
what’s actually working in the soil
Term
effects of SO42- in vacuoles
Definition
Usually does not have toxic effects
Term
effects of Se in humans and animals
Definition
Has well-documented health benefits to people and animals; small amounts have anti cancer properties and large amounts seem to have the opposite effect
Term
efficiency of iron transport from roots to shoots
Definition
Iron not efficiently transported from roots to shoots
Term
elemental S occurs beneath...
Definition
a limestone cap
Term
endomycorrhiza
Definition
extends surface area of roots; penetrates plant cells (widespread)

-helps move the nutrients inside the cell
Term
environmental conditions that are often associated with Fe chlorosis
Definition
cool, rainy weather when soil moisture is high and soil aeration is poor
Term
enzyme used to reduce nitrate
Definition
nitrate reductase (NR)
Term
equivalent
Definition
Quantity that will release, react with, or be equivalent to 6.02 x 1023 hydrogen ions (H+)
Term
essential macronutrients in order of abundance in plants
Definition
1: H
2: C
3: O
4: N
5: K
6: Ca
7: Mg
8: P
9: S
Term
essential micronutrients in order of abundance in plants
Definition
1: Cl
2: Fe
3: B
4: Mn
5: Zn
6: Cu
7: Ni
8: Mo
Term
essential nutrient
Definition
nutrient needed to complete life cycle
Term
essential role of Ca in plant cells
Definition
it's essential to cell wall membrane structure and permeability
Term
essential role of Ca in plant nutrition
Definition
essential for translocation of carbohydrates and nutrients
Term
essentiality of V in higher plants
Definition
Essentiality not established in higher plants (but may stimulate growth)
Term
ester
Definition
R-COO-R
Term
example of how Ca regulates cation uptake
Definition
K and Na are taken up in roughly equal amounts in the absence of Ca, but when Ca is present, K uptake greatly exceeds Na uptake
Term
example of how K source can affect leaching
Definition
K bonded to SO42- better retained than K bonded to Cl-
Term
example of isomorphic substitution in the octahedral layer
Definition
Mg2+ or Fe2+ replacing Al3+
Term
example of isomorphic substitution in the tetrahedral layer
Definition
Al3+ replacing Si4+
Term
examples of Adaptations in Nutrient Uptake
Definition
-Adaptations in Nutrient Uptake
-Regulation of Nutrient Uptake
-Increase in nutrient transporters in roots under nutrient deficiency
Term
examples of regulation of uptake in plants
Definition
-High N uptake rates result in high N levels in the leaves
-Leaves contain high levels of amino acids
-Amino acids are transported back to the roots
-Amino acids inhibit nitrogen uptake by the roots
Term
excessive nutrient concentration can cause this, which can also influence yield
Definition
an imbalance in other essential nutrients
Term
excessive or toxic
Definition
when the concentration of essential or other elements is high enough to reduce plant growth and yield
Term
external factors plants have to deal with
Definition
-CO2 c'tration -light -heat -water -nutrients
Term
factors affecting plant growth and yield
Definition
-climate
-crop
-soil
Term
factors of Root morphology and architecture that have an effect on nutrient uptake
Definition
-Root length, thickness
-Branching
Term
factors that affect hydrolysis of phosphates
Definition
-Temperature
-moisture
-pH
Term
ferredoxin
Definition
an Fe-S protein in the chloroplasts
Term
ferredoxin produced as a result of...
Definition
p'synth
Term
ferretin
Definition
protein in which lots of iron can be stored
Term
fixation of P
Definition
precipitation or adsorption
Term
for which type of clay is pH more important? 1:1 or 2:1?
Definition
1:1
Term
forages in which Mo levels are higher
Definition
dry forages
Term
forms of Fe that can occur in soil
Definition
-mineral Fe
-soil solution Fe
Term
forms of K in soil
Definition
-primary minerals
-non-exchangeable K
-exchangeable K
-solution K
Term
forms of P in soil
Definition
1. P in Soil Solution
2. Organic P
3. Inorganic P
Term
forms of P that are taken up by plants
Definition
HPO42- or H2PO4-
Term
forms of Reduced Inorganic S
Definition
S2- and S0
Term
forms of S in soil
Definition
-organic matter -sulfate salts such as gypsum (CaSO4) -Some S as pyrite in coal mining and swamps (FeS2) -Mineral form of S taken up by plants is sulfate: SO42-
Term
forms of feldspar
Definition
-orthoclase
-microcline
Term
forms of mica
Definition
-muscovite
-biotite
Term
forms of soil K
Definition
-solution K
-exchangeble K
-nonexchangeable K
-mineral K
Term
forms that clay minerals exist in
Definition
-1:1
-2:1
-2:1:1
Term
formula for Sul-Po-Mag (langbeinite)
Definition
K2SO4.2MgSO4
Term
formula for diammonium phosphate
Definition
(NH4)2HPO4
Term
formula for phosphoric acid
Definition
H3PO4
Term
formula for potassium nitrate
Definition
KNO3
Term
formula for potassium sulfate
Definition
K2SO4
Term
formula for pyrophosphoric acid
Definition
H4P2O7
Term
formula for single superphosphate
Definition
Ca(H2PO4)2
Term
formula of potassium phosphate
Definition
KH2PO4, K2HPO4
Term
frequency of Mo toxicity
Definition
very uncommon
Term
function of ATPase
Definition
pumps hydrogen ions across the plasmalemma
Term
function of Al in plants
Definition
No biochem function identified yet
Term
function of K in carbohydrate transport
Definition
helps with translocation
Term
function of K in stomatal movement
Definition
helps with opening and closing
Term
function of Mn in p'synth
Definition
Involved in photosynthetic reactions (splitting of water)
Term
function of V in algae and maybe some plants
Definition
function isn’t clear, but promotes photosynthesis
Term
function of nitrate reductase (NR)
Definition
Catalyzes the reduction of nitrate to nitrite
Term
function of nitrite reductase (NiR)
Definition
Catalyzes the reduction of nitrite to ammonium (light dependent)
Term
function of the GS-GOGAT cycle
Definition
used to incorporate ammonia
Term
function of the cortex
Definition
nutrients can be taken up into the symplast
Term
function of the endodermis
Definition
barrier for uncontrolled uptake; kinda limits the uptake of unneccessary substances

also limits leakage of nutrients
Term
function of the pericycle
Definition
generates lateral roots
Term
function of the phloem
Definition
transport from the shoot (flows down)
Term
function of the root hairs (epidermis)
Definition
facilitate uptake
Term
function of the xylem
Definition
transport to the shoot (flows up)
Term
function(s) of Cu in plants
Definition
Redox reactions
Term
function(s) of Fe in plants
Definition
-Chlorophyll synthesis
-Redox reactions photosynthesis/respiration
Term
function(s) of Mn in plants
Definition
-Enzymes
-photosynthesis
-respiration
Term
function(s) of Ni in plants
Definition
Urease enzyme
Term
function(s) of Zn in plants
Definition
Enzyme activation
Term
functions of B in plants
Definition
-New cell development in meristems; important for cell division; important for cell wall; important for pectin
-Pollination; you need B at the right amount for pollen growth
-Involved with translocation of sugar, starch, N, and P; better transport in phloem when complexed w/ B
Term
functions of Mn in plants
Definition

