# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

science10
New Terms
86
Science
04/25/2012

Term
 Kinetic molecular theroy
Definition
 Everything is made of atoms and molecules, and they are constantly in motion. ex) The Stone. [image]
Term
 Energy
Definition
 Energy is the power of doing something, and it can be converted from one to another.   Common three types of energy are thermal energy, potential energy(the possibility of having energy), and kinetic energy(movement).
Term
 Mass
Definition
 The quanity of an object or we usually say how much something "weight", but actually what we "weight" is "mass". Mass keeps constant but weight not necessary. ex) My mass is 135 lb
Term
 Volume
Definition
 The amount of space of an object contains or fills. ex) a water bottle with a volume of 500cm3
Term
 Density
Definition
 how thick a thing is, related to the thing's mass and volume.                         M÷V=D When the volume keeps constant, as the mass increase, the density increase. ex)Oil's density is smaller than water.
Term
 Temperature
Definition
 It is the measure of the average energy of the molecules of a thing(Kinetic energy), or we can say it is the degree of hotness(speed).
Term
 Measuring Temperature
Definition
 Temperature can be measure in Celsius, Fahrenheit, or Kelvin.  ex) Celsiu scale defines that boiling point of water at 100οC.
Term
 Thermal Engery
Definition
 It is the overall energy in a substance, or we can say it is the Quantity of hotness(mass & speed). ♣ The more kinetic energy a thing has, the more thermal energy it has. ex) a cup of boiling milk has the same temperature as a pot of boiling milk, but the large pot of milk has more thermal energy.
Term
 Heat
Definition
 It is the energy transferred from one thing to another due to their difference in temperature, and heat flows from hotter body to a colder body when they are together. ex) my hand touches a hot spoon and I feel warm.
Term
 Conduction
Definition
 A type of heat transfer from one thing to another through actual touching. Cause everything is in motion(KMT) :one thing has fast-moving moleculars beacse of the increasing heat, and they collide with another moleculars and transfer heat. ex) the cold spoon makes your hand feel cold.
Term
 Convention
Definition
 Type of heat transferred by the movement of fluid from one place to another.  KMT: As kinetic energy increase, things move faster and farther apart. The hot air or gas has lower density and raises while the cold one with higher density sinks ex) the uniform heating of the air in a room or water in a kettle.
Term
 Conductors&Insulators
Definition
 Conductors allow electricity or heat to travel through it, but insulators block the flow of heat. To make sure a heat transfer current, we have to use a conductor because it doesn't absorb radiant heat. ex)Conductors: metal and glass      Insulators: wood
Term
 Fluids
Definition
 Any liquids and gases, and they can flow freely, having lower density but higher kinetic energy.
Term
Definition
 Energy being transferred by waves(light, electromagnetic radiation) without any direct contact. ex) The sun emits UV rays
Term
 Heat Transfer
Definition
 The prosses of passing heat on one colder thing from a hotter thing. ex) Convection, radiation, conduction
Term
 Atmosphere
Definition
 The mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth.                    [image]
Term
 Troposphere
Definition
 ♣ Lower layer of atmoshere. As the altitude increase, the temperature drops. [image]
Term
 Stratosphere
Definition
 Located above troposhere. ♣ The Ozone layer is a part of the stratosphere
Term
 Mesosphere
Definition
 Above the stratosphere, and it is about 50km to 80km above sea level.
Term
 Thermosphere
Definition
 Above the mesosphere. ♣Due to the radiation, this layer can be extremely hot--about 1500 to 3000οC.
Term
 Exosphere
Definition
 Outler layer of atomsphere [image]
Term
 Albedo
Definition
 The amount of radiation reflected by a surface. ♣An high albedo means that object can reflect more radiation and absorb less heat, and vice versa. ex) Forest has a low albedo, so it absorbs most of the radiation, and snow has a high albedo, so it reflects most of the radiation
Term
 Negative feedback loop
Definition
 A path that continuously getting worst and worst. [image]
Term
 Weather
Definition
 The "emotion" of the atmosphere during a short period of time. It includes preciptation, air pressure, humidity, winds, and so on. ex) today's weather is sunny with a short light rain
Term
 Air presseure(atomosphere pressure)
Definition
 Air has pressure; for example, an empty plastic bottle will becomes crushed over a period of time. Basically, air pressure is the mass of air that put above on Earth's surface.               [image]
Term
 Air Mass
Definition
 It is a large body of air having nearly even conditions of temperature and humidity. They forms when the air contact with the land or sea for a long time.(so that they can receive enough temp. and water)
Term
 High Pressure&Low Pressure Systems
Definition
 High pressure forms when air mass cold over land. Low pressure forms when air mass moves over warm land and sea.
