# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Science of Human Communication
Notes - Pages 1 and 2 of Study Guide
37
Science
12/14/2008

Term
 How is force defined? What is the unit of force?
Definition
 -Force is defined as:Force over area (otherwise known as pressure) -The unit of force is:dyne/cm2
Term
 What is the range of absolute pressures we can hear?
Definition
 0.0002 dynes/cm2 - pressure of the softest sound we can hear (detect) 200 dynes/cm2 - pressure of the most intense sound we can barely tolerate
Term
 What is dynamic range?In terms of absolute pressure and dbSPL?
Definition
 The dynamic range is from 0 dB SPL to 120 dB SPL. It is the smallest pressure detectable to the largest pressure tolerate or from decibel just detected to decibels barely tolerated
Term
 Why do we convert absolute pressures onto a logarithmic scale? What is the scale we use?    Key formula: dB SPL = 20 * log10 (PressureSOI/ PressureRef)
Definition
 We translate the absolute pressure to a logarithmic scale which is one of ratios where the db I relative to an arbitrary reference level, easier to manage.
Term
 What does 0 dB SPL mean?
Definition
 Means that pressure of sound of interest and pressure of reference are the same, or the sound is at the bottom of what people can hear
Term
 How is it possible to get a negative dB SPL value?
Definition
 A negative dBSPL means that the pressure of sound of interest is SMALLER than the reference pressure, less than .0002 dynes/cm2
Term
 What happens as you double the pressure (db SPL) of a sound?
Definition
 When doubling the pressure of the sound you will increase the dB SPL by 6. So if you are doubling a 40 dB SPL than you have increase the db SPL to 46 dB SPL.
Term
 (Speech Production System) Names the places of articulation  (See diagram from class notes)
Definition
 1. Labial2. Dental3. Alveolar4 & 5 -  Palatal6. Velar7. Pharyngeal8. Glottal
Term
 What are the manners of articulation?
Definition
 -stop/plosive-frictative-affricative-nasal-approximate
Term
 What does it mean that speech is an overlaid function?
Definition
 Biological function: primary Non-biological/communicative function: secondary
Term
 Know the biological and non-biological functions of each of the speech production systems.Identify if a given structure is part of articulatory/resonating; laryngeal or respiratory systems. (Identify Respiration, Phonation, and Articulator Response)
Definition
 Respiration- Biological- Breathing gas exchange Non Bio- Provide air, Power supplyPhonation-sound generator, periodic soundsArticulator Response- sound modifier, aperiodic and periodic sound, biological function chewing (mastraication) non biological function-  modify glottal sound source- breaking air stream into sounds of speech
Term
 What structures comprise the Upper respiratory tract (URT)?
Definition
 Nasal cavity, Oral cavity, Larynx, Pharynx
Term
 What structures comprise the lower respiratory tract?  (LRT)
Definition
 Trachea, Bronchial Tubes, Alveoli, Lungs
Term
 What is the role of the URT in respiration?
Definition
 Filters, warms, and humidifies
Term
 What is the role of the LRT in respiration?
Definition
 Inhalation and Exhalation
Term
 What and where is the diaphragm muscle?
Definition
 During speech the diaphragm relaxes and the contraction of the abdominal muscles controls the extent to which the contents of the abdominal muscles controls the extent to which the contents of the abdomen are pressed up against the diaghragm so that they squeeze air out of the lungs-    Flat sheer of muscle between abdomen and chest cavity, acts as a pump
Term
 What is Boyle’s law (HINT: how are pressure and volume related holding temperature constant?)
Definition
 If you increase the pressure, you will decrease volume. If you decrease pressure, you will increase volume.Inverse relationship Boyle's Law states that at constant temperature the pressure p of the gas times its volume V will remain constant:p V = constant
Term
 How does Boyle's law come to play a role in respiration?
Definition
 Diaphram returns to resting position and the volume of the chest cavity decreases.  Equalizing pressure in exhalation.
