# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Semester Exam Study Guide
Physics I honors
82
Physics
12/17/2011

Term
 The BCS theory was developed to explain..
Definition
 how superconductors work
Term
 What is absolute zero?
Definition
 the lowest possible temperature for matter
Term
 What is called the "language of physics"?
Definition
 mathematics
Term
 What is physics?
Definition
 the study of matter and energy
Term
 Why is the work of theoretical physicists in superconductivity not finished?
Definition
 There is no complete explanation of how new superconductors work
Term
 Aristotle believed that all matter is composed of _________
Definition
 four elements
Term
 Aristotle and his followers were mainly concerned with finding out
Definition
 why specific events occur.
Term
 One of the 1st European scientists to claim publicly that knowledge must be based on observations and experiments was _________
Definition
 Galileo Galilei
Term
 A surprising aspect of physics is that its results can be described by a small number of relationships, or _____
Definition
 laws
Term
 In scientific notation, a number between 1 and 10 is multiplied by
Definition
 a whole-number power of 10
Term
 What is the metric prefix that means 100?
Definition
 hector
Term
 When multiplying quantities expressed in scientific notation that have different exponents, you multiply the values of M and _____ the exponents.
Definition
Term
 Laboratory instruments must be read _______ to avoid parallax errors.
Definition
 at eye level
Term
 What is the degree of exactness to which the measurements of a quantity can be reproduced?
Definition
 precision
Term
 When adding or subtracting measurements, first perform the operation and then round off the result to correspond to the _____ value involved.
Definition
 least precise
Term
 A variable that can be manipulated in an experiment is
Definition
 an independent variable
Term
 When constructing a graph from data, the range of the x-axis is determined by the range of the ____
Definition
 independent variable
Term
 What is indicated by a smooth, upward curving line on a graph?
Definition
 a direct relationship between y and with the square of x
Term
 The slope of a straight-line graph is the vertical change _____ the horizontal change.
Definition
 divided by
Term
 A graph that is a hyperbola represents _____ relationship.
Definition
 an inverse
Term
 To solve the equation vt=d for t,
Definition
 divide both sides of the equation by v
Term
 An equation is wrong if both sides contain...
Definition
 different units of measurements
Term
 A runner is 5.0 km east of another runner, who is 5.0 km east of a parking lot. Where is the first runner with respect to the parking lot?
Definition
 +10.0 km from the lot
Term
 Distance is a quantity that
Definition
 has only magnitude
Term
 A cyclist finishes a 100-km race in 2.7 hours. The average velocity equals
Definition
 the displacement divided by the total time
Term
 If the average velocity of an object is the same for all time intervals, then the object moves
Definition
 at a constant velocity
Term
 On a position-time graph, the velocity equals
Definition
 the rise divided by the run
Term
 Using ______ rise and run will result in the most accurate slope on a position-time graph.
Definition
 the largest
Term
 A runner traveled 15 km east then backtracked 11 km before stopping. The displacement from the original position is
Definition
 +4.0 km
Term
 The ___ of any point on a velocity-time graph equals the instantaneous velocity at the time.
Definition
 vertical value
Term
 The area under the curve on a velocity-time graph equals the
Definition
 displacement from the original position to its position at the time
Term
 A child on a bicycle rides eastward past a house, as a car, also traveling eastward, slowly passes. Which of the following people would perceive the biker as having the greatest velocity?
Definition
 a person in the house
Term
 The slope of the tangent on a position-time graph equals the
Definition
 instantaneous velocity
Term
 The change in a runner's velocity with time is the runner's...
Definition
 average acceleration
Term
 A child lets go of a ball at the top of a driveway. The instantaneous velocity of the ball as the child lets go is
Definition
 zero
Term
 On a velocity-time graph, the slope of the tangent to the curve at a given point is the
Definition
 instantaneous acceleration
Term
 Constant acceleration on a velocity-time graph produces a curve that is
Definition
 a straight line
Term
 The area under the curve on a velocity-time graph for an object moving with uniform acceleration is the _____ of that object
Definition
 displacement
Term
 The slope of a position-time graph is the ____ of an object.
Definition
 velocity
Term
 Which best describes the relationship between the final and initial velocities of a uniformly accelerating object?
Definition
 the final velocity increases as the initial velocity increases
Term
 (Ignoring air resistance) If a 10-kg ball and a 200-kg crate were both dropped from the top of a building, the acceleration of the crate would be ______ the acceleration of the ball.
Definition
 equal to
Term
 In Greenland, the acceleration due to gravity is ______ the acceleration due to gravity at the Earth's equator.