-Similar to Mg2+ (can replace each other in some cases); Mn can act as a cofactor

+Can form ATP bridges between ATP and enzymes

-Activates enzymes in the respiratory pathway (as well as other enzymes)

-Involved in photosynthetic reactions (splitting of water)

Term
gaseous forms of N
Definition
-N2O -NO -N2
Term
gibbsite
Definition
chlorite w/ an Al hydroxide layer
Term
gradual release of K from the inside surfaces of hydrous mica results in the formation of...
Definition
hydrous mica and eventually vermicullite
Term
grass tetany aka hypomagnesia
Definition
an abnormally low level of blood Mg
Term
great risks caused by agricultural expansion
Definition
-biodiversity
-soil erosion
-other factors impacting ecosystem health
Term
grey speck in cereals
Definition
grey spots on the lower part of the leaves
Term
group of molecules Fe is an important structural component of
Definition
porphyrin molecules
Term
growth of root hairs affected by...
Definition
nutrient supply
Term
guard cells on leaves open when ______ with water and close when ______ with water
Definition
turgid
flaccid
Term
heating soil does this to the edges of 2:1 minerals
Definition
warps the edges
Term
high fertilization with this nutrient can make B deficiency worse
Definition
high K fertilization
Term
high levels of these cations can reduce Ca uptake and translocation
Definition
K+ and NH4+
Term
how 2:1 minerals fix ammonium
Definition
ammonium gets stuck in between the sheets of 2:1 minerals binding to the CEC sites
Term
how Al and Fe oxide minerals can adsorb H2PO4-
Definition
thru rxns that result in chemical bonds that are non-electrostatic
Term
how B deficiency can affect fruit
Definition
Fruit growth may be inhibited; may be smaller fruit
Term
how B gets released from B minerals
Definition
weathering
Term
how B helps keep the plant together
Definition
B helps to keep cell wall material intact
Term
how B helps pectin
Definition
Boron bridges some kinds of bonds; helps keep units intact in pectin
Term
how B is important for nutrient transport
Definition
Involved with translocation of sugar, starch, N, and P; better transport in phloem when complexed w/ B
Term
how B is important for plant growth
Definition
-New cell development in meristems
-important for cell division
-important for cell wall
-important for pectin
Term
how B is important for pollination
Definition
you need B at the right amount for pollen growth
Term
how B toxicity happens when B is not mobile
Definition
Where not mobile, B stays in same place and builds up to toxic levels
Term
how CEC affects Ca and Mg availability
Definition
higher CEC means higher Ca and Mg
Term
how Ca affects cells
Definition
-Provides stability and integrity to membranes (leaky with low calcium, which interacts with polar phosphate heads of lipids)
-Important component of cell walls (forms cross-links between negatively-charged groups)
-Because of the importance in cell walls and membranes, Ca is needed for cell elongation
Term
how Ca can impede other cations
Definition
competes with Mg2+ for binding sites on proteins
Term
how Ca causes malformation of storage tissues in many fruits and veggie crops
Definition
accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves, which decreases carbohydrate content of stems and roots, which impairs normal root function (i.e. water and nutrient absorption) because of low energy supply, thus causing malformation of storage tissues in many fruits and veggie crops
Term
how Ca deficiency affects roots
Definition
accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves, which decreases carbohydrate content of stems and roots, which impairs normal root function (i.e. water and nutrient absorption) because of low energy supply, thus causing malformation of storage tissues in many fruits and veggie crops
Term
how Ca deficiency causes tip burn in lettuce
Definition
Collapse of cells as a result of Ca deficiency causes this
Term
how Ca exists in the soil solution
Definition
Ca2+
Term
how Ca helps hold the plant together
Definition
Ca in sufficient amounts helps with the pectin substances and holding the cell wall together
Term
how Ca helps with messages
Definition
Ca helps to amplify particular signals
Term
how Ca moves in the xylem
Definition
moves w/ transpirational water in the xylem
Term
how Cl is taken up
Definition

-as Cl-

-Taken up with a chloride/H+ co-transporter against an electrochemical gradient (low pH promotes uptake)

Term
how Cl occurs in plants
Definition
as Cl-
Term
how Co is beneficial to plants
Definition
it is essential for microorganisms that fix nitrogen
Term
how Cu becomes toxic to sheep
Definition
gets into forage and such
Term
how Cu is kinda similar to Fe
Definition
has cupric (Cu2+) form and Cuprous (Cu+) form
Term
how Cu is transported in plants
Definition
Transported in xylem as part of an anionic complex (Maybe with amino acids)
Term
how Degree of P saturation affects P fixation
Definition
Less saturation, more adsorption
Term
how EC and exchangeable Na affect plant growth
Definition
[image]
Term
how Fe deficiency causes interveinal chlorosis
Definition
lack of iron leads to chlorophyll degradation
Term
how Fe in solution is buffered
Definition
Fe minerals dissolve to buffer reductions in solution Fe caused by plant uptake
Term
how Fe occurs when it moves in the plant
Definition
When iron does move in the plant, it’s often in some kind of a complex with citric acid
Term
how Fe sulfates must be applied
Definition
foliar applications
Term
how Fe, Zn, Cu chelates must be applied
Definition
soil or foliar applications
Term
how HCl acts in water
Definition
HCl + H2O <--> H3O+ + Cl- HCl is the acid and H2O is the base
Term
how K exists in plants
Definition
not part of any biochem compounds in the plant, but exists solely in solution or bound to negative charges on tissue surfaces
Term
how K gets into cells
Definition
K moves into cell because of electrochemical gradient, Cl- is co-tranposrted together with H+
Term
how K helps cell elongation
Definition
-Accumulation of potassium in cells brings in water.
-Provides the turgor pressure needed for cell elongation.
Term
how K is metabolized in plants
Definition
it's not metabolized
Term
how K is stored in plants
Definition
-Potassium is present in the cytosol (~100 mM)
-At high concentrations, potassium can be stored in the vacuole
-Vacuolar potassium represents storage for future use (luxury consumption)
Term
how K is transported in plants
Definition
Transported from roots to shoots through the xylem
Term
how K occurs in manures and sewage sludge
Definition
primarily as soluble inorganic K+
Term
how K should be applied in soils where K leaching can be a problem
Definition
using small annual or split applications
Term
how K+ and NH4+ interact in soil
Definition
they behave similarly in soil, so they can block each other in the clay layers
Term
how Mg exists in the soil solution
Definition
Mg2+
Term
how Mg is transported in plants
Definition

