# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Science and Theory Term 1 - 2016 First Set
Fanshawe College - Photography- Level 1 Science and Theory
50
Photography
Not Applicable
12/19/2016

Term
 What Does Photography Mean?
Definition
 - “photos” + “graphos” from the Greek = “light writing” -  Writing with light  - Drawing with light   - Painting with light
Term
 What is a Correct Exposure?
Definition
 the minimum amount of light required to record adequate shadow and highlight detail should (normally) resemble the brightness of the original scene
Term
 What is Exposure?
Definition
 Exposure is the amount of light collected by the film or digital sensor in your camera during a single picture.
Term
 What Does a Light Meter Do?
Definition
 A light meter measures how much light there is.   It tells us how we should set our camera to ensure that the correct   amount of light strikes the sensor
Term
 What Does The Light Meter Tell Us?
Definition
 Depending on the Mode it will tell us -    ISO Mode - What our shutter speed needs to be                        (how long the aperture needs to be open for)                                           and how large the aperture needs to be (f-stop) Aperture Mode - What our shutter speed needs to                             be (how long the aperture needs to be open for)                  and what our ISO needs to be                (the amount of light to let in) Shutter Speed Mode - What our ISO needs to be                                      (the amount of light to let in)                                   and what our aperture needs           to be (f-stop)
Term
 What are the Two Types of Light Meters?
Definition
 Reflected and Incident
Term
 How Does a Light Meter Work For Incident Light Metering?
Definition
 -measures the strength of the light falling on the subject -the meter is “aimed” towards the camera or light source
Term
 How Does a Light Meter Work For Reflected Light Metering?
Definition
 -light is metered as it bounces off the subject -the meter is “aimed” towards the subject.
Term
 Is Your Camera's Light Meter Reflected or Incident?
Definition
 Reflected
Term
 How Much Light Does a Typical Scene Reflect?
Definition
 18% Your camera is calibrated to this. A typical grey card.
Term
 What is 18% Middle Grey?
Definition
 It is the amount of grey reflected back when light falls on it's surface. Represents the middle between the blackest recordable black and the whitest recordable white. Approximately 3.5 stops from black and 3.5 stops from white.
Term
 How Do You Read An Internal Light Meter?
Definition
 Proper exposure is lining up the bar to hightlight under the reversed triangle. It show’s how many stops you can be over or under exposed. It’s a good scale to use, because when you want to over ride your light meter’s measurements by a certain amount of light, you know how much you can dial in or out. [image]
Term
 What are the Criteria for "Good" Exposure?
Definition
 1. Sensor “Speed” or sensitivity - ISO (ASA/DIN) 2. Aperture - f/stop 3. Time - shutter speed
Term
 What is ISO?
Definition
 How sensitive to light your film or sensor is.
Term
 What is Aperture (F-Stops)?
Definition
 Opening that allows how much light gets into your camera and onto your film/sensor.
Term
 What is Shutter Speed?
Definition
 Controls the time, how long the aperture will stay open to allow light in.
Term
 What do ISO, Shutter Speed and Aperture Control/Affect in Exposure?
Definition
 ISO - Grain Aperture - DoF (Depth of Field) Shutter Speed - Blur   [image]
Term
 What is the ISO Scale?
Definition
 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, 6400, 12800, 25600…
Term
 What Do Higher ISO Numbers Mean?
Definition
 The higher the ISO setting (number), the MORE sensitive the image sensor or film are to light. The “less” light is needed for an exposure. Higher ISO settings are generally used in darker situations to get faster shutter speeds (for example an indoor sports event when you want to freeze the action in lower light)
Term
 How Do Higher ISO Numbers Affect An Image?
Definition
 Depending on how “fast” of an ISO you are using, meaning a higher number, this will affect the final quality of your image. A higher ISO, ie: ISO 3200, will have larger visible “noise” or “grain”.
Term
 What is a Stop?
Definition
 It’s a photographers term to describe the amount of light ... or the exposure value - ISO 100 will record 1 stop less light than ISO 200     - a shutter speed of 1/125s will record 1 stop more light than 1/250s     - an aperture of f5.6 will record one stop less light than f4
Term
 How Many Clicks Between ISO Stops?
Definition
 3
Term
 What is the Aperture in Your Camera?
Definition
 An iris composed of thin, sliding, interlocking metal plates. As you close the iris down to a smaller aperture, it stops more light from passing through to the image sensor. The size of the aperture is measured in stops or f-stops.