Term
 Exhalation- Diaphragm returns to ____ position
Definition
 resting
Term
 During exhalation, what happens to the diaphragm?
Definition
 Volume of chest cavity decreases-    Pressure inside lungs increases relative to atmospheric pressure-    Air pushed at to equalize pressure
Term
 What makes the respiratory system "move"?
Definition
 Active vs. passive forces-    Passive force (eq gravity, rib) muscles relax without active contraction-    Diff forces at work during quiet v. speech brathing
Term
 Do we speak on an exhale in an inhale?
Definition
 Exhale
Term
 What five major cartilages make-up the larynx (be able to label them as well).
Definition
 -Thyroid- aka the adams apple, by pulling     forward you can lengthen the vocal cords    -Cricoid- ring like larynx foudation    -Epiglottis- helps deflect food     -Pair of Arytenoids- is at the back and is where the vocal folds are attached to     -Hyoid Bone
Term
 What & where are the vocal folds? What is the glottis?
Definition
 -    The glottis is the space between the focal folds and can be controlled by moving artanoids-    The vocal folds are muscles not cords, place horizontally within the larynx
Term
 What is vital capacity?
Definition
 Vital capacity is the amount of air you can take in, or take out
Term
 What percentage of quiet speech is inhalation, what percentage of qs is exhalation? What percentage of loud speech in inhalation/exhalation
Definition
 Quiet speech: 10% inhalation, 90% exhalation  Loud speed: 50% inhalation, 50% exhalation
Term
 What is the Bernoulli principle?
Definition
 As velocity increases, pressure decreases
Term
 Describe the steps involved in a single cycle of vocal fold vibration
Definition
 When we talk or create vocal vibration the epiglottis and the false vocal cords remain open. VF close (Adduction) creating Medial Compresion . Because the VF are closed pressure builds up beneath them (Subglottal pressure), when pressure is finally release it  plows the vocal folds open (Abduction) the elasticity of the FV pulls them back together to their close position and the cycle repeats
Term
 What is the acoustic nature of the glottal sound that comes from the larynx?
Definition
 Harmonic structure and periodic sound
Term
 Two primary modifications can be made to the sound coming from the larynx:
Definition
 1. Pitch 2. Loudness
Term
 What is changing physiologically when we make changes to pitch and loudness (e.g. think abouthow cricothyroid muscle involved in pitch changes and how amount of medial compression &subglottal pressure involved in loudness changes).
Definition
 Pitch- We change the length and mass of the vocal folds- to change the length of the vocal cords the thyroid cartilage can be pulled forward. VF are very tense due to tension caused by the cricothyroid muscle. Loudness- How tight the vocal cords are, resulting in how much air pressure is needed to separate them. Lower air pressure helps draw the vocal cords back to their starting positions and consequently, increases their speed of return. Greater air pressure from the lungs enhances this effect. Increased subglottal air pressure, increased medial compression (vf tighten up). Also loud speech causes VF to stay together longer and blow apart more widely
Term
 Which resonse formula do we use when calculating the resonancy of vocal folds? (Fixed string or open-close tube?)
Definition
 Fixed string
Term
 Within an individual? As tension increases, how does F0 change?As mass decreases, how does F0 change?As vocal folds relax, how does F0 change?
Definition
 Increases Decreases Decreases
Term
 Between an individual How does F0 change as length of vocal folds increase?
Definition
 With a longer vocal folds the FO will decrease ( think of adults vs. kids or Men vs. Women)
Term
 What is the average frequency for:-males-females-kids ?
Definition
 “Average” F0: For males ~ 130 Hz For Females ~ 250 Hz For Kids > 300 Hz
Term
 How does the status of vocal folds change whenproducing loud as opposed to quieter speech (e.g. time VF open; closed). (Using the glottal waveform, see lecture outline)
Definition
 Loud speech:        Opening time decreases - L        Closing time decreases - L        Closed time increases -     (builds up subglottal air pressure)    Amplitude of vibration (area between glottis) increases Soft:  sound takes longer time to open, longer time to close, amplitude of vibration decreases
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