-Transported as Mg2+ in the xylem from roots to shoots

-Also very phloem-mobile: efficient transfer to fruits and other rapidly growing tissue

Term
how Mn chelates must be applied
Definition
foliar applications
Term
how Mo deficiency causes necrotic spots on leaves in the presence of high NO3-
Definition
by causing nitrate to get toxic due to no longer being assimilated
Term
how Mo is taken up by plants
Definition
Taken up as MoO42- (molybdate)
Term
how Mycorrhizae can make nutrients more available to plants
Definition
by using organic forms of nutrients and converting them to inorganic forms, thus making more nutrients available to plants
Term
how N in soil has to get to the plants and bacteria
Definition
diffusing thru the soil
Term
how N moves inside plants
Definition
Translocated from older to younger tissues
Term
how NAD+ turns into NADP+
Definition
addition of 2e- + H+
Term
how NADP+ turns into NAD+
Definition
subtraction of 2e- + H+
Term
how Na is beneficial to plants
Definition
it is important for turgor and growth
Term
how Na stimulates p'synth of C4 plants such as corn
Definition
seems to be cofactor for some enzymes regarding this
Term
how Ni can inhibit enzyme activity
Definition
Like Cu and Co, it can replace other metal ions in plants, inhibiting enzyme activity
Term
how Ni deficiency causes mouse ear disorder
Definition
by way of lack of urease, which leads to urea buildup in leaves, which stunts growth
Term
how OM decreases P fixation
Definition
by coating the clays such that the P can’t attach to the clays
Term
how OM influences Fe availability
Definition
additions of OM to well-drained soils can improve Fe availability
Term
how P gets close to the roots
Definition
diffusion
Term
how P is transported in plants
Definition
-Transported as Pi in the xylem from roots to the shoot -Pi is highly phloem mobile +Can be re-translocated from leaves to fruits, and from older leaves to younger leaves
Term
how P isotopic dilution can be done
Definition
Use 32P or 33P (both radioactive) so that you can measure the amount of radioactive P as a percent of total P such that you can measure how much went from organic to inorganic
Term
how P was being cycled in the US before WW2
Definition
Before ww2, we had regional farms, such that the manure from the animals was fertilizing the crops
Term
how Polymer-coated compounds (Osmocotes) release fertilizer
Definition
by osmotic exchange with moisture from the soil

-Water moves in, dissolves N, N goes into soil
-Bacteria decompose the plastic coat
Term
how Rhizobium often exists in soil
Definition
in a free living form
Term
how S influences flavor
Definition
Sulfur compounds are responsible for much of the flavor in onions, cabbages, and mustard
Term
how S0 turns into SO42-
Definition
S0 is oxidized by microorganisms to SO42-
Term
how SO2 can be toxic
Definition
high levels of it in the atmosphere can be toxic to plants
Term
how SO2 is transported into cell in plants
Definition
Co-transported across plasmalemma (into cell) with 3 H+ (symporter)
Term
how SO42- gets to soil
Definition
rain
Term
how Si is beneficial to plants
Definition
it is present in the structure of cell walls; helps provide structure
Term
how Si is taken up
Definition
Probably taken up as H2SiO3 (= H4SiO4, silicic acid)
Term
how Urea-Ammonium nitrate (UAN) is produced
Definition
Dissolve ammonium nitrate and urea in water
Term
how Zn can be involved with DNA
Definition
Zn can be involved in transcription proteins that bind to DNA
Term
how Zn, Cu, Mn sulfates must be applied
Definition
soil or foliar applications
Term
how a soil test is classified
Definition
classified into low, medium, high, and very high
Term
how absence of K affects cotton
Definition
Cotton fiber elongation is greatly reduced in the absence of potassium.
Term
how active acidity is measured
Definition
measured by pH in soil-water mixture
Term
how alum (Al2(SO4)3) can be used with poultry litter
Definition
can be mixed in with poultry litter to tie up the phosphorus so that it don’t run off
Term
how ammonia can lead to soil acidification
Definition
ammonia gets into the atmosphere, reacts with water, becomes ammonium, and acidifies soil
Term
how applications of organic waste should increase Fe availability
Definition
by improved soil aeration due to improved soil structure
Term
how bicarbonate (HCO3-) forms in calcareous soils
Definition
CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O Ca2+ + 2HCO3-
Term
how biological tests to evaluate plant health are done
Definition
-strip tests in the field
-applying fertilizer rates to different parts of the field

