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Science Flash cards for TEAS exam
Undergraduate 2

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Deductive Reasoning

a method whereby conclusions follow from general principles


Ex: All men are mortal. Sultan is a man. Deductive reasoning can be used to conclude that Sultan is mortal.

Inductive Reasoning

a method of arriving at general principles from specific facts.


Ex: I observed the sun setting this evening. I have observed the Sun set daily, hundreds of times in my lifetime. Inductive reasoning can be used to conclude that the Sun must set everyday.

Hierarchy of the structure of the human body


Organ systems






Four types of tissues

Epithelial tissues: skin and glandular tissues. Classified by number of cell layers and cell shape. Simple epithelial tissues are located in places where diffusion occurs. Stratified tissues serve as protection

Connective tissues: Bone, Adipose, blood vessel, cartilage

Muscle tissue: Skeletal (voluntary), Cardiac (involuntary), Smooth (involuntary).

Nervous tissue: provides structure of brain, spinal cord and nerves. Made of neurons and myelin

Cirulatory system

consists of heart, blood vessels, and blood

Supports the circulation and ddistribution of oxygen, hormones, and nutrients.

Digestive System

All the organs from the mouth to the anus. Esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum and anus.


Small intestine: Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum} absorption of nutrients.

Colon: removes water from remaining waste

Liver: produces bile that breaks down fats.

Pancreas: delivers enzymes to the small intestine that aid in digestion.

Endocrine System

controls the bodys functions by secreting hormones that travel through the blood to organs.

Pineal, pituitary, thalamus, hypothamus, thyroid, thymus, and adrenal regulate processes such as gowth and metabolism.

The pancreas, testis, and ovaries also have endocrine functions, even though they are part of the other body systems

Integumentary System
consists of skin, mucous, membranes, hair, andd nails. Protects internal tissues from injury, waterproofs the body, and helps regulate body temperature. ALso serves as barriier to pathogens.
Lymphatic system

consists of lymph nodes, lymph vessels that carry lymph, the spleen, the thymus, and the tonsils, which are made of lymphoid tissue.


Supports the immune system bby housing and transporting white blood cells to and from lymph nodes. Also transports fluid that has leaked from the cardiovascular system back to the blood vessels.

Muscular system

consists of skeletal muscles and tendons that connect muscles to bones, and ligaments that attach bones together to form joints. 


Does not include cardiac and smooth muscles

Nervous syste

consists of brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

Srves as the bodys control system.


Reproductiive system
consists of the testes, penis, ovaries, vagina, and breasts.
respiratory system

keeps the boddys cells supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide as it is released from cells.

Consists of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, andd lungs

skeletal system

provides support and protection for the body and its oorgans and supplies a framework that, when uused in conjjuction with the muscles, creates movement.

Consists of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints


Also serves as storage for minerals such as calcium and phosphorous.

Urinary system

Maintains water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium,and chloride) balance.

Maintains pH of the blood.

Removes all nitrogen-containing wastes which are by-products of the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids.

Circulatory system relationship with other organ systems
  • Hormones released from the endocrine system influence blood pressure
  • The urinary system heps regulate blood volume and pressure by adjusting urine volume
  • The nervous system controls the blood pressure, heart rate, and disstribution of blood to various parts of the body
  • In women, estrogen helps preserve vascular health
  • The intrugumentary systenm allows heat to escape by dilating superficial blood vessels.
  • Blood cells are formed in the marrow of the bones in the skeletal system. 
Digestive system relationship with other organ systems
  • Increased skeletal muscle activity increasees the motility of the gastrointestinal tract
Endocrine System relationship with other organ systems
  • The lymphatic system provides a means of transportation for some hormones
  • The muscular system provides protection for some endocrine glands
  • The nervous system controls secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland. 
Integumentary system relationship with other organs
  • The respiratory and digestive systems proviide oxygen and nuutrients to the skin to help it remain healthy.
  • Oxygen and nutrients for the skin travel through blood vessels in the cardiovascular system
  • The lymphatic system picks up excess fluid from the skin to avoid swelling.
  • The skeletal system provides shape and support.
  • Hormones from the endocrine system regulate hair growth and hydration
  • The skin serves to protect internal organs, including those in the reproductive system.
  • The muscular system generates heat that is expelled through the skin as sweat.
  • The urinary system activates vitamin D
  • The nervous system regulates the production of sweat, interprats stimuli, and adjusts the diameter of blood vessels in the skin.
Lymphatic system relationship with other organ systems
  • The urinary system helps with proper lymphatic functioning by helping to maintain proper water/ acid-base/ electrolyte balance of the blood.
  • The brain helps contrrool the immune response.
  • Acidic secretions in both the reproductive and integumentary systems prevent bacterial growth.
Muscular system relationship with other organ systems
  • The endocrine system releases hormones that unfluence muscular strength.
  • The nervous system regulates and coordinates muscle activity
  • The reproductive system encourages larger muscle size in men.
  • the bones provide levers for muscular activity.
Nervous system relationship with other organ systems
  • The endocrine system releases hormones that regulate the activity of neurons.
  • The urinary system helps dispose of metabolic wastes and maintains the correct ellectrolyte balance for proper nerve function.
Reproductive system relationship with other organ systems
  • The lymphatic system transports sex hormones.
  • the muscular system is involved in childbirth.
  • The reepiratory rate increases during pregnancy.
The skeletal system relationship with other organ systems
  • The endocrine system releases hormones that regulate the growth and release of calcium.
  • The digestive system provides nutrients necessary for the mineralizatiion of bones.
  • the urinary system activates vitamin D, which is necessary for calcium absorption into bone.
  • The muscular system helps place stress on the bones during exercise, which increases the deposit of calcium into bones.
  • The nervous system recognizes painful stimuli in the bones and joints.
  • The cardiovascular system suppliess oxygen and nutrients while removing wastes, such as lactic acid.
  • The repproductive system influences the shape of the skeletal form.
  • The integumentary system provides vitamin D necesssary for absorbing calcium into bone.
The urinary system relationship with other organ systems
  • The endocrine system helps regulate the reabsorption of waater and electrolytes in the kidneys.
  • The liver (digestive system) synthesizes urea that must be excreted by the kidneys.
8 functions of the human body
  • Adaptation: Receive, interpret, and resspond to internal and external sstimuli via the nervous system
  • Circulatiion: Transsport oxygen and other nutrients to tissues via the cardiovascular system
  • Elimination: remove metabolic wastes from the body via the renal system.
  • Locomotion: Alllow voluntary and involuntary movement of body via the musculoskeletal and neurological systems
  • Nutrition: take in and break down nutrients to be used for metabolism via the respiratory system
  • Regulation: hormonal control of body functions via the endocrine system
  • Self-duplication: Prodduction of offspring via the reproductive system.