Definition
 greater than
Term
 A toy rocket is launched straight up into the air. When the rocket reaches its max height, its velocity is at its
Definition
 minimum
Term
 The total displacement of a toy rocket upon landing is
Definition
 zero
Term
 the attractive force that acts on all objects is
Definition
 gravitational force
Term
 the strongest force is
Definition
 strong nuclear force
Term
 Metals such as copper can be pounded into thin sheets due to
Definition
 electromagnetic force
Term
 Which of Newton's laws state that an object with no net force acting on it remains at rest or in motion with a constant velocity?
Definition
 Newton's first law
Term
 Which law states that the acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the net force on it and inversely proportional to its mass?
Definition
 Newton's second law
Term
 Losing your speed as you ride your bike uphill demonstrates Newton's _____ law.
Definition
 second
Term
 Two teams in a tug of war exert the same amount of force on eachother and the rope doesn't move. Newton's _____ law explains why the rope does not move.
Definition
 first
Term
 If you push against a wall, the wall pushes back against you with ____ force.
Definition
 equal
Term
 The gravitational force exerted by a large body, such as Earth, is
Definition
 weight
Term
 Mass and velocity are related by
Definition
 the force of gravity
Term
 Difficulty in pushing a large crate from rest involves
Definition
 static friction
Term
 When the drag force on an object equals the force of gravity, _______ occurs
Definition
 terminal velocity
Term
 The effect of air resistance on the tail of a kite is ______ the effect of air resistance on the body of the kite.
Definition
 less than
Term
 If the force of gravity on a balloon is 3000 N, then the lift force provided by the atmosphere is 3300 N, in which direction is the net force acting?
Definition
 upward
Term
 A hiker moves 15 km due east then heads due north for 8 km. What is the direction of the resultant vector?
Definition
 northeast
Term
 The downstream velocity of a river that flows south ______ a boat's eastward velocity.
Definition
 has no effect on
Term
 When adding vectors graphically, the length and direction of each vector must
Definition
 not be changed
Term
 Knowing the magnitude of the hypoteneuse of a right triangle and the side opposite angle Y, you could compute the _____ of angle Y.
Definition
 sine
Term
 The effect of the resultant vector is ______ the effect of the original vectors.
Definition
 the same as
Term
 Suppose you pull a wagon along on a horizontal sidewalk. The force that pulls the wagon forward over the sidewalk is the _____ force.
Definition
 horizontal component
Term
 If the horizontal component of a force is positive, then, by convention, the force acts
Definition
 to the right
Term
 An object is an equilibrium when
Definition
 the net sum of the forces is zero
Term
 The equilibrant force is ______ the resultant.
Definition
 equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to
Term
 To resolve a force vector into its components, a set of perpendicular axes is drawn. Then the _____ is drawn to scale at the corract angle.
Definition
 resultant force
Term
 When vectors are resolved into components on an inclined plane, the _____ force is the one that acts along the incline
Definition
 parallel
Term
 As the angle of an inclined plane increases, the parallel force ______ and the perpendicular force _______
Definition
 increases; decreases
Term
 For an object moving along a trajectory, the horizontal acceleration of the object ______ as the position changes.
Definition
 is constant
Term
 The vertical change in position of an object that is dropped and that of an identical object that is thrown horizintally from the same height...
Definition
 is the same
Term
 Suppose an object is dropped from a moving train. The time it takes to fall is...
Definition
 independent of the observer's position
Term
 In trajectory motion, the initial velocity is ____ the final horizontal velocity.
Definition
 equal to
Term
 In a projectile motion, the rising and falling times of the object are equal if the launching position is ______ the landing motion.
Definition
 at the same height as
Term
 Where would the pitcher have to aim a fast ball in order to have it pass at the height of the batter's chest?
Definition
 just above the height of the batter's chest
Term
 Momentum can be calculated by multiplying
Definition
 mass by velocity
Term
 If no net force acts on a body...
Definition
 the velocity of the body is constant
Term
 The greatest change in momentum will be produced by...
Definition
 a large force acting over a long time
Term
 If an object with a velocity of 50 m/s has the same momentum as that of a 10 kg mass having a velocity of 20 m/s, the mass of the object is
Definition
 less than 10 kg
Term
 Impulse can be repesented by
Definition
 force times the change in time
Term
 If an object moving at a rate of 20 m/s collides with a stationary object and the two objects move away together, the velocity of the combined objects will be
Definition
 less than 20 m/s
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