field uniformity is important
Term
how calcium fixes clay dispersiveness in saline and sodic soils
Definition
by neutralizing the negative charges and causing aggregation
Term
how chlorophyll is measured in leaves
Definition
a chlorophyll meter is clipped onto the surface of a leaf
Term
how chlorophyll is related to crop yield
Definition
chlorophyll is related to the p'synth capacity (and thus yield) of a crop
Term
how chlorosis caused by S deficiency occurs in plants
Definition
occurs on the younger leaves first
Term
how chlorosis occurs when there's Mg deficiency
Definition
Interveinal chlorosis, followed by general chlorosis and necrosis in severe cases
Term
how common K toxicity is
Definition
very uncommon
Term
how ectomycorrhiza act
Definition
kinda like root hairs
Term
how elemental S is mined
Definition
-Well is drilled over deposit
-Heating plant over well to heat water
-Hot water injected into well
-Molten S raised to surface
Term
how energy is released from ATP
Definition
by breaking phosphate bonds
Term
how essentiality of nutrient is studied
Definition
by withholding it in typically hydroponic solution and such
Term
how ethylene occurs in plants
Definition
it's a gaseous plant hormone
Term
how excessive quantities of elements can reduce plant yield directly
Definition
toxicity
Term
how excessive quantities of elements can reduce plant yield indirectly
Definition
reducing concentrations of other nutrients below their critical ranges
Term
how fast the oxidation of pyrite decreases the pH
Definition
very fast, such that it’ll kill everything there
Term
how fertilization must be done when doing the soil test calibration
Definition
fertilize plot with different rates of the nutrient of interest at different soil levels (from low to high)
Term
how flooding affects P fixation
Definition
-Change from Fe3+ to Fe2+ -P availability increases -When ferric changes to ferrous, phosphate is released
Term
how gypsum remediates saline and sodic soils
Definition
Ca2+ replaces Na+ in CEC
Term
how heavy metals like cadmium, zinc, lead, and uranium get into plants
Definition
simple diffusion
Term
how high Ni can harm the plant
Definition
High Ni can inhibit uptake of other nutrients and be pretty toxic to the plant
Term
how high P can cause Zn deficiency
Definition
may decrease uptake in plants; not completely clear on how this happens
Term
how high levels of P can induce Zn deficiency
Definition
-P causes Zn to precipitate
-P suppresses Zn uptake
Term
how hydroponics can be used to determine which nutrients are essential
Definition
eliminating one nutrient at a time helps identify essential nutrients
Term
how hydroxy Al ions reduce CEC
Definition
by combining to form large polymers, which are so big, that they're non exchangeable
Term
how increasing K supply influences stomatal function
Definition
1: increases CO2 absorption 2: increases RuBP carboxylase enzyme activity responsible for combining ribulose biphosphate and CO2 to produce 3-phosphoglycerate, the first product of CO2 fixation in leaves 3: decrease dark respiration
Term
how inorganic P in solution gets to plant root
Definition
thru diffusion
Term
how inorganic sources of Cl must be applied
Definition
broadcast or banded
Term
how inorganic sources of Mo have to be applied
Definition
Soil, seed, or foliar applied
Term
how larger amounts of Zn can affect other nutrients
Definition
Zn in larger quantities can interfere with other nutrients with similar properties
Term
how liming of acidic soils increases K availability
Definition
the reduction in exchangeable Al+3 reduces competition with K+, enabling K+ to compete with Ca+2 for exchange sites
Term
how long adsorption rxns take
Definition
hours or days
Term
how long field has to be flooded to make Mn and other nutrients more available
Definition
several days, maybe a week
Term
how long it naturally takes eutrophication to occur
Definition
centuries
Term
how long it takes eutrophication to occur with such excessive N inputs
Definition
decades
Term
how long it takes to see the effect of calcium carbonate
Definition
about 6 months after application
Term
how long precipitation rxns take
Definition
weeks or month or so
Term
how low Ca harms plants
Definition
weakens cell membranes
Term
how management to improve crop N recovery and to reduce the risks of environmental loss will vary
Definition
-geographically
-site-specifically
-the N source used
Term
how manures can contribute to soil being salty
Definition
manures have a lot of salt, so if there’s little or no rain with the manure there, the soil could become saline
Term
how microbes help in the causing of hypoxia
Definition
they use oxygen to feed on stuff
Term
how mineral K gets into soil solution
Definition
goes from mineral K to nonexchangeable K to exchangeable K to soil solution
Term
how mineralizeable N is tested in Georgia
Definition
there is no such test in Georgia
Term
how most K exists in soils
Definition
Most K in soils is in nonexchangeable form or in the parent materials
Term
how movement occurs within the phloem
Definition
from source to sink
Term
how much N legume residues can supply to soil
Definition
20 to 150 kg N/ha
Term
how much of our atmosphere is N?
Definition
78%
Term
how much of the ammonium in fertilizer can be fixed in certain soils?
Definition
up to 75%
Term
how much of the root surface area is root hairs?
Definition
~75%
Term
how much of the soil N is inorganic?
Definition
about 5%
Term
how much of the world's N the U.S. uses
Definition
10-15%
Term
how much of the world's fertilizer use is ammonium nitrate?
Definition
about 3%
Term
how much of world fertilizer use is ammonium chloride?
Definition
about 3% of it
Term
how much proteoid roots increase the root surface area
Definition
They produce their own lateral roots, which produce their own lateral roots, and so on, increasing the root surface area
Term
how much root interception contributes to Mg uptake compared to Ca uptake
Definition
much less to Mg than Ca
Term
how much the N immobilizes depends on...
Definition
the microbial biomass that’s there
Term
how much the P moves in soil
Definition
in most soils, not much more than an inch
Term
how mycorrhizae can make more nutrients available to plants
Definition
by using organic forms of nutrients and converting them to inorganic forms, thus making more nutrients available to plants
Term
how nitrate uptake increases the pH of soil
Definition
Nitrate is taken up together with H+ This increases the pH of the soil or growing medium. Ammonium has the opposite effect
Term
how nitrogenase helps in the N fixation process
Definition
Nitrogenase enzyme used to break N≡N bond under anaerobic conditions
Term
how nonexchangeable K contributes to the maintenance of exchangeable K
Definition
a portion of nonexchangeable K becomes available as solution and exchangeable K+ are removed by cropping, but this is too slow to meet crop demand during the growing season
Term
how nutrients can get out of soil other than by plant uptake
Definition
leaching
Term
how often K is replenished during a growing season
Definition
5-50 times
Term
how organic materials such as manure may increase micronutrient solubility
Definition
thru chelation rxns
Term
how organic matter adds negative charge to soil
Definition
dissociation of carboxylic acid and phenolic acid

each acid has its own dissociation constant
Term
how other substrates can be used to analyze nitrogenase
Definition
can use other substrates, like acetylene to see how much ethylene is released
Term
how oxygen inactivates the nitrogenase enzyme
Definition
oxygen interferes with electron exchange process, making this enzyme less active
Term
how pH influences Fe deficiency
Definition
high pH results in Fe deficiency
Term
how pH influences Mn availability
Definition
high pH decreases Mn availability
Term
how phytosiderophore-Fe complexes enhance Fe transport to root surfaces and absorption by root cells
Definition
using phytosiderophore-Fe complexes to release amino acids called phytosiderophores w/ a high affinity for Fe+3
Term
how plants acidify the root zone
Definition
by excreting H+ and/or organic acids
Term
how plants bring P into the cells
Definition
Movement of the protons is coupled with the movement of the phosphates
Term
how plants bring Pi into the cell
Definition
using ATP to send protons outside of the cell so they can bind with Pi so the Pi can come into the cell this is an example of a symporter
Term
how plants can take in organic forms of N
Definition
some microbial enzymes help the plant do this
Term
how plants get Na+ out of their cells
Definition
pumping protons out of their cells so they can reenter and cause the Na+ to leave
Term
how plants get around the zone of low P c’tration
Definition
by extending roots beyond the depletion zone
Term
how plants get most of their carbon
Definition
carbon being fixed in the form of CO2
Term
how plants get nutrients from the soil
Definition
by absorbing them from the soil solution by plant roots
Term
how plants modify the rhizosphere to absorb Fe
Definition
roots use proton pumps to reduce the pH to increase the solubility of iron, allowing more of it to be in the soil solution
Term
how plants modify the root zone to make iron uptake more efficient
Definition