Term
 Prevailing Winds
Definition
 BC: The moist air mass from pacific Ocean blows to the coastal mountains and forms rain. Therefore only dry air blows to the interior.            [image]
Term
 Onshore Breeze
Definition
 In day time, the land is hotter than the sea. Due to convection current, the cool air sinks and replace the hot air in the land, that also brings water towards the land.   [image]
Term
 Offshore Breeze
Definition
 At the night, land is cooler and the sea is wamer. Due to convection(oppsite direction), the warm air above the sea raise and replace the cooler one on land, that causes the water moves away from the land. [image]
Term
 The Coriolis effect
Definition
 The rotation of Earth causes the changing direction of air, or things. It makes winds to the right in northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern. [image]
Term
 Global wind patterns
Definition
 Three major wind: trade, prevailing, and polar(wind from the poles). [image]
Term
 Jet Streams
Definition
 Long, narrow, high-speed air that flows eastward in a mostly horizontal direction in the stratosphere. They are nearer the equator and move faster in the summer. [image]
Term
 Fronts
Definition
 The transition area or boundary between two air mass with different density and temperature. Usually with couldiness and precipitation. [image]
Term
Definition
 Terrible, low-pressure storm, narrow, but with very rapidly rotating winds; it looks like funnel. [image]
Term
 Hurricanes
Definition
 It also called tropical cyclones--a large system of winds that form in the lower latitudes, and they are smaller but tend to be more violent.(great damage) [image]
Term
 El Nino
Definition
 It is very bad for fishing and agriculture, and it caused by an unusual weakening of the normally westward-blowing wind, which allows warm surface water to spread eastward. [image]
Term
 La Nina
Definition
 It is always related to El Nino and often follows El Nino. Very strong wind lets Pacific water move west.  [image]
Term
 Continental Drift Theroy
Definition
 German scientist Alfred Wegener posed that the continents are not used to be the present area;instead, they are drift to nowadays' place though a long period of time. (Supercontinent=panagea) [image]
Term
 Jigsaw Puzzle Fit
Definition
 A piece of edivence supports Wegener's thought--all the continents can be fit together naturally like the Jigsaw
Term
 Matching Fossils
Definition
 Another piece of edvience--similar fossils are found in different continents. ex) Ferns(fossil) could grew in cold climate; however, they are found almost every continents, and that support the "Pangea".
Term
 Matching Geological Structures and Rocks
Definition
 Some mountains ranges are found to begin on one continent and end at coast line then show up on another continents far away. Rocks are also found similar on several continent.  ex) the same type of rocks are found in Greenland and Norway.
Term
 Climatic Evidence
Definition
 Places in different continent have inverse climate. ex) India is in tropical climate zone, but it has big glaciers aound. That prove it was used to be in a colder place.
Term
 paleomagnetism
Definition
 Earth has magnetic poles(south&North) and magnetic field, and they are slowly changing over  a long time.  Scientists found out there was a pattern that rocks on the sea level appear on two sides of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
Term
 Hot Spot
Definition
 A place where melting rocks pop out to Earth`s surface. ex)Hawaiian Island is formed passes over a hot spot
Term
 Plate Tectonic Theory
Definition
 Wilson`s thought which explain the movement of Earth`s surface, supporting Wegener`s idea.
Term
 Geological Time
Definition
 The time used to describe Earth`s geologic history.It is divided into eon, era, period, and epoch.
Term
 Crust
Definition
 It is the most outside part of the Earth. It is mostly made up of a range of igneous rock types. It is about 5-70km thick.             [image]
Term
 Lithospher
Definition
 More hard, mostly made up of rocks;it is a part of upper mantle.
Term
 Asthenospher
Definition
 A part of uppermantle, under the lithosphere. It is mostly fluid, and it is hotter. KMT allows the matter moves apart, and a convection currents.  [image]
Term
 Mantle
Definition
 Beneath the crust, mostly made up magnestium and iron
Term
 Outler Core
Definition
 Below the mantle. It is liquid and made up mostly of mixture of iron and nickel.
Term
 Inner Core
Definition
 The centre of the Earth, and it is mostly made up of iron and some nickel where it`s utterly hot and extremly high dense. [image]
Term
 Mantle Convection
Definition
 One of the reason why the Earth`s surface move. The covention current in mantle(asthenosphere) and  helps move the continents.
Term
 Ridge Push
Definition
 New things at a the top of a mountain rift pushes older things aside, and the plate are move away. [image]
Term
 Subduction
Definition
 One dense plate pushes under another plate. ex) Tsunami 2004 and the Krokatau tsunami of 1883 both started at this subduction zone.