What is the pathway of blood through the heart?

Pulmonary Circuit & Systemic Circuit


Pulmonary Circuit:

R atrium-->R ventricle-->pulmonary trunk-->

R & L pulmonary arteries-->lungs for oxygenation-->

Systemic Circuit:

L atrium-->L ventricle-->Aorta-->Body tissues

-->Veins-->Superior & Inferior Vena Cava

-->back to R atrium


Pathway of air into lungs
Nose-> trachea->Right and Left bronchial tubes (containing cilia which remove debris)-> Alveoli-> Capillaries
Nervous System
  • Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal cord
  • Peripheral nervous System:All Cranial and spinal nerves that extend beyond the brain and spinal cord
    • Autonomic Nervous System: Controls automatic body fuctions like heart beat and digestion.
      • Sympathetic nerves: FIGHT OR FLIGHT
      • Parasympathetic nerves: RESTING AND DIGESTING
    • Sensory-Somatic Nervous system: Coontrols voluntary actions. 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves and associated ganglia (collections of nerve cell bodies). 

Nerve cells of the Nervous system.

Dendrites: receive stimuli from the internal and external environment

Axon transmits messages through the synapse to the dendrites of another nueron.

Synapse: fluid filled gao between nerve cells.


An automatic response to stimuli that occurs when neurons transmit a message to the spinal cord which sends a message to the muscles to react before the message is sent to the brain.
Digestive System terms
  • Digestion: the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods
  • Enzymes: chemicals which breakdown proteins, carbohydrates, and fats into nutrients
  • Salivary amylase: enzyme from parotid salivary glands begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates
  • Stomach secretions:
    • mucus: lubrication
    • protease: enzyme for protein digestion
    • hydrochoric acid
    • intrinsic factor: increases stomach aborption of vit. B12
  • chyme: mixture of food, chemicals, and enzymes.
  • Pyloric sphincter: barrier between stomach and duodenum of small intestine.
  • Hormones of the duodenum:
    • secretin: travels to the pancreas to trigger release of bicarbonate, (which neutralizes stomach acid entering the duodenum) as well as pancreatic enzymes that further aid chemical digestion in the small intestine.
    • cholecystokinin(CCK): released from the duodenum as well and initiates bile release from the gallbladder while decreasing motility and acid production by the stomach.
  • villi: abosorbs nutrients in the small intestine. Villi and microvilli increase the surface area within the small intestine to aid nutrient absorption.
  • remaining prodducts of digestion are transferred to the colon where reabsorption of water occurs to maintain hydration and electrolyte balance.
Immune System
  • Innate defenses (nonspecific):
    • First line of defense: physical and chemical barriers of the integumentary system (skin, mucous membranes, digestive enzymes).
    • Second line of defense: 
      • Fever: kill pathogens that thrive at lower body temperatures
      • inflammation: response to irritating chemicals, heat, trauma, or infection.
      • phagocytosis: engulfing of pathogen by white blood cells
      • natural killer cells: produce perforins (pore-forming proteins) that target cancer cells andvirus cells.
      • interferons: response to viral infection and prevent replication of the virus after 7-10 days. Also activate macrophages and NK cells.
      • chemotaxis: Method by which leukocytes respond to damaged bbody tissue which is accomplished in part through cytokines.
      • cytokines: chemical messengers that are released by damaged tissues.
      • Diapedesis: the process of white blood cells squeezing through capillary slits in response to cytokines
      • Cellular Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) guiding the white blood cells to the site of damage or infection.
Adaptive responses of the Immune System

Third Line of Defense/Specific Defenses:

  • humoral/ antibody mediated: Antibodies are produced that are specific for the invading antigen. the antigen binds to B lymphocytes followed by binding with helper-T lymphocytes. This activates the B cells to produce antibodies.

What are the natural and acquired ways to obtain active immunity?

Active Immunity: Your body creates it's own antibodies

  • Natural way: Have infection-antibodies formed can last from years or entire life.
  • Acquired way:Get immunizations- often times antibodies only last years- booster required

What are the natural and acquired ways to obtain passive immunity?


Passive immunity: Recieve antibodies from someone else

  • natural way: Fetus get IgG from mother through the placenta- lasts through pregnancy until 6 months of age.
    • Child gets IgA from breast milk as long as mom breast feeds. Lasts one month after breastfeeding.
  • Acquired way: Injection of gamma globulin-lasts up to 6 months
    • If going to 3rd world country
    • If accidently get stuck by needle
    • if in military
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