-Acidify the root zone (excrete H+ and/or organic acids)

-Excrete chelating agents (group of molecules called phytosiderophores) to make Fe more soluble; bind to certain forms of iron

-Use reducing agents to convert Fe3+ to Fe2+

Term
how plants respond to nutrient excess
Definition
plants respond to nutrient excess by slowing down uptake or storing it
Term
how plants take up K
Definition
K+
Term
how plants that can sequester heavy metals in their vacuoles can be used
Definition
can be used to remediate soils (phytoremediation)
Term
how plants use chelates to absorb Fe3+
Definition
1: plant sends chelate into soil solution 2: Fe3+ binds to the chelate 3: Fe3+ bound to the chelate goes to root 4: Fe3+ dissociates from the chelate 5: Fe3+ enters root and chelate returns to solution, both in response to c'tration gradient 6: repeat
Term
how polymers of glutathione can occur
Definition
in the form of phytochelatins
Term
how potassium acts in many of the processes in plants
Definition
ionic form
Term
how remote sensing can be useful
Definition
can be used for precision ag (adjust fertilizer rates based on real-time measurements)
Term
how remote sensing works
Definition
remote sensors detect how much visible and near infrared light is being reflected off of the leaf so that the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) can be calculated (you want this number high)
Term
how roots add negative charge to the soil
Definition
carboxylic acid dissociation
Term
how roots have to be regarding Ca
Definition
they have to be self-sufficient, which means they have to get their Ca from the soil
Term
how sodium tetraborate is applied
Definition
Broadcast, banded, or foliar
Term
how soil Mg can be increased
Definition
-thru application of dolomitic lime, if liming is advisable
-Mg containing fertilizers
Term
how soil S can occur in arid regions
Definition
significant amounts of sulfate salts such as gypsum (CaSO4)
Term
how soil fertility can be improved
Definition
by adding nutrients
Term
how soil fertility is measured
Definition
- directly (concentration of nutrients)
- indirectly (productive capacity)
Term
how soil fertility is measured directly
Definition
c'tration of nutrients
Term
how soil fertility is measured indirectly
Definition
productive capacity
Term
how soil productivity is measured
Definition
in terms of yield/biomass
Term
how soil test calibration is done
Definition
1: selecting sites with different soil test levels
2: replicating plots with and without addition of sufficient amount of the nutrient of interest
3: measuring yield response
4: plotting relative yield vs. soil test level
5: determining the critical level
Term
how soil test correlation is determined
Definition
1: developing extractant
2: growing plants in controlled conditions in soils with different levels extracted by the proposed test
3: determining statistical relationship between the soil test and plant response
4: if there's a good correlation, the test can be evaluated under field conditions
Term
how solubor is applied
Definition
Broadcast, banded, or foliar
Term
how some species can tolerate high Cu
Definition
-they have mechanisms of uptake to sequester Cu into the vacuoles
-Cu can even be sequestered by binding to phytochelatins
-some plants seem to be able to make phytochelatins better than other plants
Term
how source of K can affect the amount of K leached
Definition
SO4-2 and PO4-3 sources exhibit greater anion adsorption to positive exchange sites, such that there's fewer anions in solution available for leaching, so less K is leached
Term
how stomata close
Definition
1. H+ pumps stop. 2. K+ and Cl- diffuse out of cell. 3. Malate degraded. 4. As osmotic potential increases, H2O moves out of cell, and stomate closes.
Term
how stomata open
Definition
1. In response to stimulus (e.g. light), H+ pumped out of guard cells. 2. K+ diffusion into guard cell. 3. Malate (organic anion) produced in cytosol of guard cell. 4. Buildup of osmotica (K+, Cl-, malate) causes influx of H2O. 5. Guard cell volume increases, and stomate opens.
Term
how sulfuric acid has been used to acidify soil
Definition
has been used in midwest where there are some very calcareous soils
Term
how symporter creates proton motive force
Definition
using energy from the ATP to move protons across the membrane to create a proton motive force
Term
how temp and moisture contribute to Fe stress
Definition
root development and nutrient absorption are reduced under cool, wet conditions, which contribute to Fe stress
Term
how the K minerals are mined in Carlsbad, New Mexico
Definition
shaft mined
Term
how the P-solubizing bacteria, such as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Aspergillus, help to solubize P
Definition
-Exudate H+ and organic acids -Produce phosphatase and phytase
Term
how the amount of P is often expressed
Definition
as %P2O5
Term
how the plant and Rhizobium communicate to form the nodules
Definition
-plant can send out signals into the rhizosphere using C based compounds that diffuse into the soil and attract the free living Rhizobium; bacteria also presents its own set of signaling compounds; the structure of the molecules has to be recognized by the plant; signature has to be recognized by the plant
-plant and bacteria have to recognize each other's chemicals in order to form an association; mutual recognition allows the bacteria to migrate towards the roots
Term
how the plant and bacterium recognize each other's chemical signals
Definition
there's receptor proteins that help the plant and the bacterium recognize chemicals
Term
how the probe can affect the pH reading
Definition
because the soil particles interact with how the probe works
Term
how the type of N a plant gets affects Fe stress
Definition
plants receiving NO3- are more likely to develop Fe stress than those receiving NH4+
Term
how they get the K out of the mines in Saskatchewan, Canada
Definition
Shaft mining and solution mining
Term
how to avoid ammonia loss after applying urea
Definition
Irrigate (0.5 to 1 inch) after surface application to incorporate and avoid NH3 losses; this much irrigation needed to make it go down and make it not volatilize
Term
how to calculate available P
Definition
Available P = Water-soluble + Citrate-soluble
Term
how to control Al
Definition
liming
Term
how to do field average sampling
Definition
-zig-zag
-several samples, composite
-obtain average value for field
Term
how to do the water in hydroponics
Definition
mix specific amounts of nutrients in solution with water
Term
how to fix dispersiveness of clay in saline and sodic soils
Definition
by replacing the sodium with calcium
Term
how to remediate saline and sodic soils
Definition
add gypsum (CaSO4) and leach
Term
how to remediate the effects of saline soils on plants
Definition
leach with low-salt water
Term
how to sample the band proportionally
Definition
S = 8 x (row spacing (cm)/30)

