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Revolutionary War Test Part 1 (people)
Ms Kappel's Revolutionary War test in flashcards! This is part 1 (the people)
Social Studies
8th Grade

Additional Social Studies Flashcards




George Washington
  • from Virginia
  • commanding general of the Continental Army
  • strategy: avoid crushing defeat, lots of surrendering
  • greatly loved by troops
  • retreated to New Jersey after defeat at New York late 1777
  • wintered at Valley Forge with his men 1777-1778
Barry St. Leger
  • British officer
  • planned to rendez-vous at Albany with other British forces
  • started at Lake Ontario then went down the Mohawk River Valley
  • faced obstacles in the Mohawk River Valley, defeated at Fort Stanwix (Benedict Arnold spread rumors that his forces outnumbered the British so they retreated)
"Gentleman Johnny" Burgoyne
  • British officer
  • lead forced south from Canada to rendez-vous in Albany (goal was to cut off New England from the rest of the states)
  • called Gentleman Johnny because of lavish lifestyle, threw lots of parties and travelled very slowly
  • captured Fort Ticonderoga in July 1777
  • delays allowed Americans to block his routes (cut down trees, burned crops, and drove off cattle)
  • Last 25 miles of march were through swampy wilderness
  • August 1776, Americans defeat a British raiding party at Battle of Bennington, he’s still headed for Albany
  • met with fortifications that the Continental Army had set up
  • retreated to Saratoga after two battles at Free Man’s Farm
  • were surrounded, had to surrender
  • no one came to rendez-vous with him at Albany
Bernardo de Galvez
  • Governer of Louisiana during war
  • Captured Mobile, Pensacala, Natchez and Baton Rouge for Americans
John Paul Jones
  • Won famous seabattle for Americans
  • Commanded the Bonhomme Richard
  • Rammed British convoy Serapis, Jones refused to surrender
  • "I have not yet begun to fight!"
  • Both ships blasted at each other until the Serapis' mast broke, crew surrendered
  • Bonhomme Richard sank, Jones sailed home on the Serapis
  • Victory inspired Americans 
Nathanael Greene
  • new officer put in charge of Southern American army
  • quaker, pacifist
  • under his command the army avoided full scale battles, let British chase them around the countryside until they exhausted and overpowered them
  • tried to incur heavy British losses whenever he did fight
Francis Marion
  • known as the “swamp fox”
  • gave Gates information about South Carolina’s coastal swamps
  • he and his twenty or so ragged followers destroyed boats on the Santee River behind Camden (cut off British communication with Charles Town)
Charles Cornwallis
  • Lead British stationed in Camden, South Carolina
  • defeated Americans at Camden, Baron de Kalb killed in battle
  • in 1781 set up base in Yorktown, on peninsula in Chesapeake Bay (good location-- could receive supplies shipped from New York)
  • August 1781 French Fleet blocked Chesapeake bay, trapped British (couldn’t get out and no one could get to them)
  • October 19, 1781 French and Americans bombard Yorktown, surrenders force of 8,000
    • last major battle of the war
William Howe
  • British officer
  • was supposed to travel the Hudson north from New York City to reach Albany
  • decided instead to ditch St. Leger and Burgoyne to instead go south to invade Pennsylvania (wanted to capture Washington and 2nd Continental Congress)
    • successfully invaded Pennsylvania, did not capture Washington or the Congress
    • this action probably lead to the British losing the war
  • late 1777 forced Washington to retreat from Philadelphia
  • mercenaries from Germany
  • 9,000 fought with the British
  • 900 captured at Battle of Trenton on Christmas Morning
Henry Clinton
  • British General
  • 1780 led British army in trapping American forces in Charles Town, South Carolina
  • 5,000 defenders surrendered, lost almost entire southern American army
  • Worst American defeat of the war
George Rogers Clark
  • frontiersman
  • raised army to capture British posts on Western Frontier
  • 1778, he and followers (eventually got 175-200 men) travel down Ohio River
  • Captured Kaskaskia without a fight
  • took Fort Sackville at Vincennes from British
  • returned February 1779, caught British by surprise
    • said his force was bigger than it really was
    • executed several Native Americans in view of sort
    • British gave up
  • won American’s hold on region between Great Lakes and Ohio River (more than half total size of original 13 states)
Baron von Stueben
  • from Germany
  • trained American army (taught them how to move in lines and columns, how to handle weapons properly, how to charge with bayonets and how to execute drills with speed and precision)
  • methods were so effective they were adopted by the rest of the army
Baron de Kalb
  • German
  • earned reputation for bravery
  • lead American forces to Camden
  • his troops were out of supplies and were half starved when they met the British outside of Camden in August 1780, many fled
  • received fatal wounds, died at Battle of Camden
Marquis de Lafayette
  • 19 year old French nobleman
  • fought in many battles, commanded an army division
  • convinced French King to send 6,000 man army to America
  • got very close to Washington, sort of became adopted son
Jean Rochambeau
  • French General
  • 1781, went south with Washington’s soldiers while Cornwallis was trapped in Yorktown
  • helped to force Cornwallis to surrender (Cornwallis couldn’t get help because French navy stopped British ships from reaching him)
Benedict Arnold
  • one of the worst traitors in American history
  • at Fort Stanwix spread rumor that American forces were much larger than they actually were, caused St Leger to retreat (leaves tents, cannons, and supplies)
  • betrayed army because he felt that congress wasn’t rewarding him for his service
  • married a loyalist
Horatio Gates
  • Patriot
  • Commander at Saratoga
  • placed in charge of new Southern Army, worked with Baron de Kalb
  • met up with Francis Marion
  • August 1780, Battle of Camden, he and his troops fled
  • relieved of duties, American spirit hits new low
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