# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Second Set of Quizzes
Instrumentation and Electroacoustics
65
Audiology
03/26/2017

Term
 The term "immittance" is a portmanteau of two words and its definition refers to both of those words, which are ___________ and ______________.
Definition
Term
 mechanical quantity with its reciprocal (reverse):-mass reactance and mass ___-admittance and ___-conductance and ___-stiffness reactance and stiffness ___
Definition
 susceptance; impedance; resistance (friction); suscpeptance
Term
 What are the 3 components of a mechanical impedance system?
Definition
 stiffness reactance, resistance, and mass reactance
Term
 What is the equation for mechanical impedance?
Definition
 Z=F/V
Term
 What are the correct units of measure?-admittance - ________-equivalent volume - _______-susceptance - ______-air pressure - ________
Definition
 acoustic mho; cubic centimeter; acoustic mho; millimeters of water
Term
 This picture illustrates an alternating force (oscillating between -600 and 600 units) as a function of time. Which of the following best describes what is occurring at time point 50 ms?[image]
Definition
 Force is minimal; velocity is maximal in the positive direction.
Term
 In a mechanical system, as frequency increases, stiffness susceptance _________.
Definition
 increases
Term
 In a mechanical system, as frequency increases, mass susceptance _________.
Definition
 decreases
Term
 Based on the relation between mass susceptance, stiffness susceptance, and frequency illustrated in the previous questions, an object likely to resonate in response to very high frequency vibration would most likely have what characteristics?
Definition
 low mass, high stiffness
Term
 EV is affected by factors such as ____ ____.
Definition
 atmospheric pressure
Term
 According to the chapter, the criterion for measurement of a present otoacoustic emission relative to surrounding noise is about ________ dB.
Definition
 3-6
Term
 The acronym VU in VU Meter stands for:
Definition
 volume
Term
 The image pictured is the ___________ and is used by audiologists in measurement of ______________.[image]
Definition
 10-20 electrode system ; auditory evoked potentials
Term
 An acoustic immittance measurement system measures acoustic admittance as a ratio of ___________ (held constant by the measurement system) to ______________, (measured by the system).
Definition
 volume velocity ; sound pressure
Term
 A primary goal in the development of the CE-Chirp stimulus was__________.
Definition
 enhancement of wave V for newborn hearing screening using automated ABR.
Term
 The "distortion" in distortion-product otoacoustic emissions refers to mathematically predictable sound signals composed of nonharmonically spaced frequencies that reflect the ___ and ___ of the primary stimulus tones.
Definition
 sum; difference
Term
 If a manufacturer tells you that one audiometer his company produces, the Arglebargle, is a Type I pure-tone audiometer and the other, the Oingoboingo, is a Type II pure-tone audiometer, what can you deduce from it?
Definition
 The Arglebargle has more test features than the Oingoboingo.
Term
 For masking of tones using bands of noise, as tone frequency increases (say, from 250 to 8000 Hz), what happens to the critical band?
Definition
 The center frequency and bandwidth of the critical band both increase.
Term
 One component of an audiometer, a/an _______________, may consist of an electronic circuit in which white noise is routed to an amplifier and biased at a given voltage, then amplified and routed to a circuit in which a series of inductors and capacitors are adjusted to create a resonance that emphasizes a given frequency while rejecting others
Definition
 pure-tone oscillator
Term
 In audiometry, a warble tone is modulated in the __________ domain.
Definition
 frequency
Term
 The resonance of an acoustic system is the state in which ___ and ___ cancel each other, leaving only resistance (friction).
Definition
 mass; stiffness
Term
 In the chapter, the authors note that tympanogram shapes for 226-Hz probe tones differ between adults and infants. This change in tympanometric shape is likely attributable to ___ mass in the infant middle ear and necessitates use of high-frequency (___ Hz) probe tone for infant tympanometry.
Definition
 increased; 1000
Term
 In the chapter on mechanical impedance, a spring was used to exemplify the mass and stiffness characteristics of a system. In an acoustic impedance system, the analog of the spring is ____________.
Definition
 a volume of air
Term
 The ratio of the middle ear system's ability to transfer energy, expressed as the ratio of reflected power to incident power, is commonly known as ________________.