S = # of out of band samples/# of in band samples
Term
how triple superphosphate is made
Definition
by mixing rock phosphate with phosphoric acid
Term
how urea is often taken in to plants
Definition
thru leaves and such
Term
how ureides are transported in plants
Definition
in xylem from roots to shoots
Term
how variations in root architrture can affect nutrient uptake
Definition
increasing root surface area
Term
how well boron is stored in plants
Definition
boron typically doesn’t get stored very well
Term
how yellow stripe (YS) got its name
Definition
so named because yellow stripes here developed in a corn mutant as a result of iron deficiency; turns out the YS is a ferric transporter; in the mutant, the YS was not being used by the plant
Term
hysteresis
Definition
occurs when the quantity of adsorbed P (or other ion or compound) is greater than that which can be desorbed
Term
if there’s lotta ammonium in ______, there’s lotta ammonium in CEC
Definition
solution
Term
if you don’t control the ______, nitrification stops
Definition
pH
Term
if you have this soil, you’ll have leaching
Definition
bare
Term
illite aka...
Definition
mica
Term
illustration of the importance of mycchorizae to corn
Definition
[image]

-left w/ mycorrhizal associations
-right w/o mycorrhizal associations
Term
immobilization of N
Definition
ammonium being converted to organic form
Term
importance of K in water relations
Definition
-provides much of the osmotic "pull" that pulls water into plant roots
-stomata open when there is an increase in turgor pressure in the guard cells surrounding each stoma, which occurs by an influx of K
Term
importance of Mg for DNA
Definition
Important in determining 3D-structure of DNA, and needed for enzymes that synthesize and repair DNA
Term
importance of Mg in chlorophyll
Definition
central molecule
Term
importance of N in nucleic acids
Definition
helps form the nitrogenous bases
Term
importance of N to amino acids
Definition
each amino acid has significant amount of N
Term
important functions of Cl in plants
Definition
-important osmoticum
-Involved in stomatal opening
-helps in the process of breaking down water, releasing O and such
-Essential for photosynthesis (splitting of water)
Term
important mechanism for AEC in many soils of tropics and subtropics
Definition
displacement of OH-, often from Al and Fe hydroxides
Term
important role of Zn in plants other than enzymes
Definition
the signaling of auxin and auxin transport
Term
in Georgia, you need at least ______% Calcium Carbonate equivalent to sell it as lime
Definition
85%
Term
in acidic soils, elevated levels of these exchangeable cations can create an unfavorable envoironment for nutrient uptake
Definition
Al+3 and Mn+2
Term
in acidic soils, this controls the solution P
Definition
Al-P and Fe-P AlPO4 dissolves to resupply Al to soil solution
Term
in because it’s 3 molecules, the true peptide bond is between...
Definition
cysteine and glycine
Term
in chlorite, the interlayer space is occupied by...
Definition
Mg(OH)x in basic soils and Al(OH)x in acid soils
Term
in soil, Ca can accumulate here
Definition
around old root channels
Term
in soils with too much ______, nitrification stops
Definition
aluminum
Term
in the elongation zone, there’s less ______ and more ______
Definition
division
cell growth
Term
initial S deficiency appears as...
Definition
light green leaves, ultimately turning yellow
Term
inorganic sources of B
Definition

-Sodium Tetraborate (Na2B4O7.5H2O)

-Solubor

Term
ion exchange in soil occurs where?
Definition
on the surfaces of clay and other minerals, organic matter (OM), and plant roots
Term
is Ca remobilized?
Definition
no
Term
is Ca(NO3)2 a lime?
Definition
no
Term
is Fe a micro or macronutrient?
Definition
kinda in between
Term
is Mo always assimilated?
Definition
no
Term
is SO4-2 uptake inhibited by other anions?
Definition
no
Term
is fineness factor measured in Georgia?
Definition
no

not even given a weight
Term
is iron limiting factor in soil?
Definition
not necessarily
Term
is it easier for ammonia or ammonium to get into plant cells?
Definition
ammonia
Term
is luxury consumption of Mg possible?
Definition
yes
Term
is manure a sufficient supply of S?
Definition
usually is
Term
is nitrification chemical or biological?
Definition
biological
Term
is the acidification rxn of Aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) chemical or biological?
Definition
biological
Term
is the amount of B supplied by manure sufficient?
Definition
on average, yes
Term
is the amount of Mo from manure sufficient?
Definition
on average, yes
Term
is the oxidation of S0 chemical or biological?
Definition
biological
Term
is there enough Fe in the soil solution to meet plant requirements?
Definition
no
Term
isomorphic substitution
Definition
cation replacement in minerals, predominantly in 2:1 minerals and very little in 1:1 minerals

