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reynolds 2nd midterm
poli sci
Political Studies
Undergraduate 1

Additional Political Studies Flashcards




South Africa

·        the most economically developed part of Africa; best infrastructure and abundant national resources

·        but--race conflict, racial conflict, land conflict

·        13 years of democracy

·        continuing unemployment, violence, and crime

·        bordered by Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique

·        very diverse

o       black= 76%

o       white=13%

o       couloured=9%-- politically correct term; descendants of mixed race; speak Afrikaans

o       asian=3%

·        language

o       Zulu (22%)

o       Xhosa (18%)

o       Afrikaans (16%)- more non-whites speak this than whites

o       Tswana (11%)

o       North Sotho (9%)

o       English (8%)

o       South Sotho (6%)

o       Shangaan (4%)

o       Others (6%)

·        Mandela= a xhosa

African Nationalist Party (ANC)

o       Has tried to be a multiethnic powerbase that all South Africans can be a part of

o       The rainbow party

o       Banned from 1960-1994- gave rise to Embeki and Mandela – came to power in 1994

o       Established in 1912 by some educated, literary black south African thinkers who wanted some way of challenging colonial rule

§         Wanted universal franchise and basic rights

§         Much more of a pamphleting society; didn’t have a military wing

§         By the 1920s and 30s they adopted a strategy of non-violent civil disobedience

o       Domestic passport—allowed to live in certain areas, and if you were found in a different part of town you would be arrested

o       Defiance campaign in the 1950s

o       Formed a congress of like-minded progressive groups- ANC + SACTU, SAIC, SACPO, SACOD (congress of democrats- whites)à Freedom Charter  (1956)

§         Blueprint for south African constitution today

§         Called for essential rights—everyone should have the right to housing and education be able to practice religion as they wish, vote, etc.

§         Everyone who signed the Freedom Charter was arrested and put on trial for treason—the punishment was murder

·        However, they were all acquitted, but realized they had to go underground 

o       1960- peaceful nonviolent demonstration- ANC protesting against passbooks—police shot many

§         after this, the government banned all of these rebel organizations—showing their symbols could put you in jail

o       Everyone was forced underground

§         Formed a military wing – called “spirit of the nation”

·        Wanted to attack infrastructure, try to disrupt communications- just trying to destabilize the state; not aimed at people

·        First chief of staff=Nelson Mandela

o       The government identified him as a leading troublemaker

o       1963- he was leaving KwaZula Natal and going up to Johannesburg—Mandela was driving a white person in the back of his car, like he was the chauffeur – got arrested and put in jail for numerous charges—life imprisonment

§         Really struggled in the 1960s and 70s

·        Tried to get international support

·        Period of economic boycotts (Americans not investing)

§         1980s- large, mass organizations being set up internallyà not a political party; their goal was to make the country ungovernableà government begins to rethink their strategy

§         Agreement to hold electionsà 1994 elections

Why did this strong white government negotiate
Nationalist Party (NP)

o       Founded in 1910s

o       Afrikaaner Nationalism

o       Didn’t want to be suppressed by English settlers who were trying to take over the state

o       Established themselves on white supremacy

o       Believed that separation of races was the civilized way to deal with diversity

o       D. F. Malan= leader of the secret society “brotherhood”- leading Afrikaaner thinkers in the political sphere; they gave the NP the support and economic funding it needed to succeed

§         1948- Malan’s party (NP) came into power through skillful campaigning- winning only 42% of the vote but 52% of the seats

§         dominated white politics for the entire Apartheid period until 1994


o       Party of the Zulus

o       Eastern Area

o       Initially set up as an alliance with the ANC

o       Eventually got closer and closer to NP as they helped him knock out his enemies and gave him favors

o       NP set up a group to encourage inter-black fighting (would instigate Zulus to fight Xhosas,etc)

o       Apartheid means separation in Afrikaans

Consociational System
Nelson Mandela
Tricameral Parliament
Truth and
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