Definition
 power reflectance
Term
 An increase in the stiffness of the middle ear, such as might be seen in a patient with otitis media, has the primary effect of shifting the wideband reflectance curve ___________.
Definition
 to the right (toward higher frequencies)
Term
 Advantages of wideband reflectance tympanometry over standard single-frequency tympanometry:-wideband reflectance measures do not require the ear canal to be ___-wideband reflectance measures provide information about the admittance of the outer/middle ear system at a ___ of frequencies, rather than only ___-wideband reflectance measures are not influenced by the ___ of the probe in the ear canal
Definition
 pressurized; range; one; location
Term
 The relation between acoustic admittance and acoustic impedance can be expressed as _____________.
Definition
 acoustic impedance = 1 / acoustic admittance.
Term
 An admittance tympanogram obtained using normal clinical techniques provides a measurement of the admittance of ________________.
Definition
 the outer and middle ear together.
Term
 [image]What is true of the data point indicated by the red arrow on the wideband reflectance curve pictured here?
Definition
 It shows abnormal reflectance at 1000 Hz, with more energy reflected than would be expected in a normal outer and middle ear.
Term
 [image]Which is true of the data point indicated by the blue arrow on the wideband reflectance curve pictured here?
Definition
 It shows that about 70% of incident energy was passed through the outer and middle ear at 3000 Hz.
Term
 Silman writes that "the most fundamental requirement for calibration of instrumentation used in Audiology and Hearing Science is a device that either resembles outer ear mechanical impedance (the enclosure between the earphone and tympanic membrane when an earphone is being calibrated of from the insert receiver to the eardrum when the insert receiver is being used to calibrate) or to find a device that will have the same mechanical characteristics of the mastoid when calibrating the bone oscillator." Which of these is a name for these devices collectively?
Definition
 couplers
Term
 [image]
Definition
 Yes for air-conduction audiometry; no for bone-conduction audiometry; no for sound-field audiometry
Term
 In order for an acoustic immittance measurement system to comply with ANSI S3.39, the actual frequency of the probe tone should be within ___________ of the nominal frequency (the frequency displayed on screen).
Definition
 3%
Term
 For a type I clinical audiometer to comply with ANSI S3.6 standards, actual measured frequency of tones should be within _________ of the nominal frequency (the frequency displayed on the audiometer).
Definition
 1%
Term
 Using the formula provided in your reading, calculate total harmonic distortion for a 1000 Hz tone produced by a headphone from the values measured below, all collected while the 1000 Hz tone was playing at 70 dB HL.1000 Hz: 70 dB HL2000 Hz: 4 dB HL3000 Hz: 3 dB HL4000 Hz: 0 dB HL5000 Hz: 0 dB HL6000 Hz: 0 dB HL7000 Hz: 0 dB HL8000 Hz: 0 dB HL
Definition
 7.1%
Term
 By examining couplers used in calibration, you can infer that the volume of air enclosed by a supra-aural headphone is about __________ as large as the volume of air enclosed by an insert earphone.
Definition
 3
Term
 [image]The device pictured is used during calibration of the audiometer for the purpose of simulating the inertial mass of the ___ ___ for the purpose of calibrating the ___ ___.
Definition
Term
 The TDH-39 supra-aural headphones is matched to the ___ ___
Definition
 NBS 9A
Term
 For a type I clinical audiometer to comply with ANSI S3.6 standards, total harmonic distortion for a 1000 Hz tone produced by a headphone should be no greater than __________.
Definition
 2.5% of the amplitude at 1000 Hz.
Term
 For a type I clinical audiometer to comply with ANSI S3.6 standards, it should take no longer than ________ for a 1000 Hz pure tone initially presented at 70 dB HL to decline from 63 dB HL to 7 dB HL after the tone is turned off.
Definition
 20 milliseconds
Term
 Kemp hypothesizes that the nonlinear relation between the stimulus amplitude and response amplitude of the signals he measured from the ear is evidence of ___ ___ involvement in the production of the sounds he had measured.
Definition
 active physiologic
Term
 Kemp measured the "acoustic emission phenomenon" described in his paper in a large number of ears with confirmed normal middle and inner ear function, but noted that the phenomenon was absent or reduced in ears of patients with normal middle ears and sensory hearing loss greater than _________ dB.
Definition
 30
Term
 Bright notes that spontaneous OAE are present in about ____________ of ears with normal hearing.
