Term
Mechanics explains _____________. 

Definition
how ordinary objects move 


Term
The ___________ is the process by which science moves forward. 

Definition


Term
Name the steps of the Scientific Method. 

Definition
1. State the Problem
2. Observe and Collect Data
3. Form a Hypothesis
4. Test the Hypothesis
5. Record/Analyze Data
6. Conclusion 


Term
The __________ is a standard method of measurement used nearly wordwide. 

Definition
International System of Units (SI)
(In French, Systeme International) 


Term
What is the basic SI unit of:
Length?
Mass?
Time? 

Definition
Length: meter
Mass: kilogram
Time: second 


Term
The USA uses the _____ system of measurement. 

Definition


Term
English System measurement for:
Length?
Mass?
Time? 

Definition
Length: foot
Mass: slug
Time: second 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition


Term

Definition


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
Scalars are quantities that only have magnitude associated with them 


Term

Definition
Vectors are quantities that need both magnitude and direction 


Term
Kinematics is the description of ______. 

Definition


Term

Definition
the distance from the origin 


Term
Displacement is a (s/v) quality that defines ________________.


Definition
vector ; the amount your position has changed over a time period 


Term
Variable for displacement 

Definition


Term
What is the absolute value of displacement? 

Definition


Term

Definition


Term
Speed is the absolute value of ________. 

Definition


Term
Formula for acceleration? 

Definition


Term
What is the first kinematics equation? 

Definition


Term
What is the second kinematics equation? 

Definition


Term
What is the third kinematics equation? 

Definition


Term
What is the fourth kinematics equation? 

Definition


Term
____________ (15641642) theorized that in the absence of air resistance, all objects fall at the same rate. 

Definition


Term
What is the acceleration due to gravity on Earth?
What is its variable? 

Definition
9.8 m/s^{2 }(32 f/s^{2})
variable g 


Term
____ is the variable that links both the x and y directions. 

Definition


Term

Definition
A projectile is any object that has motion in both the vertical and horizontal directions and falls solely under the influence of gravity while in the air. 


Term
Give examples of projectiles 

Definition
a cannonball shot from a cannon, a ball thrown horizontally from the top of a tall building 


Term
The causes of motion are called ________. 

Definition


Term
Sir Isaac Newton (16431727) wrote this book 

Definition


Term
Newton's first law states that: 

Definition
objects at rest stay at rest unless impressed upon by a force 


Term
Equation for the magnitude of the force of gravity on an object of mass 

Definition


Term
The SI unit of force is the _____. 

Definition


Term

Definition
1 newton = 1 (kg) x (m/s^{2}) 


Term
Normal force is __________ 

Definition
the contact force that arises when two objects are impressed against each other 


Term
Newton's second law states that: 

Definition


Term
Newton's third law states that: 

Definition
for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction 


Term
What is the unit of energy? 

Definition
joule
(1 joule = 1 (kg) x (m^{2}/s^{2})
(1 joule = 1 Nm) 


Term
Formula for kinetic energy 

Definition


Term
What is the formula for potential energy? 

Definition


Term
If you apply a force to an object, and it moves, then you have done _____. 

Definition


Term
What is the formula for work? 

Definition


Term
The WorkEnergy Theorem states that: 

Definition


Term
Define conservative force and give examples. 

Definition
A force that will only move energy between systems in an object
ex. gravity, spring forces, electric forces 


Term
Define NonConservative Force and give examples. 

Definition
A force that changes the total energy of an object
ex. kinetic friction, air resistance 


Term
Impulse (j) is the ________. 

Definition
amount of force imparted by an object over a time period while it's trying to change the momentum of another object 


Term
What is the formula for impulse (j)? 

Definition


Term
Momentum (p) is calculated by this equation: 

Definition


Term
Momentum takes into account the object's ____ and ___________. 

Definition
mass ; change in velocity 


Term
The ImpulseMomentum Theory states that: 

Definition
J = Δ(mv)
(amount of impulse = change in momentum) 


Term
An elastic collision is a collision in which ____________. 

Definition
momentum and energy are both conserved 


Term
In an inelastic collision, ________________________. 

Definition
momentum is conserved but energy is not conserved. 


Term
Define Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM). 

Definition
periodic motion that arises from a restoring force that attempts to restore an object back to equilibrium 


Term
Simple Harmonic Motion will result in a ________ curve. 

Definition


Term
Amplitude (A) is ___________. 

Definition
the distance from peak to equilibrium 


Term
The period of oscillation (T) is defined as _____________. 

Definition
how long it takes the object to repeat its motion (peakpeak or troughtrough) 


Term
Frequency (f) refers to how often __________. 

Definition
the object passes by a certain point, moving in the same direction 


Term
Frequency (f) is the inverse of the ______. 

Definition


Term
The unit of frequency is the ____. 

Definition


Term
Hooke's Law, which deals with the restoring force, states: 

Definition
F_{Hooke's }= (constant)x(displacement) 


Term
The negative sign in Hooke's Law points out that _____. 