occurs during the formation of these minerals
Term
key nutrient uptake mechanism for corn
Definition
diffusion
Term
largest K deposit in...
Definition
Saskatchewan, Canada
Term
lateral roots develop from the...
Definition
pericycle
Term
lateral roots start forming from ______, not the ______
Definition
the inside of the pericycle
epidermis
Term
leachability of SO42- compared to that of NO3-
Definition
Can be leached, but doesn’t leach as much as NO3-
Term
legumes form these to house N fixing bacteria
Definition
nodules
Term
length of root hairs
Definition
short, rarely reaching lengths of 1mm
Term
life of US phosphate reserves
Definition
34 years
Term
life of phosphate reserves
Definition
~300 years
Term
life of potasium reserves
Definition
171 years
Term
lightning's role in nitrogen
Definition
fixing it, which later comes down as rain
Term
liming materials have to produce...
Definition
OH- or HCO3-
Term
location of the vascular tissue (xylem and phloem) in the root
Definition
center of the root
Term
lodging
Definition
when they fall down, especially when it’s top heavy
Term
longitudinal section of the root
Definition
[image]
Term
lots of plants tend to do better on (ammonium or nitrate)
Definition
nitrate
Term
low Ca uptake combined with this causes distinct symptoms in fruit and veggie crops
Definition
limited translocation of carbohydrates
Term
luxury consumption
Definition
absorbtion by the plant that does not influence yield
Term
lyotropic series
Definition
series that shows cations in order of how strongly they are adsorbed onto CEC sites Al3+ > H+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ = NH4+ > Na+
Term
lyotropic series for cations
Definition
Al3+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+=NH4+>Na+
Term
main P form in grain and seeds, such as chicken feed
Definition
phytate
Term
management of Anhydrous NH3 and Aqua NH3
Definition
- Knife into the soil
- Preferably moist soil
- Apply several weeks before planting
- Observe safety recommendations
Term
many fertilizers have a(n) (acidic or alkaline) solution
Definition
acidic
Term
many proteins need this for high activity
Definition
Mg2+
Term
map showing places in the world with calcerous soils
Definition
[image]
Term
mass flow
Definition
soluble ions move to root with soil water
Term
mass flow vs. transpiration
Definition
mass flow increases as transpiration increases
Term
mechanisms nutrient uptake may follow
Definition
single- or a multi-phasic mechanism
Term
mechanisms of Primary active transport (PAT)
Definition
-ATP hydrolysis generates energy
-Energy used for ion/solute transport
Term
mechanisms of Secondary active transport
Definition
-Special proteins (Integral membrane proteins)
-Co-transport involved
-Energy indirectly derived from PAT
Term
mechinazation led to an increase in...
Definition
farming
Term
meeting future food and fiber demand, while protecting environmental health, will require this
Definition
ag intensification
Term
membrane potential relating to K
Definition
favors K+ influx
Term
meristematic region helps the root do this
Definition
grow
Term
methods by which to measure active acidity
Definition
-Electrometric method (pH meter)
-Dye methods (pH indicator)
-Test probe (not reliable)
Term
methods of determining lime requirement
Definition
1. Titration
2. Buffer Solution
Term
microbes tend to prefer ______ for immobilization
Definition
ammonium
Term
microbial activity is dependent on...
Definition
-adequate energy supply from organic C, such as crop residues
-inorganic ion availability
-numerous environmental conditions
Term
microbial efficiency refers to...
Definition
C
Term
micronutrient cations that decrease in availability 100-fold for every unit of increase in pH
Definition