Definition
 1/2
Term
 According to Bright, the major challenge in reliable measurement of OAE is ____________.
Definition
 excessive noise
Term
 During TEOAE measurement, setting the noise-rejection limit lower than the default setting usually results in _______________.
Definition
 more noisy samples being rejected, but a longer test time.
Term
 [image]This image contains ABR waveforms from an electrode placed at the right ear of a patient, with the top tracing from an ipsilateral stimulation (click presented to the right ear) and the bottom tracing from a contralateral stimulation (click presented to the left ear). Time intervals are not marked, but presume that all latencies in the top tracing are within normal limits.Why are wave I and wave II not present in the contralateral tracing?
Definition
 Wave I and wave II are generated by the VIII nerve; because this is a contralateral recording, the VIII nerve on the side of the recording electrode is not stimulated.
Term
 Crumley suggests a few techniques to improve the quality of an ABR recording, including ________________.
Definition
 using a slower stimulus rate.
Term
 According to Crumley, use of FPz electrode placement (instead of Cz) can result in up to a ___% reduction in wave amplitude
Definition
 15
Term
 Unlike a click ABR, a toneburst ABR provides _________________.
Definition
 frequency-specific information.
Term
 The AP of the ECochG is also known was the compound action potential or __________.
Definition
 wave I of the ABR.
Term
 Crumley recommends that stimulus intensity during bone-conduction ABR on infants not exceed __________
Definition
 50 dBnHL.
Term
 Crumley recommends each of the following as a technique to reduce electrical noise during ABR measurement except ____________.
Definition
 setting mobile phones to "silent" mode.
Term
 During most auditory evoked potential protocols, the measurement system will subtract the voltage of the non-inverting electrode from the voltage of the inverting electrode, which cancels out any electrical activity or noise that was picked up by both electrodes. This process is known as ______________.
Definition
 common mode rejection
Term
 The middle latency response (MLR) is generated by __________________ and is used to assess __________________.
Definition
 the IC, MGB, and A1 ; auditory cortical function
Term
 Unlike most other auditory evoked responses, accurate measurement of the P300 requires _____________.
Definition
 active thought processes; specifically, counting of high-frequency tone stimuli.
Term
 Calculate the binary value of the decimal number 56.
Definition
 111000
Term
 Many digital audio files are sampled at a rate of 44.1 kHz (44,100 samples per second). In such a file, sound frequencies up to about __________ can be expected to be represented accurately.
Definition
 44.1 kHz
Term
 The basic processing of a digital hearing aid, from reception of a sound signal by a microphone to processing of that sound to production of the amplified sound signal by a receiver, can be conceptualized as ________.
Definition
 analog > digital > analog
Term
 The substitution of a continuous analog measurement with a series of distinct and finite elements (such as measurements of a sound at regular time points) is known as ________.
Definition
 discretization
Term
 The ____________ states that a continuous signal can be reproduced well from its digitized form if the sampling frequency (number of samples per unit time) is at least twice the maximum frequency (number of cycles per unit time) in the signal.
Definition
 Nyquist-Shannon theorem
Term
 [image]The pictured pink waveform has a frequency of 1000 Hz. Each black dot represents a sample taken as part of a digitization process. What is the sampling rate of the digitization process?
Definition
 4000 Hz
Term
 Representation of real-world signals using numerical code, then processing those codes using techniques such as filtering, amplification, transformation, and modulation, is known as _________.
Definition
 digital signal processing.
Term
 One way to use FFT is to transform a note generated by a musical instrument into its _____________, or the primary frequency of the note, and its _____________, or the whole-number multiples of the primary frequency that give the note its distinct sound.
Definition
 fundamental frequency ; harmonics
Term
 __________ is a process involoving decomposition of a spectrally-complex signal into its individual frequency components for analysis.
Definition
 FFT
Term
 Advantages of digital storage of data:-digital media can be stored in a ___ space ; analog media typically require ___ storage media-digital filtering and processing can be conducted using ____ ___ ; analog processing typically requires ____ equipment-digital reproduction is very ___ fidelity ; analog reproduction typically results in ___ of quality-digital media does not ___ with use or age; analog media degrade relatively ___
Definition
 smaller; bulky; computer software; specialized; high; loss; degrade; quickly
Supporting users have an ad free experience!