Definition
the restoring force is in the opposite direction of the spring displacement 


Term
For a mass on a spring, Hooke's Law becomes: 

Definition


Term
In Hooke's Law, what is k?
What is x? 

Definition
k = spring constant (strength of spring)
x = displacement from equilibrium 


Term
The potential energy of a mass on a spring is given by the equation: 

Definition
PE_{spring }= 1/2k(Δx)^{2} 


Term
If you double the displacement of a mass on a spring, then you ______ the energy stored in the spring. 

Definition


Term
The period of a mass on a spring, in equation form, is: 

Definition


Term
The period of a mass on a spring depends on: 

Definition
the value of the mass (m)
the spring strength (k ) 


Term
The period of a pendulum depends on: 

Definition
the length of the string (L )
the acceleration due to gravity (g ) 


Term
The period of a pendulum, in equation form, is: 

Definition


Term
___________ in circular motion takes into account not only how much mass is present, but how it is distributed as well.


Definition


Term
Torque (τ ) is calculated by the formula: 

Definition
τ = (r) x (F)
(r = distance from rotation to where force is applied) 


Term

Definition
how fast an object is rotating/moving around a center 


Term
Angular momentum (L ) is a measure of: 

Definition
how hard it will be to stop something from spinning 


Term
Angular momentum (L ) is found with the equation: 

Definition


Term
The acceleration that an object has because of circular motion is called ________. 

Definition


Term
The magnitude of centripetal acceleration can be found by the equation: 

Definition


Term
For an object to be in equilibrium, the net ____ and _____ must both be zero. 

Definition


Term
The distance required for a wave to repeat its motion is known as the _______. 

Definition


Term
The wave velocity can be calculated by multiplying the ______ and ______ of the wave. 

Definition
wavelength ; frequency
(v = λf) 


Term
What is the unit of wave frequency? 

Definition


Term
What does the wave source determine about a wave? 

Definition
frequency and amplitude
(amplitude depends on the medium as well) 


Term
Wave velocity (v) depends solely on the ______. 

Definition


Term
What does wavelength (λ) depend on? 

Definition


Term
What does frequency (f ) depend on? 

Definition


Term
In a traverse wave, the displacement of the wave medium is ________ to the direction of the travel of the wave. 

Definition


Term
What is the frequency range of light that is visible to humans? 

Definition
4 x 10^{14 }Hz  7 x 10^{14 }Hz 


Term
What kind of light (in nanometers and color) can humans see? Which is easiest? 

Definition
700 nanometers (red)  400 nanometers (violet)
560 nanometers (yellowgreen) 


Term
What is the wave speed of light in a vacuum? 

Definition


Term
What does index of refraction (n) relate to? 

Definition
How much slower something travels in a given medium compared to how it moves in a vacuum 


Term
Formula for index of refraction 

Definition
n = speed on light in a vacuum = c
speed of light in a medium v 


Term
What is the index of refraction for:
water?
diamond?
prism? 

Definition
water: 1.33
diamond: 2.4
prism: 1.5 


Term
A _________ wave is one where the displacement takes place in the same direction that the wave is travelling. 

Definition


Term
What is the speed of sound in:
air?
water? 

Definition
air: 340 m/s
water: 1,100 m/s 


Term

Definition
the addition of the amplitudes of two waves, also known as wave interference 


Term
If the path length difference between 2 speakers is a whole integer multiple of the wavelength, then you will hear _________. 

Definition
constructive interference 


Term
The double slit experiment (Young's experiment) shows _____________ difference. 

Definition


Term
Wave interference due to path length difference causes you to hear ______. 

Definition
beats (fast changes from loud to soft) 


Term
The law of reflection states that 

Definition
the angle of the incident light ray equals the angle of the reflected ray (θ_{i }= θ_{r}) 


Term
When an incident ray is reflected back from a medium with a higher index of refraction (ie air reflecting from water) it will _______. 

Definition


Term
What does Snell's Law deal with? 

Definition
the angle at which a light ray will enter a medium in relation to the normal 


Term
What is the equation for Snell's Law? 

Definition
n_{1}sinθ_{1} = n_{2}sinθ_{2}
_{(n = indices of refraction) (θ = angle in initial medium)}



Term
Total Internal Reflection (TIR) can only occur if you move from _____________. 

Definition
a slow medium to a fast medium 


Term
The SI unit for electric charge (q) is: 

Definition


Term
Who performed the oil drop experiment? 

Definition
Robert Millikan (18681953) 


Term
What did Millikan's oil drop experiment demonstrate? 

Definition
that all charges are a multiple of a fundamental unit of charge 


Term
What is the charge held by a single electron (e)? 

Definition
1.602 x 10^{19} coulombs 


Term
The phenomenon of charge conservation says 

Definition
the net charge of the universe never changes 


Term
French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb (17361806) was the first person to quantify: 

Definition
the force between two or more electric charges 


Term
Coulomb's Law states that: 

Definition
F_{electric} = k_{e }q_{1}q_{2}
r^{2} 


Term
What is the electrical constant (k_{e})? 

Definition
8.99 x 10^{9 }Nm^{2}/C^{2} 


Term
What way does the electric field (E) of positive charged particle face? 