-Fe2+

-Zn2+

-Cu2+

-Mn2+

Term
micronutrient cations that decrease in availability 1000-fold for every unit of increase in pH
Definition
Fe3+
Term
mineral in which K becomes exchangeable
Definition
vermiculite
Term
mineral solubility represents...
Definition
the ion c'tration maintained in the soil solution by a specific mineral
Term
mineralization of S
Definition
organic S being converted to inorganic S
Term
mineralization of S leads to...
Definition
sulfate in solution
Term
minerals in order from releasing K the fastest to releasing K the slowest
Definition
Biotite > muscovite > feldspars
Term
minor elements
Definition
micronutrients
Term
mobility of B
Definition
B not very mobile in most plant systems, but mobility depends on species
Term
mobility of Ca in the phloem
Definition
not very mobile
Term
mobility of Cl
Definition
very mobile
Term
mobility of Cl in soil
Definition
highly mobile
Term
mobility of Cu in phloem
Definition
Some mobility in the phloem (but slow)
Term
mobility of Cu in plants
Definition
not very mobile
Term
mobility of Fe in plants
Definition
not very mobile
Term
mobility of K in plants
Definition
Highly phloem-mobile, allowing transport to fruits and retranslocation from older leaves; it can move around freely
Term
mobility of Mg vs. mobility of Fe
Definition
Mg is a lot more mobile in the plant than Fe
Term
mobility of Mn
Definition
Mn kinda in between in terms of its mobility
Term
mobility of S in plants
Definition
somewhat low; slower compared to that of other nutrients
Term
mobility of Si
Definition
Not phloem-mobile
Term
mobility of Zn
Definition
Also phloem-mobile; fairly mobile in plant system
Term
molarity (M)
Definition
(moles of solute)/(liter of solution)
Term
mole
Definition
6.02 x 1023 particles (atoms, molecules)
Term
molecular weight
Definition
mass of a molecule in amu
Term
molecule
Definition
smallest unit of compound or element with stable, independent existence. Example: N2 (N gas), NH3 (ammonia)
Term
moloecule in some plants that helps w/ B transport
Definition
sorbitol
Term
montmorillonite aka...
Definition
smectite
Term
most S in soil is in...
Definition
organic matter
Term
most of the exchangeable cations in soils are plant nutrients except for...
Definition
Al3+ and Na+
Term
most of the lime we use in Ga is...
Definition
dolomitic
Term
most residues contain this much C
Definition
38-42%C
Term
much of the iron in cells that's not in chloroplasts is in...
Definition
mitochondria
Term
mycorrhizae do this for plants
Definition
-contribute greatly to nutrient uptake in most plants (>80% of plants)
-increase surface area
Term
natural organic chelates in soils are products of...
Definition
-microbial activity
-degradation of soil OM and plant residues
Term
nitrate (does or doesn't) always have to be sent to the shoots
Definition
doesn't
Term
nitrate reductase (NR) activated by...
Definition
light
Term
nitrate reduction occurs in...
Definition
cytoplasm
Term
nitrification
Definition
ammonium turning into nitrite that then turns into nitrate NH4+ + 3/2 O2 --> NO2- + 2H+ + H2O NO2- + ½ O2 --> NO3- only the first rxn acidifies soil
Term
nitrification is very sensitive to...
Definition
pH
Term
nitrification needs...
Definition
aeration and water
Term
nitrification needs...
Definition
- Nitrate or intermediate product
- Carbon source
- Anoxic conditions (no oxygen)
- Temperature
Term
nitrification of N
Definition
ammonium being converted to nitrate
Term
nitrite reductase (NiR) is dependent on...
Definition
light
Term
nonexchangeable K
Definition
K that's fixed
Term
normal charge inside cell
Definition
slight negative
Term
normal charge outside cell
Definition
slight positicve
Term
normality (N)
Definition
(equivalents of solute)/(liter of solution)
Term
number of subsubunits in Fe protein
Definition
2
Term
number of subsubunits in MoFe protein
Definition
4
Term
nutrient levels in plant tissue must be kept in this range
Definition
sufficiency range
Term
nutrient trading
Definition
moving P and other nutrients outside of watershed where it’s sensitive to P
Term
nutrients in plant tissue must be kept above this range
Definition
the critical nutrient range
Term
one form in which organic nitrogen can occur
Definition
microbial biomass
Term
one hypothesis about silicon
Definition
says that silicon provides mechanical strength to the plants
Term
one important nutrient management principle discussed throughout the book
Definition
the importance of maximizing crop productivity to increase the quantity of applied nutrient recovered by the crop
Term
one of the main functions of S in plants
Definition
the formation of disulfide (--S--S--) bonds between polypeptide chains within a protein causing the protein to fold
Term
one of the main roles of Cu
Definition
being part of plastocyanin
Term
one of the symptoms of Fe deficiency
Definition
interveinal chlorosis
Term
one possible advantage of roots taking up thiosulfate (S2O3-2) instead of sulfate
Definition
may require less energy to convert it to S-2 and amino acids
Term
one possible use of fluorescence in plants
Definition
to detect where a particular protein is present
Term
one problem with Zn in the SE
Definition
Zn deficiency in pecan happens quite a bit in the SE
Term
one reason Ca is not very effectively translocated within the phloem tissue
Definition
I guess because of the problem with callose blocking sieve tubes
Term
one reason N is important for p'synth
Definition
Nitrogen is an important component of chlorophyll
Term
one reason it's important to maintain pH
Definition
because the pH at which there's no charge means no nutrient retention
Term
one use of composted sludge
Definition
potting media
Term
one way Ca can be used in plants
Definition
Ca can be used as a signaling molecule
Term
one way high Cl in soils can harm plants
Definition
by limiting water uptake, and thus leaf expansion
Term
one way stomates can become turgid
Definition
accumulating solutes
Term
one way to measure P mineralization
Definition
P isotopic dilution
Term
one way to reduce P fixation
Definition
Minimize contact with Fe oxides and clays by banding it; putting it in bands instead of mixing it all together
Term
one way to see K diffusion
Definition
can be seen from autoradiographs by using 86Rb, which closely resembles K
Term
opening and closing of stomata determined by...
Definition
gaining and losing water
Term
organic compounds that can be synthesized from simple carbohydrates
Definition
-amino acids
-sugars
-proteins
-nucleic acids
-other organic compounds
Term
organic sources of B
Definition
manure
Term
organic sources of S
Definition
manure
Term
organic sources of micronutrients are important for this regarding uptake
Definition
chelation
Term
other than chlorosis, Zn deficiency can cause this in leaves
Definition
Small leaves (‘little leaf’ in fruit trees)
Term
other than soil, denitrification can occur in...
Definition
streams
Term
other than water, ammonia can also be absorbed by...
Definition
soil
Term
oxidation rxn that lowers pH
Definition
FeS2 + H2O + 7/2 O2 --> Fe2+ + 2SO42- + 2H+
Term
pH at which B availability is limited
Definition
pH>6.5
Term
pH at which B toxicity can occur
Definition
low pH
Term
pH at which CaCO3 starts to precipitate
Definition
pH 7.8 and above
Term
pH at which H2PO4- < HPO42-
Definition
pH above 7.2
Term
pH at which H2PO4- > HPO42-
Definition
pH below 7.2
Term
pH at which H2PO4- ≈ HPO42-
Definition
pH 7.2
Term
pH at which Monoammonium phosphate (MAP) has no ammonia loss
Definition
pH<7.5
Term
pH effect of Ammonium polysulfide (NH4Sx)
Definition
very acidifying
Term
pH effect of Ammonium thiosulfate [ATS; (NH4)2S2O3]
Definition
very acidifying
Term
pH effect of CaCO3 and other liming materials
Definition
raises pH
Term
pH effect of CaSO4
Definition
Does not affect pH (except self-liming)
Term
pH effect of Diammonium phosphate (DAP) on pH of the soil
Definition
1 mole N makes pH go down 1.5 units
Term
pH effect of Dolomite (MgCO3.CaCO3)
Definition
raises pH
Term
pH effect of MgCl2, Mg(NO3)2
Definition
no effect
Term
pH effect of Monoammonium phosphate (MAP)
Definition
1 mole N causes soil pH to decrease 2 units
Term
pH effect of N mineralization
Definition
1 mole N increases pH 1 unit
Term
pH effect of NH3
Definition
1 mole of NH3 decreases pH by 1 unit
Term
pH effect of NO3- uptake
Definition
1 mole N increases pH 1 unit
Term
pH effect of SO4-2 uptake
Definition
1 mole S increases pH 2 units
Term
pH effect of Single and triple superphosphate
Definition
no effect
Term
pH effect of Sul-Po-Mag (K2SO4.MgSO4)
Definition
no effect
Term
pH effect of a rxn consuming H+
Definition
increasing pH
Term
pH effect of ammonia volatilization
Definition
lowers pH
Term
pH effect of ammonium chloride
Definition
1 mole N causes pH to decrease by 2 units
Term
pH effect of ammonium uptake
Definition
pH decreases 1 unit for each mole of N
Term
pH effect of chemical oxidation of pyrite
Definition
lowers it
Term
pH effect of denitrification
Definition
1 mole N increases pH 1 unit
Term
pH effect of denitrification
Definition
1 mole of N raises the pH by 1 unit
Term
pH effect of diammonium phosphate
Definition
can acidify soils
Term
pH effect of dilution
Definition
increases pH
Term
pH effect of immobilization of N
Definition
pH decreases 1 unit for each mole of N
Term
pH effect of mineralization of S
Definition
pH decreases 1 unit for each mole of S
Term
pH effect of monoammonium phosphate
Definition
can acidify soils
Term
pH effect of nitrification
Definition
acidifies soil
Term
pH effect of nitrification of N
Definition
pH decreases 2 units for each mole of N
Term
pH effect of phosphoric acid
Definition
acidify soil
Term
pH effect of pyrite oxidation
Definition
1 mole pyrite oxidized produces 2 moles of H+
Term
pH effect of salts
Definition
-decrease soil pH (negatively charged soils)
-increase soil pH (positively charged soils)
Term
pH effect of single superphosphate
Definition
no effect on soil pH
Term
pH effect of solid phase rxns of sulfate
Definition
increases pH
Term
pH effect of suspended particles
Definition
-decrease soil pH (negatively charged soil)
-increase soil pH (positively charged soil)
Term
pH effect of triple superphosphate
Definition
no effect on soil pH
Term
pH effect of urea
Definition
increases pH
Term
pH effect of urea decomposition
Definition
raises pH
Term
pH effect of urea hydrolysis
Definition
1 mole N increases pH 1 unit
Term
pH effect of volatilization of N
Definition
pH decreases 1 unit for each mole of N
Term
pH of calcareous soil
Definition
7.3-8.5
Term
pH of rainfall
Definition