# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Science
Physics
163
Physics
01/15/2012

Term
 Mechanics explains _____________.
Definition
 how ordinary objects move
Term
 The ___________ is the process by which science moves forward.
Definition
 Scientific Method
Term
 Name the steps of the Scientific Method.
Definition
 1. State the Problem 2. Observe and Collect Data 3. Form a Hypothesis 4. Test the Hypothesis 5. Record/Analyze Data 6. Conclusion
Term
 The __________ is a standard method of measurement used nearly wordwide.
Definition
 International System of Units (SI)   (In French, Systeme International)
Term
 What is the basic SI unit of:   Length? Mass? Time?
Definition
 Length: meter Mass: kilogram Time: second
Term
 The USA uses the _____ system of measurement.
Definition
 English
Term
 English System measurement for:   Length? Mass? Time?
Definition
 Length: foot Mass: slug Time: second
Term
 1 inch = ______ cm
Definition
 2.54
Term
 1 mile = ________ feet
Definition
 5,280
Term
 1 mile = ________ meters
Definition
 1,609
Term
 1 slug = _______ kg
Definition
 14.59
Term
 Define scalars
Definition
 Scalars are quantities that only have magnitude associated with them
Term
 Define vectors
Definition
 Vectors are quantities that need both magnitude and direction
Term
 Kinematics is the description of ______.
Definition
 motion
Term
 Define position
Definition
 the distance from the origin
Term
 Displacement is a (s/v) quality that defines ________________.
Definition
 vector ; the amount your position has changed over a time period
Term
 Variable for displacement
Definition
 Δx
Term
 What is the absolute value of displacement?
Definition
 Distance (d)
Term
 Formula for velocity?
Definition
 v = Δx      Δt
Term
 Speed is the absolute value of ________.
Definition
 velocity
Term
 Formula for acceleration?
Definition
 a = Δv      Δt
Term
 What is the first kinematics equation?
Definition
 v = vo + at
Term
 What is the second kinematics equation?
Definition
 Δx = 1/2(vo + v)t
Term
 What is the third kinematics equation?
Definition
 Δx = vot + 1/2at2
Term
 What is the fourth kinematics equation?
Definition
 v2 = v02 + 2aΔx
Term
 ____________ (1564-1642) theorized that in the absence of air resistance, all objects fall at the same rate.
Definition
 Galileo Galilei
Term
 What is the acceleration due to gravity on Earth?   What is its variable?
Definition
 9.8 m/s2 (32 f/s2)   variable g
Term
 ____ is the variable that links both the x and y directions.
Definition
 Time
Term
 Define projectile
Definition
 A projectile is any object that has motion in both the vertical and horizontal directions and falls solely under the influence of gravity while in the air.
Term
 Give examples of projectiles
Definition
 a cannonball shot from a cannon, a ball thrown horizontally from the top of a tall building
Term
 The causes of motion are called ________.
Definition
 dynamics
Term
 Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) wrote this book
Definition
 Principia
Term
 Newton's first law states that:
Definition
 objects at rest stay at rest unless impressed upon by a force
Term
 Equation for the magnitude of the force of gravity on an object of mass
Definition
 F = mg
Term
 The SI unit of force is the _____.
Definition
 newton (N)
Term
 1 newton = 1 ____ x ____
Definition
 1 newton = 1 (kg) x (m/s2)
Term
 Normal force is __________
Definition
 the contact force that arises when two objects are impressed against each other
Term
 Newton's second law states that:
Definition
 Fnet = ma
Term
 Newton's third law states that:
Definition
 for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Term
 What is the unit of energy?
Definition
 joule   (1 joule = 1 (kg) x (m2/s2) (1 joule = 1 N-m)
Term
 Formula for kinetic energy
Definition
 KE = 1/2mv2
Term
 What is the formula for potential energy?
Definition
 PE = mgh
Term
 If you apply a force to an object, and it moves, then you have done _____.
Definition
 work
Term
 What is the formula for work?
Definition
 W = F x d
Term
 The Work-Energy Theorem states that:
Definition
 W = ΔKE
Term
 Define conservative force and give examples.
Definition
 A force that will only move energy between systems in an object   ex. gravity, spring forces, electric forces
Term
 Define Non-Conservative Force and give examples.
