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macro theoretical perpectives are trying to explain at level of society *birds eye view ex. conflict theory and functionalism 


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Independent is the cause variable or the vaqriable that is influencing the other. Be able to pick the variable out of a statement. 


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Dependent variable is the effect or the variable that is influenced. 


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both variables move in sync. + & + or &  


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variables move in opposite directions. + &  


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observation. Letting observations guide research rather than presupposed aspects. know Induction vs. deduction 


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begin with general theory and make predictions 


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6. Scientific inquiry & Errors in Inquiry 

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scientific inquiry important for collecting empirical data, and eliminating and preventing error or bias. Be familiar with different errors illogical reasoning, inaccurate observations, over generalization, selective observation. 


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: logical grouping of attributes. Identify variables, 


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charecteristic that describes an object 


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 range of possibilities or number a score can have 


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represents one specific persons observation not entire range. 


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disrupting social norms to observe how people try to restore normalcy. 


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*name* nonnumeric variable with nonmeaningful categories, trivial categories. 


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there is a ranked order from low to high but distance between is meaningless. Like a scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree. 


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. Interval ratio variable 

Definition
 have charecteristics of both, has categories which are ordered and also scale is meaningful. 


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measures consistency,* know the different tests for reliability* 


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 it is accurately measuring the concept of the research. 


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. know different types and techniques. Or nonprobability technique. Major difference is using the process of random selection in probability techniques. 


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entire social group from which to take samples 


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one subset of population, which is available for analysis 


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if are data is arranged in cyclical way or ranked fashion we could have biased sample. Ex. Military rank, if you randomly select ppl within a certain rank, ti will not really be random 


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22. Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 

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?) two main branches. Descriptive used to organize information, like mean. Interential data is used to draw conclusions, like hypotheses test. Pop. parameter, sample statistic 


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23. Causality (know criteria) 

Definition
 time order cause before effect, non spuriousness know spuriousness* spuriousice cream sales related to drowning deaths, correlation 


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24. Exploratory, Descriptive, and Explanatory Studies 

Definition
exploratory when researcher is just exploring research topic. Descriptive used to describe situations and events, quantitative study. Explanatoryexplains why something is happening. When asking why, it is most usually qualitative. Qualitative vs. quantitative quality vs. quantity 


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snap shot of a population in a point in time vs. Longitudinal Studies study the course of a population over a given time period. *just know differences* 


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27. Elements of a Research Proposal 

Definition
be familiar with different elements, abstract, intro. Lit review. Data, methods 


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whatever research statement states, then that is the unit of analysis individual, household, county, 


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ecological fallacy, mistakenly argue that the generalization of one unit of analysis is applied to another unit of analysis. 


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sociobiology genetics do nto purely determine a person. Taking a complex argument and trying to reduce it to simple terms 


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slide in concepts an measures pres. Be familiar with it. Create nominal def. to conceptualization, to operationalization, to measurement 


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qualitative vs. quantitative. Know major types, survey, participant observation. 


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the process of selecting observations 


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Generalizing from a sample to a larger population and involves random selection. 


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Selecting a sample based on knowledge of a population, its elements, and the purpose of the study. Used when field researchers are interested in studying cases that don’t fit into regular patterns of attitudes and behaviors 


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Technique in which samples are selected in a way that is not suggested by probability theory. 


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Reliance on available subjects 

Definition
type of nonprobability sampling. Only justified if less risky sampling methods are not possible. Researchers must exercise caution in generalizing from their data when this method is used 


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Purposive or judgmental sampling 

Definition
type of nonprobability sampling. Selecting a sample based on knowledge of a population, its elements, and the purpose of the study. Used when field researchers are interested in studying cases that don’t fit into regular patterns of attitudes and behaviors 


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type of nonprobability sampling. Appropriate when members of a population are difficult to locate. Researcher collects data on members of the target population she can locate, then asks them to help locate other members of that population. 


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Begin with a matrix of the population. Data is collected from people with the characteristics of a given cell. Each group is assigned a weight appropriate to their portion of the population. Data should represent the total population. 


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A measure (for example, mean or standard deviation) used to describe a population distribution. 


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A measure (for example, mean or standard deviation) used to describe a sample distribution. 


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the four types of sampling designs 

Definition
Simple random sampling (SRS) Systematic sampling Stratified sampling Cluster sampling 


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A sample designed in such a way as to ensure that (1) every member of the population has an equal chance of being chosen and (2) every combination of N members has an equal chance of being chosen. This can be done using a computer, calculator, or a table of random numbers 


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A method of sampling obtained by (1) dividing the population into subgroups based on one or more variables central to our analysis and (2) then drawing a simple random sample from each of the subgroups 


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Proportionate stratified sample 

Definition
The size of the sample selected from each subgroup is proportional to the size of that subgroup in the entire population. 


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Disproportionate stratified sample 

Definition
The size of the sample selected from each subgroup is disproportional to the size of that subgroup in the population. 


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Systematic random sampling 

Definition
A method of sampling in which every Kth member (K is a ration obtained by dividing the population size by the desired sample size) in the total population is chosen for inclusion in the sample after the first member of the sample is selected at random from among the first K members of the population. 


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Cluster sampling is an example of 'twostage sampling' or 'multistage sampling': in the first stage a sample of areas is chosen; in the second stage a sample of respondent within those areas is selected. 


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describes a sample whose aggregate characteristics closely approximate the aggregate characteristics of the population. 


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Aggregation of elements from which the sample is actually selected. 


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Unit about which information is collected and that provides the basis of analysis. 


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Element or set of elements considered for selection in some stage of sampling. 