Term
 What Does A Higer F-Stop Number Mean?
Definition
 The higher the f-stop rating, the smaller the opening and the more light your aperture is “stopping”.
Term
 What Does A Smaller F-Stop Number Mean?
Definition
 The smaller the number (larger the opening) the more light will illuminate your scene.
Term
 Compare f8 to f4...
Definition
 A lens set on f8 has a smaller aperture than a lens set on f4. In other words, f8 stops more light than f4.
Term
 F-Stop Chart
Definition
 1, 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, 45, 64
Term
 What is the Common Factor Between F-Stops?
Definition
 The common factor is the root of 2 between each stop (approx. 1.4) F-Stops double at every other full stop in either direction
Term
 What is a Histogram?
Definition
 A histogram displays all the tones in an image. It can show if an image has clipped highlights or shadows.
Term
 What Does a Well Exposed Histogram Look Like?
Definition
 The light range often looks like a mountain peak. The exposure is correct as neither the shadows nor highlights are clipped.   [image]
Term
 What Does an Underexposed Histogram Look Like?
Definition
 The majority of the peaks of the histogram are on the left (shadows) side. This means there is lost data that can not be retrieved.    [image]
Term
 What Does an Overexposed Histogram Look Like?
Definition
 The majority of the peaks are on the right side (highlights) of the histogram. This means there are clipped highlights and lost data.   [image]
Term
 What is Reciprocity?
Definition
 The relationship between the intensity of the light and duration of the exposure that result in identical exposure. In other words, when an adjustment is made in your exposure settings, the same exposure can be achieved by changing one of the other exposure settings the opposite amount... i.e. f-8 @ 1/30th is the same as f-5.6 @ 1/60th [image]
Term
 ISO 100, f-16 @ 1/60th is the same as?
Definition
 ISO 400, f-16 @ 1/250th [image]
Term
 What are the F-#'s (Numbers)?
Definition
 Defined as the ratio of focal length to   lens diameter. f# (or stop) = F(lens focal length)/D(lens diameter)   f8 always passes the same volume of light to the sensor no matter what lens or camera format.
Term
 Small Number in F-Stops Means?
Definition
 Bigger Hole, Wider Aperture, More Light
Term
 Large Number in F-Stop Means?
Definition
 Small Hole, Narrow Aperture, Less Light
Term
 What Does DoF Stand For?
Definition
 Depth Of Field
Term
 What is Depth of Field?
Definition
 Depth of field is the part of a scene that appears acceptably sharp in a photograph. [image]
Term
 What is the Sunny F16 Rule?
Definition
 On a bright sunny day, with camera aperture set to f16, the shutter speed   will be 1 over the ISO value I.E. f/16, ISO 200, 1/250 (250 is the closest)
Term
 What is Focal Length?
Definition
 The distance from the lens to the focal plane when the lens is focused on infinity. [image]
Term
 What is the Focal Plane?
Definition
 It is where your sensor is located.   [image]
Term
 What Does Focusing on Infinity Mean?
Definition
 It means your lens is focused so an infinitely-distant object would be sharp. When an object is infinitely far away, the rays of light coming from it are, in theory, parallel.  A lens set at infinity focus is set so that theoretical object would be in focus. [image]
Term
 What is Angle of View?
Definition
 The angle subtended at the lens by the diagonal of the camera format when focused at   infinity. (Subtend is the point where 2 lines meet to form an angle) [image]
Term
 What is Light?
Definition
 The name given to electromagnetic radiation that can evoke a human visual response.
Term
 What is the Visible Spectrum of Light?
Definition
 Visible wavelengths range from approx. 400nm(violet) to 700nm(red/infrared) [image]
Term
 What is Polarized Light?
Definition
 When the light waves are vibrating along a single plane. How they look after entering a polarizing filter.  [image]
Term
 What is Unpolarized Light?
Definition
 Random orientations of light. Not just vibrating up and down, but also left to right, and everything in   between.
Term
 How Can Light Become Polarized?
Definition
 1. A clear blue sky and you camera is aimed at a 90 degree angle to the sun.   2. Reflective surfaces that are non-metallic such as water, glass and plastic.  (Maximum effect when approximately 35 degrees to the glass)   3. Natural Crystals such as tourmaline.
Term
 What Are 2 Types of Polarizing Filters?
Definition
 Linear and Circular
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