# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Robert Brame Class test 2 from notes and powerpoint slides
Notes for test 2 and powerpoint slides
55
Criminal Justice
04/10/2012

Term
 nominal scale variables do what?
Definition
 show the differences in kind rather than the differences in degree.
Term
 do nominal order variables have logical order or arrangement?
Definition
 no
Term
 how are nominal variable different than all other kinds of variables?
Definition
 they show categorical differences and have no logical order or arrangement.
Term
 what is the best way to understand nominal-scale variation?
Definition
 to examine a frequency distribution
Term
 true or false: Ordinal scale variables reﬂect qualitative but ordered variation
Definition
 true
Term
 a Likert-type attitude scale is an example of an:
Definition
 ordinal variable
Term
 percentile-based statistics such as the median and the interquartile range are considerd:
Definition
 ordinal variables
Term
 True / False the nominal level of centeral tendency (mode) cannot be used with ordinal variables
Definition
 false they can be used with ordinal variables
Term
 quanitative variables
Definition
 Primarily interested in variables that are measured on a continuous scale and that also have a true zero value (ratio variables).
Term
 in which type of variable is mean and median used but not the mode?
Definition
 quantitative variables
Term
 what are the appropriate measures of dispersion for quantitative variables?
Definition
 standard deviation, median absolute deviation, and coefﬁcient of variation.
Term
 The list of cases from which we select the sample is called the
Definition
 sampling frame
Term
 each unit in the sampling frame has a known, non-zero probability of being selected for the sample is called:
Definition
 probability sampling
Term
 what are the variations of simple random sampling?
Definition
 Variations: systematic sampling, with/without-replacement sampling.
Term
 complex random sampling is another type of
Definition
 probablility sampling
Term
 what are the 3 kinds of complex random sampling
Definition
 Stratiﬁed random sampling.Cluster samples.Two- or multi-stage samples
Term
 complex random sampling are usually used for sampling what kind of populations? (size)
Definition
 very large
Term
 Many samples used in criminology and criminal justice research are:
Definition
 non-probability samples
Term
 what is purposive sampling AKA?
Definition
 judgement sampling
Term
 when cases enrolled in the study are not truly representative of the population one wants to study.
Definition
 enrollment bias
Term
 in longitudinal studies where some cases stay in the study and some drop out over time
Definition
 attrition bias
Term
 when our unit of analysis is an aggregate (like a county), it does not follow that speciﬁc individuals behave in ways that are consistent with what happens in the aggregate.
Definition
 ecological fallacy
Term
 when our unit of analysis is an individual, it does not follow that our conclusions would generalize to aggregate levels (like neighborhoods, cities, counties, or states).
Definition
 reductionist fallacy
Term
 causal valiadity occurs when there is no _________.
Definition
 confounding variable
Term
 what do true experiments have?
Definition
 treatment to one of two randomly assigned groups and a post test to assess if the treatment had any affect.
Term
 study that looked at the strength of the police force using washington DC as a guinea pig with the terror alert status? what did their results show.
Definition
 Klick and Tabarrok, showed a drop in the crime rate when the police strength went up, mostly in the area of the National Mall, the area of the most police strength.
Term
 Klick and Tabarrok study was experimental or non-experimental?
Definition
 Non-expiremental
Term
 who did the study that lowered the security of prisners because of the cost and then assesed the recidivism rates? was it random?
Definition
 Gaes and Camp (2009); Prison Conditions and Recidivismyes it was random
Term
 what did the study by Gaes and Camp show?
Definition
 lowering security lowers 7 yr recidivism rates by 11%
Term
 examples of Regression Discontinuity Design
Definition
 Prison sentences, sentencing guidelines, and recidivism
Term
 which researchers looked at the Federal inmate classiﬁcation system and looked at differences between minimum and medium/maximum security levels.
Definition
 Chen and Shapiro (2007)
Term
 which researchers had the question: "Key Question: does this difference reﬂect the causal effect of residential placement vs. community placement?" and had Utah data of: 13,197 juvenile offenders born between 1970 and 1974.who were adjudicated delinquent in a Utah juvenile court prior to age 16 for criminal acts (no status offenses).
Definition
 Manski and Nagin (1998)
Term
 what was finding of Manski and Nangin's 1998 study
Definition
 77% of the residential placemt group failed while only 59% of the community placement group failed.
Term
 what are 4 examples of quasi-experiments?
Definition
 Naturally occurring experiments (i.e., Washington DC Terror Alert Level Study)., Regression discontinuity designs (i.e., harsh prison conditions and recidivism).,Matching, and Correlational studies
Term
 which of the quasi-experiment is the weakest?
Definition
 Correlational studies
Term
 individual characteristics having nothing to do with culpability or blameworthiness play an important role in determining who is “labeled” and who is not.
Definition
 status characteristics hypotheis
Term
 individuals who are ofﬁcially labeled as offenders will commit new crimes at higher rates than they would have without the label.
Definition
 Deviance Ampliﬁcation Hypothesis:
Term
 Farrington's 1977 article tested the -__________.
Definition
 Deviance Amplification Hypothesis
Term
 who did a matching design of 20 teenagers in Flint Michigan?
Definition
 Gold (1970)
Term
 what is an assumption about the matching design?
Definition
 that the people matched together are comparable.
Term
 Farrington characterizes Gold's 1970 ﬁnding as supportive of the deviance ampliﬁcation hypothesis. True/False?
Definition
 True
Term
 Key limitations of Gold’s study were:
Definition
 small sample size, problem with all measures being collected at the same time, and strong assumptions about comparability of groups without any good way to test those assumptions.
Term
 who did the study of Labeling theory on boys btwn 14 and 18. what was the findings?
Definition
 Farrington,These 98 “publicly labeled” boys had signiﬁcantly higher self-reported delinquency scores at age 18 (Average = 69.9) in comparison to the 285 “non-labeled” boys (Average = 43.2).
Term
 repeated labeling
Definition
 those who are labeled more than once will do worse than those who are labeled just one time.
Term
 what were the conclusions of the repeated labeling study?
Definition
 Individuals who have been repeatedly sanctioned do worse than individuals who have been sanctioned only once.
Term
 Judicial waiver
Definition
 Juvenile court judge uses discretion to decide whether to waive case to adult court.
Term
 Legislative waiver
Definition
 abolishes juvenile court jurisdiction over offenders brought to court by prosecutors under the law.
Term
 an example of a legislative wavier
Definition
 New York JO Law
Term
 possible threats to the JO law
Definition
 History: possibility that other events occurred at about the same as the intervention and the other events actually caused a change.Instrumentation: possibility that the relationship between arrests and crimes changed when the law was introduced.
Term
 conclusion of the JO law
Definition
 The researchers conclude that the JO Law had no signiﬁcant effect on juvenile arrests for serious crimes.
Term
 maturation example
Definition
 delinquency levels declined after the program but they might have declined anyway - simply because the participants were getting older
Term
 biggest threat with the study is _______-
Definition
 contingency questions
Term
 when a participant's scores might have returned to a more normal level without intervention.
Definition
 statistical regression
Term
 Basic problem of nonequivalent control groups
Definition
 selection bias
Term
 Best way to address the issue of selection bias is through use of _________.
Definition
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