Definition
 A force that changes the total energy of an object   ex. kinetic friction, air resistance
Term
 Impulse (j) is the ________.
Definition
 amount of force imparted by an object over a time period while it's trying to change the momentum of another object
Term
 What is the formula for impulse (j)?
Definition
 J = F(Δt)
Term
 Momentum (p) is calculated by this equation:
Definition
 P = mv
Term
 Momentum takes into account the object's ____ and ___________.
Definition
 mass ; change in velocity
Term
 The Impulse-Momentum Theory states that:
Definition
 J = Δ(mv)   (amount of impulse = change in momentum)
Term
 An elastic collision is a collision in which ____________.
Definition
 momentum and energy are both conserved
Term
 In an inelastic collision, ________________________.
Definition
 momentum is conserved but energy is not conserved.
Term
 Define Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM).
Definition
 periodic motion that arises from a restoring force that attempts to restore an object back to equilibrium
Term
 Simple Harmonic Motion will result in a ________ curve.
Definition
 sinusoidal
Term
 Amplitude (A) is ___________.
Definition
 the distance from peak to equilibrium
Term
 The period of oscillation (T) is defined as _____________.
Definition
 how long it takes the object to repeat its motion (peak-peak or trough-trough)
Term
 Frequency (f) refers to how often __________.
Definition
 the object passes by a certain point, moving in the same direction
Term
 Frequency (f) is the inverse of the ______.
Definition
 period (T )   (f = 1/T )
Term
 The unit of frequency is the ____.
Definition
 Hz (1/second)
Term
 Hooke's Law, which deals with the restoring force, states:
Definition
 FHooke's = -(constant)x(displacement)
Term
Definition
 the restoring force is in the opposite direction of the spring displacement
Term
 For a mass on a spring, Hooke's Law becomes:
Definition
 FHooke's = -k(Δx)
Term
 In Hooke's Law, what is k?   What is x?
Definition
 k = spring constant (strength of spring)   x = displacement from equilibrium
Term
 The potential energy of a mass on a spring is given by the equation:
Definition
 PEspring = 1/2k(Δx)2
Term
 If you double the displacement of a mass on a spring, then you ______ the energy stored in the spring.
Definition
Term
 The period of a mass on a spring, in equation form, is:
Definition
 Tspring = 2π√m/k
Term
 The period of a mass on a spring depends on:
Definition
 the value of the mass (m) the spring strength (k )
Term
 The period of a pendulum depends on:
Definition
 the length of the string (L ) the acceleration due to gravity (g )
Term
 The period of a pendulum, in equation form, is:
Definition
 Tpendulum = 2π√L/g
Term
 ___________ in circular motion takes into account not only how much mass is present, but how it is distributed as well.
Definition
 moment of inertia (I )
Term
 Torque (τ ) is calculated by the formula:
Definition
 τ = (r) x (F)   (r = distance from rotation to where force is applied)
Term
 Angular velocity (ω) is:
Definition
 how fast an object is rotating/moving around a center
Term
 Angular momentum (L ) is a measure of:
Definition
 how hard it will be to stop something from spinning
Term
 Angular momentum (L ) is found with the equation:
Definition
 L = Iω
Term
 The acceleration that an object has because of circular motion is called ________.
Definition
 centripetal acceleration
Term
 The magnitude of centripetal acceleration can be found by the equation:
Definition
 acent = v2/ r
Term
 For an object to be in equilibrium, the net ____ and _____ must both be zero.
Definition
 net force and torque
Term
 The distance required for a wave to repeat its motion is known as the _______.
Definition
 wavelength (λ)
Term
 The wave velocity can be calculated by multiplying the ______ and ______ of the wave.
Definition
 wavelength ; frequency   (v = λf)
Term
 What is the unit of wave frequency?
Definition
 Hz (cycles/second)
Term
 What does the wave source determine about a wave?
Definition
 frequency and amplitude   (amplitude depends on the medium as well)
Term
 Wave velocity (v) depends solely on the ______.
Definition
 medium
Term
 What does wavelength (λ) depend on?
Definition
 frequency and velocity
Term
 What does frequency (f ) depend on?
