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A moment of a force (or torque) 

Definition
A moment of a force (or torque) is the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance of the line of action of the force from the axis 


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Definition
The torque due to a couple is the product of one of forces and the separation between them. 


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Definition
The centre of gravity of a body is the point through which its weight acts. Were it to be supported at that point there would be no net gravitational moment acting on the body. 


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Definition
The centre of mass of a body is the point through which its mass acts. In the absence of a pivot a body acts as if it were pivoted at its centre of mass. 


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Definition
Is the temperature at which the pressure and volume of an ideal gas would be zero. All vibrational motion of the particles would cease. It is 0K (273^{o}C) 


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Definition
The principle of moments states that for a body to be in equilibrium, the sum of the clockwise moments about any axis is equal to the sum of the anticlockwise moments about that same axis. 


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Newton’s First Law of Motion 

Definition
Every body continues in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force. 


Term
Newton’s Second Law of Motion 

Definition
The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the force acting upon it and takes place in the direction of the force. 


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Newton’s Third Law of Motion 

Definition
Whenever a body A exerts a force on a body B, body B exerts a force of equal magnitude but opposite direction on body A. 


Term
Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum 

Definition
The Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum states that the total linear momentum of a system of interacting bodies, on which no external forces are acting, remains constant. 


Term

Definition
Specific heat capacity of a substance is the heat energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of that substance by one degree Kelvin. 


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specific latent heat of fusion 

Definition
The specific latent heat of fusion of a substance is the energy required to change the state of one kilogram of the substance in its solid state to the liquid state without raising its temperature above its melting point. 


Term
specific latent heat of vaporization 

Definition
The specific latent heat of vaporization of a substance is the energy required to change the state of one kilogram of the substance in its liquid state to the gaseous state without raising its temperature above its boiling point. 


Term
What is the equation of state? 

Definition
pV = nRT
where: p = pressure V = volume n = number of moles R = molar gas constant T = absolute temperature (measured in Kelvin – make sure you can convert from Celsius to Kelvin and vice versa!)) 


Term
What is the equation for kinetic energy? 

Definition


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What is the equation for change in gravitational potential energy? 

Definition


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What conditions must be met for you to apply Newton’s equations of motion to a body? 

Definition
The body must be under constant acceleration conditions (e.g. falling under gravity). 


Term
What is the equation for momentum? 

Definition
p = mv
where:
p = momentum (Ns) m = mass (kg) v = velocity (m/s) 