Definition


Term
Induction of charge is when atoms are: 

Definition
rearranged inside an item 


Term
When two charged particles are next to each other, not moving, they have ______ 

Definition
electric potential energy (PE_{elec}) 


Term
What is the formula for electric potential energy (PE_{elec})? 

Definition
PE_{elec} = k q_{o}q_{1}
r 


Term
What is the formula for electric potential (V )? 

Definition


Term
What is the SI unit for electric potential? 

Definition
volt (V )
(1 joule per coulomb) 


Term

Definition
an object's ability to hold a stationary charge 


Term
Capacitance is given by the formula: 

Definition
C = Q
ΔV
(Q = magnitude of charge on each plate) 


Term
Capacitance is measured in: 

Definition
farads (F)
(1 farad = 1 coloumb/volt) 


Term
A capacitor is a device designed to: 

Definition
store energy in the form of an electric field 


Term
The only thing that limits the amount of charge you can place on a parallel plate capacitor is: 

Definition
the geometry of the capacitor 


Term
For a parallel plate capacitor, capacitance can be calculated by the formula: 

Definition
C = ε_{o} A
d
(A = area of plate) (ε_{o }= permittivity of free space) 


Term
The value of the permittivity of free space (ε_{o}) is: 

Definition
8.85 x 10^{12} C^{2}/(N x m^{2}) 


Term
The energy stored in a capacitor will be given by the equation: 

Definition


Term
The amount of electric charge that passes by a specific point in a certain time period is called: 

Definition


Term
The equation for electric current is: 

Definition


Term
The SI unit for electric current is the: 

Definition
ampere (A )
(1 ampere = 1 coulomb/second) 


Term
The SI unit for resistance (R ) is the: 

Definition


Term
What is the equation for electric power? 

Definition
P = I(ΔV)
(I = electric current) 


Term
The power used by a device is measured in: 

Definition


Term

Definition


Term

Definition


Term
In "conventional" current, the current moves: 

Definition
opposite the motion of the negative charges 


Term
Voltage difference from a battery is called an: 

Definition
emf (ElectroMotive Force) 


Term
Equivalent resistance is the technique of: 

Definition
breaking complicated circuits down to the simplest circuit 


Term
The equivalent resistance for two resistors in a series is: 

Definition
the sum of the individual resistance values 


Term
Two resistors in parallel have the equivalent resistance of: 

Definition
the sum of the inverses of their individual resistance values (1 = 1 + 1)
R_{eq} R_{1} R_{2 } 


Term
What is Kirchoff's first rule of circuits? 

Definition
the junction rule (current entering = current exiting) 


Term
What is Kirchhoff's second rule of circuits an what does it state? 

Definition
the loop rule: the sum of the voltage differences across all the elements around any closed circuit must be zero 


Term
Who discovered that a magnetic current could deflect a magnetic compass needle? (discovery that electric currents create electric fields) 

Definition
Hans Christian Oersted (17771851) 


Term
In RHR1, which direction does your thumb point? 

Definition
the direction of the current flow 


Term
The magnitude of the magnetic field is given by the equation: 

Definition
B = μ_{o}I
2πr
(r = distance from wire) (μ_{o }= permeability of free space) 


Term
What is the permeability of free space (μ_{o})? 

Definition


Term
The SI unit of the magnetic field is the: 

Definition


Term
Magnetic field lines emanate from the ____ pole and enter the _____ pole of a magnet. 

Definition


Term
Compasses technically point to the ______ pole of the Earth. 

Definition


Term
In RHR2, your thumb goes in the direction of the: 

Definition
velocity of the positive moving charge 


Term
In RHR2, your pointer finger points towards the: 

Definition
external magnetic field (B) 


Term
In RHR2, your resulting middle finger points in the direction of the: 

Definition


Term
In which type of materials does the configuration of the atoms cause the magnetic fields to combine in a macroscopic way? 

Definition


Term
What did English physicist Michael Faraday (17911867) find out? 

Definition
changing electrical current in a wire led to a changing magnetic field, and possibly an induced current in a separate conductor 


Term
Magnetic flux (Φ_{B}) measures: 

Definition
the amount of magnetic field lines that pass through a given area 


Term
What is the equation for magnetic flux? 

Definition
Φ_{B} = BAcosθ
(B = magnetic field) (θ = angle between area and field lines) 


Term
The SI unit for magnetic flux is the: 

Definition
weber
(1 weber = 1 Tesla x meter^{2}) 


Term
The magnetic flux will be at a maximum when the magnetic field lines and the normal of the area are either: 

Definition
parallel or antiparallel 


Term

Definition
ε =  ΔΦ_{B}
Δt
(induced emf = time rate of change of the magnetic flux) 


Term
Lenz' law explains the _________ in Faraday's Law 

Definition


Term

Definition
an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic field opposes the original change in the magnetic flux 


Term
Who wrote the book A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field? 

Definition
Scottish physicist James Maxwell (183179) 


Term
Maxwell showed that light is a __________. 

Definition


Term
Maxwell was able to predict the __________. 

Definition