Definition
 the wave source
Term
 In a traverse wave, the displacement of the wave medium is ________ to the direction of the travel of the wave.
Definition
 perpendicular
Term
 What is the frequency range of light that is visible to humans?
Definition
 4 x 1014 Hz - 7 x 1014 Hz
Term
 What kind of light (in nanometers and color) can humans see? Which is easiest?
Definition
 700 nanometers (red) - 400 nanometers (violet)   560 nanometers (yellow-green)
Term
 What is the wave speed of light in a vacuum?
Definition
 3.0 x 108 m/s
Term
 What does index of refraction (n) relate to?
Definition
 How much slower something travels in a given medium compared to how it moves in a vacuum
Term
 Formula for index of refraction
Definition
 n = speed on light in a vacuum = c       speed of light in a medium    v
Term
 What is the index of refraction for:   water? diamond? prism?
Definition
 water: 1.33 diamond: 2.4 prism: 1.5
Term
 A _________ wave is one where the displacement takes place in the same direction that the wave is travelling.
Definition
 longitudinal
Term
 What is the speed of sound in:   air? water?
Definition
 air: 340 m/s water: 1,100 m/s
Term
 Define superposition.
Definition
 the addition of the amplitudes of two waves, also known as wave interference
Term
 If the path length difference between 2 speakers is a whole integer multiple of the wavelength, then you will hear _________.
Definition
 constructive interference
Term
 The double slit experiment (Young's experiment) shows _____________ difference.
Definition
 path length
Term
 Wave interference due to path length difference causes you to hear ______.
Definition
 beats (fast changes from loud to soft)
Term
 The law of reflection states that
Definition
 the angle of the incident light ray equals the angle of the reflected ray (θi = θr)
Term
 When an incident ray is reflected back from a medium with a higher index of refraction (ie air reflecting from water) it will _______.
Definition
 change phase
Term
 What does Snell's Law deal with?
Definition
 the angle at which a light ray will enter a medium in relation to the normal
Term
 What is the equation for Snell's Law?
Definition
 n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2   (n = indices of refraction) (θ = angle in initial medium)
Term
 Total Internal Reflection (TIR) can only occur if you move from _____________.
Definition
 a slow medium to a fast medium
Term
 The SI unit for electric charge (q) is:
Definition
 a coulomb (C )
Term
 Who performed the oil drop experiment?
Definition
 Robert Millikan (1868-1953)
Term
 What did Millikan's oil drop experiment demonstrate?
Definition
 that all charges are a multiple of a fundamental unit of charge
Term
 What is the charge held by a single electron (e)?
Definition
 1.602 x 10-19 coulombs
Term
 The phenomenon of charge conservation says
Definition
 the net charge of the universe never changes
Term
 French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb (1736-1806) was the first person to quantify:
Definition
 the force between two or more electric charges
Term
 Coulomb's Law states that:
Definition
 Felectric = ke  q1q2                r2
Term
 What is the electrical constant (ke)?
Definition
 8.99 x 109 Nm2/C2
Term
 What way does the electric field (E) of positive charged particle face?
Definition
 outwards
Term
 Induction of charge is when atoms are:
Definition
 rearranged inside an item
Term
 When two charged particles are next to each other, not moving, they have ______
Definition
 electric potential energy (PEelec)
Term
 What is the formula for electric potential energy (PEelec)?
Definition
 PEelec = k  qoq1              r
Term
 What is the formula for electric potential (V )?
Definition
 V = PEelec   qo
Term
 What is the SI unit for electric potential?
Definition
 volt (V )   (1 joule per coulomb)
Term
 Capacitance refers to:
Definition
 an object's ability to hold a stationary charge
Term
 Capacitance is given by the formula:
Definition
 C = Q      ΔV   (Q = magnitude of charge on each plate)
Term
 Capacitance is measured in:
Definition
Term
 A capacitor is a device designed to:
Definition
 store energy in the form of an electric field
Term
 The only thing that limits the amount of charge you can place on a parallel plate capacitor is:
Definition
 the geometry of the capacitor
Term
 For a parallel plate capacitor, capacitance can be calculated by the formula:
Definition
 C = εo A          d   (A = area of plate) (εo = permittivity of free space)
Term
 The value of the permittivity of free space (εo) is:
Definition
 8.85 x 10-12 C2/(N x m2)
Term
 The energy stored in a capacitor will be given by the equation:
Definition
 Energy = 1/2C(ΔV )2
Term
 The amount of electric charge that passes by a specific point in a certain time period is called:
Definition
 electric current (I )
Term
 The equation for electric current is:
Definition
 I = Δq     Δt
Term
 The SI unit for electric current is the:
Definition
 ampere (A )   (1 ampere = 1 coulomb/second)
Term
 The SI unit for resistance (R ) is the:
Definition
 ohm (Ω)
Term
 What is the equation for electric power?
