Term

Definition
Extraneous outside factors that can contaminate findings. Control these to improve internal validity. 


Term
Advantages of Lab Experiments 

Definition
1. Evidence of Causality: Establish cause and effect link. 2. Control: Environment, Variables, and Subjects. 3. Cost: Low compared to other research methods. 4. Replication: Easily permitted. 


Term
Disadvantages of Lab Experiments 

Definition
1. Artificiality: Behavior can be altered when out of the norm. 2. Researcher Bias: Manipulation to get desired hypothesis. 3. Limited Scope: Small scale may not lend to large scale. 


Term

Definition
A method to control bias in which neither subjects nor researchers know whether a given subject belongs to the control group or to the experimental group. 


Term

Definition
Any experimental design that would be too timconsuming, expensive, and ethically questionable to take place 


Term
Conducting Experimental Research 

Definition
1. Select the setting: Typically a lab. 2. Experimental Design: Depends on hypothesis, variables... 3. Operationalize Variables: IV's + DV's 4. Manipulate IV: Straightforward or Staged. 5. Assign subjects to conditions: Random sample. 6. Pilot Tests: A mini experiment to verify manipulations 7. Administer Experiment 8. Analyze + Interpret: What do the results indicate? 


Term
Straightforward Manipulation 

Definition
Written materials, verbal instructions, or other stimuli are presented to the subjects. 


Term

Definition
Constructed events and circumstances that enable the independent variable to be manipulated. Simple or complex. Sometimes involves a confederate. 


Term

Definition
A person who pretends to be a subject but who is actually part of the manipulation. 


Term

Definition
A test to determine if the manipulation of the independent variable actually has the intended effect. 


Term

Definition
After the experiment, the researcher explains the purpose and the implications of the study to the researched person or group. 


Term

Definition
Arbitrarily assigning subjects to various treatment groups. 


Term

Definition
Grouping subjects on characteristics that may relate to the dependent variable. 


Term

Definition
a blueprint or set of plans for conducting lab research 


Term

Definition
R: Represents a random sample or random assignment O: Observation or Measurement X: Represents a treatment or manipulation 


Term
PretestPosttest Control Group 

Definition
Two random sample groups. Two initial Observations. One group gets a manipulation while the other is a control. Two post observations. 


Term
PosttestOnly Control Group 

Definition
Two random sample groups. NO initial Observations. One group gets a manipulation while the other is a control. Two post observations. 


Term
Solomon FourGroup Design 

Definition
Four random sample groups. ONLY two initial Observations. Two groups get a manipulation while the others are control. Four post observations. 


Term

Definition
Several measurements of the same subjects 


Term
QuasiExperimental Designs 

Definition
Experimental situation where subjects are not randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Example: Bought out radio station employee morale. 


Term
Advantages of Field Experiments 

Definition
1. High external validity: Subjects in normal habitat. 2. Non reactive: Subjects unaware of study taking place 3. Useful for studying complex social processes 4. Can be inexpensive. 5. Might be the only option. 


Term

Definition
Influence that a subject's awareness of being measured or observed has on his or her behavior. 


Term
Disadvantages of field experiments 

Definition
1. Practically impossible depending on situation 2. Control 


Term

Definition
Condense data sets to allow for easier interpretation. Organizing data into a meaningful way. 


Term

Definition
A collection of numbers. Can be ordered or unordered. 


Term

Definition
A table of scores ordered according to magnitude and frequency of occurrence. 


Term

Definition
Answers the question of what a typical score is in a data distribution using mean median and mode. Looks at where data is centered. 


Term

Definition
Score or scores that occur most frequently. Has major drawbacks. 


Term

Definition
The midpoint of a distribution. 


Term

Definition
The average of a distribution. 


Term

Definition
Pull the mean toward their direction. 


Term

Definition
Describe the way the scores are spread out about the central point. The tools used? Range, Variance, and Standard Deviation. 


Term

Definition
Help make data more manageable by measuring to basic tendencies of distribution: central tendency & dispersion 


Term

Definition
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. 


Term

Definition
An index of the degree to which scores differ from the mean. 


Term

Definition
The square root of the variance. More meaningful because it is expressed in the same units as the measurement used to compare it. 


Term

Definition
a curve which all representative data in a data distribution conforms to. 


Term
Percentage of data that falls into a normal curve 

Definition
Within 1 positive and negative standard deviation: 34.1% Between 12 positive/negative std. deviations: 13.5% Between 23 positive/negative std. deviations: 2.2% 


Term

Definition
1. Provide direction for a study 2. Eliminate trialanderror research 3. Help rule out intervening and confounding variables 4. Allow for quantification of variables 


Term

Definition
Compatible with current knowledge Logically consistent Succinct Testable 


Term

Definition
asserts that the statistical differences or relationships discovered in an analysis are due to chance or random error. 


Term

Definition
short hand for significance level 


Term

Definition
Wrongly reject null hypothesis when it's actually true. 


Term

Definition
Fail to reject the null hypothesis when it's actually false 


Term

Definition
Tells strength and direction of a correlation. 


Term

Definition
(IV) Categorical + (DV) Categorical 


Term

Definition
(IV) Categorical + (DV) Quantitative 


Term

Definition
(IV) Quantitative + (DV) Quantitative 


Term

Definition
"Everything is on the up and up!" +X & +Y 


Term

Definition
"What comes up, must come down" +X & Y 


Term

Definition


Term
Correlation is necessary, but not sufficient condition for claiming causality. Theory may tell us they are causally related – but remember there are other criteria that have to be considered 

Definition
Cause and effect must be correlated Cause must precede the effect Must account for alternative explanations 


Term
Reporting and interpreting ANOVA: Analysis of variance 

Definition
Assess the difference in the means of a quantitative variable for different values of a nominal variable Used to compare two or more sample means We use “k” to stand for the number of sample means we are comparing H0: Mean1 = Mean2 = Mean3 = … = Meank HR: At least one mean is different. 


Term
Reporting and interpreting ChiSquare (X2) 

Definition
Is there a trend? Chisquare (χ 2) test: Is there a trend? Yes or no. Are there any differences from “expected” (all things equal) values? Doesn’t tell you where the differences are, or the nature of the trend, just if there is one or not. Use Pearson’s Chisquare Evaluated for significance using p value If p < .05, χ 2 is significant – the data suggests X differences in Y (or Y differences in X). Are there voting differences in political party affiliation? 


Term
Levels of Measurement: Nominal 

Definition
Categories, no one category is necessarily above or below another. ex: Religious ID 


Term
Levels of Measurement: Ordinal 

Definition
Categories, but they are ordered. ex: Horse Race Results (1st, 2nd, 3rd) 


Term
Levels of Measurement: Interval 

Definition
Categories, Ordered with equal distance between each category. ex: Temperature 


Term
Levels of Measurement: Ratio 

Definition
Categories, Ordered with equal distance between each category, with meaningful zero. ex: age 


Term
ANOVA assesses the difference in the means of a quantitative variable for different values of a nominal variable. What is an example? 

Definition
Example: Do males and females differ in their weight? Sex is the Nominal variable Weight is the Quantitative variable 

