Term
State Kirchhoff’s First Law 

Definition
The algebraic sum of the currents at the junction of a circuit is zero. (sum of currents into the junction = sum of currents out of junction) 


Term
State Kirchhoff’s Second Law 

Definition
The algebraic sum of the potential differences in a circuit is equal to the algebraic sum of the product of the resistance and current for each component 


Term

Definition
The electromotive force of a source of electrical energy is the energy converted into electrical energy (e.g. from chemical in a cell) when unit charge (in other words 1 coulomb) passes through it – total electrical energy per coulomb produced by a power supply when a current flows through it.
This is found practically by connecting a voltmeter across the terminals in open circuit (i.e. when no other component is drawing current). 


Term
What is terminal voltage? 

Definition
Terminal voltage is the external potential difference of a circuit. It is the electrical energy per coulomb transferred into other forms (usually heat) when a current passes through the components.
This is found practically by connecting a voltmeter across the terminals of the power supply when it is powering a circuit. 


Term
What is internal resistance? symbol ‘r’ 

Definition
The internal resistance of a cell is the resistance offered by the chemicals in the cell itself. As a current passes through it some of the energy from the cell is converted to heat because of the internal resistance. Also some of the EMF of the cell is used to drive the current through the cell itself.
This voltage is sometimes termed ‘lost volts’. It is the difference between the EMF and terminal voltage. 


Term

Definition
The resistance of a component is the ratio of the potential difference across its ends and the current passing through it. It is measured in ohms (symbol a capital omega).
R = V/I 


Term
What is the equation for resistivity? 

Definition
'ro' = AR/l
where: r = resistivity (ohm m) A = cross sectional area (m^{2}) R = resistance (okm) l = length (m) 


Term
Give the equation for density (careful with the symbols!) 

Definition


Term
Give two equations for power. Then using V=IR get some useful derivations from them! 

Definition
P = IV
E = Pt
P = I (IR) = I^{2}R
P = V/R x V = V^{2}/R
E = (IV)t 


Term
What is the equation that defines current? 

Definition
I = delta Q/ delta t Current is the rate at which charge flows. 


Term
Quote the equation that defines voltage and use it to define EMF and potential difference of a circuit. 

Definition
V = W/Q
where:
W = energy transferred
Q = charge
V = voltage
(Think of the equation as W = QV – for an electron volt of energy Q becomes ‘e’ the charge on an electron. So for W to be a full joule Q is 1 coulomb… you can then rearrange it…)
The electromotive force of a source of electrical energy is the energy converted into electrical energy (e.g. from chemical in a cell) when unit charge (in other words 1 coulomb) passes through it – total electrical energy per coulomb produced by a power supply when a current flows through it. This is found practically by connecting a voltmeter across the terminals in open circuit (i.e. when no other component is drawing current).
The external potential difference of a circuit is the electrical energy per coulomb transferred into other forms (usually heat) when a current passes through the components. This is found practically by connecting a voltmeter across the terminals of the power supply when it is powering a circuit. 


Term

Definition
Ohm’s Law states that the current flowing through an ohmic conductor(e.g. a wire) is proportional to the potential difference across its ends, providing the temperature remains constant 


Term

Definition
The extension produced in a wire or spring is directly proportional to the applied force providing the limit of proportionality has not been exceeded. This limit is usually reached at about the same time as the elastic limit. 


Term

Definition
Tensile stress is the ratio of the stretching force to the cross sectional area of a wire that is being stretched.
stress = F/A  unit = N/m^{2} 


Term

Definition
Tensile strain is the ratio of the extension (change in length) produced when a wire is stretched to the original length of the wire when no stretching force has been applied to it – strain = delta l/l (no unit) 


Term

Definition
The Young Modulus is the ratio of the tensile stress to the tensile strain.
E = (F/A)/( delta l/l) = (Fl)/(A delta l)  unit = N/m^{2} 