Definition
 P = I(ΔV)   (I = electric current)
Term
 The power used by a device is measured in:
Definition
 watts
Term
 Ohm's Law states that:
Definition
 ΔV = IR
Term
 One ohm (Ω) is equal to:
Definition
 one volt per ampere
Term
 In "conventional" current, the current moves:
Definition
 opposite the motion of the negative charges
Term
 Voltage difference from a battery is called an:
Definition
 emf (ElectroMotive Force)
Term
 Equivalent resistance is the technique of:
Definition
 breaking complicated circuits down to the simplest circuit
Term
 The equivalent resistance for two resistors in a series is:
Definition
 the sum of the individual resistance values
Term
 Two resistors in parallel have the equivalent resistance of:
Definition
 the sum of the inverses of their individual resistance values (1 = 1 + 1)                                     Req  R1   R2
Term
 What is Kirchoff's first rule of circuits?
Definition
 the junction rule (current entering = current exiting)
Term
 What is Kirchhoff's second rule of circuits an what does it state?
Definition
 the loop rule: the sum of the voltage differences across all the elements around any closed circuit must be zero
Term
 Who discovered that a magnetic current could deflect a magnetic compass needle? (discovery that electric currents create electric fields)
Definition
 Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851)
Term
 In RHR1, which direction does your thumb point?
Definition
 the direction of the current flow
Term
 The magnitude of the magnetic field is given by the equation:
Definition
 B = μoI      2πr   (r = distance from wire) (μo = permeability of free space)
Term
 What is the permeability of free space (μo)?
Definition
 1.26 x 10-6 (T x m)/A
Term
 The SI unit of the magnetic field is the:
Definition
 tesla (T)
Term
 Magnetic field lines emanate from the ____ pole and enter the _____ pole of a magnet.
Definition
 North ; South
Term
 Compasses technically point to the ______ pole of the Earth.
Definition
 South
Term
 In RHR2, your thumb goes in the direction of the:
Definition
 velocity of the positive moving charge
Term
 In RHR2, your pointer finger points towards the:
Definition
 external magnetic field (B)
Term
 In RHR2, your resulting middle finger points in the direction of the:
Definition
 magnetic force
Term
 In which type of materials does the configuration of the atoms cause the magnetic fields to combine in a macroscopic way?
Definition
 ferromagnetic materials
Term
 What did English physicist Michael Faraday (1791-1867) find out?
Definition
 changing electrical current in a wire led to a changing magnetic field, and possibly an induced current in a separate conductor
Term
 Magnetic flux (ΦB) measures:
Definition
 the amount of magnetic field lines that pass through a given area
Term
 What is the equation for magnetic flux?
Definition
 ΦB = BAcosθ   (B = magnetic field) (θ = angle between area and field lines)
Term
 The SI unit for magnetic flux is the:
Definition
 weber   (1 weber = 1 Tesla x meter2)
Term
 The magnetic flux will be at a maximum when the magnetic field lines and the normal of the area are either:
Definition
 parallel or anti-parallel
Term
Definition
 ε = - ΔΦB     Δt   (induced emf = time rate of change of the magnetic flux)
Term
 Lenz' law explains the _________ in Faraday's Law
Definition
 negative sign
Term
 Lenz' Law states that
Definition
 an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic field opposes the original change in the magnetic flux
Term
 Who wrote the book A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field?
Definition
 Scottish physicist James Maxwell (1831-79)
Term
 Maxwell showed that light is a __________.
Definition
 electromagnetic wave
Term
 Maxwell was able to predict the __________.
Definition
 speed of light
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