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The practice and study of hiding information. 


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The process of changing information using an algorithm (or cipher) into another form that is unreadable by others—unless they possess the key to that data. 


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An algorithm that can perform encryption or decryption. 


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Welldefined instructions that describe computations from their initial state to their final state. 


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The essential piece of information that determines the output of a cipher. 


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A class of cipher that uses identical or closely related keys for encryption and decryption. 


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A type of algorithm that encrypts each byte in a message on at a time. 


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A type of algorithm that encrypts a number of bits as individual units known as blocks. 


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This type of cipher uses a pair of different keys to encrypt and decrypt data. 


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Uses asymmetric keys alone or in addition to symmetric keys. The asymmetric key algorithm creates a secret private key and a published public key. 


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A type of key that is known only to a specific user or users who keep the key a secret. 


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A type of key that is known to all parties involved in encrypted transactions within a given group. 


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A signature that authenticates a document through math, letting the recipient know that the document was created and sent by the actual sender and not someone else. 


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Digitally signed electronic documents that bind a public key with a user identity. 


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The science (and art) of writing hidden messages; it is a form of security through obscurity. 


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Data Encryption Standard
The electromagnetic field generated by a network cable or network device, which can be manipulated to eavesdrop on conversations or to steal data. 


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Triple Data Encryption Standard
Similar to DES but applies the cipher algorithm three times to each cipher block. 


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Advanced Encryption Standard
An encryption standard used with WPA and WPA2. The successor to DES/3DES and is another symmetric key encryption standard composed of three different block ciphers: AES128, AES192, and AES256. 


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Definition
A public key cryptography algorithm created by Rivest, Shamir, Adleman. It is commonly used in ecommerce. 


Term
DiffieHellman Key Exchange 

Definition
Invented in the 1970s, it was the first practical method for establishing a shared secret key over an unprotected communications channel. 


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Definition
Elliptic Curve Cryptography
A type of public key cryptography based on the structure of an elliptic curve. 


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Definition
A cipher that encrypts plaintext with a secret random key that is the same length as the plaintext. 


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Definition
Pretty Good Privacy
An encryption program used primarily for signing, encrypting, and decrypting emails in an attempt to increase the security of email communications. 


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Definition
A summary of a file or message. It is generated to verify the integrity of the file or message. 


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A mathematical procedure that converts a variablesized amount of data into a smaller block of data. 


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Cryptographic Hash Functions 

Definition
Hash functions based on block ciphers. 


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MessageDigest Algorithm 5
A 128bit key hash used to provide integrity of files and messages. 


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Definition
Secure Hash Algorithm
A group of hash functions designed by the NSA and published by the NIST, widely used in government. The most common currently is SHA1. 


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Definition
An attack on a hashing system that attempts to send two different messages with the same hash function, causing a collision. 


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The original hash used to store Windows passwords, known as LM hash, based off the DES algorithm. 


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Successor to the LM hash. A more advanced hash used to store Windows passwords, based off the RC4 algorithm. 


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Definition
Successor to the NTLM hash. Based off the MD5 hashing algorithm. 