Term
 Slab Pull
Definition
 When the edge of a plate stab under another`s , it pll the rest of the plate with it. [image]
Term
 Plate Boundaries
Definition
 It is the place where two plates are meeting or touching. ex) The black thick lines are plate boundaries. [image]
Term
 Divergent plate boundaries
Definition
 It refers to two plates spreading apart(split). Itoften follows by deep earthquakes, melting rocks, and the form of rift eruption. ex) The Mid-Atlantic Ridge,separating American from Asia.
Term
 Transform plate boundaries
Definition
 It is two plate slide past each other, so it only causes shallow earthquakes and faults, along with no volcanoes and no melting rocks. ex) San Andreas Faults of Califorina in the U.S.A [image]
Term
 Faults
Definition
 The rock layer breaks down because of the movement of transform plate boundaries.
Term
 Oceanic Crust
Definition
 It is a dense but thin layer in the crust, made up of mostly basalt.
Term
 Continental Crust
Definition
 It is thicker but less density than the oceanic crust, mostly made up of lighter  rock-type--granite.
Term
 Convergent plate boundaries
Definition
 It refers to the collision of two plates, followed by earthquakes and melting rocks which leads to the form of volcanoes, making deep se trench.
Term
 Oceanic-continental plate convergence
Definition
 The denser oceanic crust pushes under the continental crust, casuing volcanoes belt. Convection causes the form of volcanoes. ex) Cascade Mountain range [image]
Term
 Volcanic belt
Definition
 Simply a long chain of volcanoes. ex) volcanic belt was formed along North America`s west coast by plate movement.
Term
 Trench
Definition
 Technically a long narrow valley in the ground beneath the sea. ex) [image]
Term
 Oceanic-oceanic plate convergenc
Definition
 Two oceanic crust collides(the denser one is under). It may causes volcano island ex) The island of Japan and Indonesia. [image]
Term
 Continental-continental plate convergence
Definition
 NO subduction because two mostly equal dense continental crusts collide. It may follows by earthquakes and forms mountains, but no melting rock(therefore no volcanoes). ex) Himalyan Mountain range between India and China.
Term
 Earthquakes
Definition
 Sudden shaking of the ground caused by the crust of the Earth. They mostly relate to tectonic plates. ex) Circum-Pacific Belt
Term
 Focus
Definition
 The start point of an earthquake inside the Earth. The energy is released at this point. [image]
Term
 Epicentre
Definition
 The point on the Earth`s suface directly above the focus. [image]
Term
 Seismic wave
Definition
 When a earthquake happens, the energy is released and that produces ``shaking``, this kind of vibrations is seismic waves. [image]
Term
 Surface waves (L-waves)
Definition
 They are the waves rolls along Earth`s suface, and they are the slowest waves. [image]
Term
 Primary waves (P-waves)
Definition
 They are types of fastest body waves that travel though almost everything, and they squeeze and stretch the ground. [image]
Term
 Secondary waves (S-waves
Definition
 Also known as type of body waves. It is the second wave after an earthquake, and it travel through only soild in a right angle direction. [image]
Term
 Seismometers
Definition
 The thing used to measure the amount of the movement of the ground.  Some can particular measure side to side motion while some can measure up and down motion.
Term
 Seismogram
Definition
 Some sort of digram that describes the time of eaethquakes, the duation of the earthquakes, and the surface area of shaking ground.
Term
 Magnitude
Definition
 It is a number used to describe the strength of an earthquake. The higher the number is, the more terrible the earthquake is.
Term
 Composite volcanoes
Definition
 Large cone-shaped mountains. The Lava it erupts is thicker and contains numeral gases and rocks. CURRENT AT CONVERGENT(SUBDUCTION) BOUNDARIES. ex) Mr.ST Helen`s [image]
Term
 Shield volcanoes
Definition
 Mostly world largest valcanoes, and they are not current at boundaries but above HOT SPOT.  It erupts thinner lava so they are not very steep. ex) Hawaii Island [image]
Term
 Rift eruption
Definition
 It Current at DIVERGENT boundaries, and they are comparatively ``friendly``.  ex) Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, between North American Plate and Eurasian Plate.
Term
 Pillow Lava
Definition
 Varities viscosity and it forms under water. They are smooth and pillow-shaped.
Term
 A`a
Definition
 Having high viscosity, and it move slowly, not as hot as Pahoehoe. ex)the coastal plain of KÄ«lauea in Hawaii, United States
Term
 Pahoehoe
Definition
 Has Low viscosity, but moves more quickly flows widely and it is very hot. ex)Pahoehoe from Hawaii [image]
Term
 Volcaic Island arc
Definition
 Long chain of volcanic island. ex) The islands of Japan
Supporting users have an ad free experience!