Term

Definition
random selection of elements from the sampling frame for inclusion in a study. 


Term
Stratified Random Sampling 

Definition
technique used when the researcher knows some of the variables in the population that are critical to achieving representativeness; the sample is divided into strata or groups using these identified variables. 


Term

Definition
sampling in which a frame is developed that includes a list of all the states, cities, institutions, or organizations (clusters) that could be used in a study; a randomized sample is drawn from this list. 


Term

Definition
selecting every kth individual from an ordered list of all members of a population, using a randomly selected starting point. 


Term

Definition
including subjects in the study who happened to be in the right place at the right time, with addition of available subjects until the desired sample size is reached. Sometimes referred to as “accidental” sampling. 


Term

Definition
convenience sampling technique with an added strategy to ensure the inclusion of subjects who are likely to be underrepresented in the convenience sample, such as women, minority groups and undereducated persons. 


Term
Purposeful or Purpose Sampling 

Definition
judgmental or selective sampling that involves the conscious selection by the researcher of certain subjects or elements to include in a study. This sampling strategy is used most freq in qualitative research. 


Term
Network or Snowball Sampling 

Definition
sampling technique that takes advantage of social networks and the fact that friends tend to have characteristics in common; subjects meeting the sample criteria are asked to assist in locating others with similar characteristics. 


Term

Definition
sampling in which data are gathered from any individual subject or gorup that can provide relevant information for theory generation. 


Term
Descriptive Quantitative Design 

Definition
 account of natural, real life variables
 no manipulation
 Goal: description of concepts, characteristics, possible relationships, develop hypotheses



Term
Correlation Quantitative Design 

Definition
 relationship between variables
 range: 1 to 1
 Goal: explain relationships (not cause and effect), generate hypotheses



Term
Experimental Quantitative Design 

Definition
 examine casual relationship
 treatment/intervention manipulate one variable
 independent/dependent variables
 highly controlled setting, sample, two groups (prepost), random assignment
 Goal: Basic science, maybe applicable



Term
QuasiExperimental Quantitative Design 

Definition
 examine causal relationships
 treatment/intervention, examine effects
 independent/dependent variables
 slightly less level of control: smaller sample selection of convenience
 Goal: apply basic science to realistic situations, convenient/cost contained research.



Term
Phenomenological Qualitative Design 

Definition
 discover unique experience as lived by individuals
 meaning evolves from understanding experience
 goal is to gain an understanding of human nature



Term
Grounded Theory Qualitative Design 

Definition
 use interviews and observations to explore definitions of reality (build theory)
 gain new insights about social processes
 goal is to develop a theory, to possibly test relationships



Term
Ethnographic Research Qualitative Design 

Definition
 study cultures through immersion, gain a “portrait of the people”
 uses interviews and observations to discover emic/etic perspectives of symbols, traditions, rituals, cultural practices and beliefs
 goal is to see cultural influences on individual beliefs and behaviors



Term
Historical Qualitative Design 

Definition
 examines events of the past
 use of text, interviews
 goal is to create awareness of past events and develop understanding of processes



Term
What is the purpose of randomization?? 

Definition
to increase the extent to which the sample is representative of the target population. 


Term

Definition
moves from the general to the specific or from a general premise to a particular situation or conclusion. Conclusions generated from deductive reasoning are valid only if they are based on valid premises 


Term

Definition
moves from the specific to the general; particular instances are observed and then combined into a larger whole or a general statement. Example: A headache is an altered level of health that is stressful. A terminal illness is an altered level of health that is stressful. Therefore, it can be induced that all altered levels of health are stressful. 


Term

Definition
the process of reading the data, breaking text down into subparts, and giving a label to that part of the text. A grounded theory researcher first codes using open codes to compare the data. 


Term

Definition
large ideas that capture groups of codes. 


Term

Definition
determines whether two variables are independent or related; the test can be used with nominal or ordinal data. The procedure examines the frequencies of observed values and compares them with the frequencies that would be expected if the data categories were independent of each other. The procedure is not very powerful; thus, the risk of a type II error is high.



Term

Definition
used to examine group differences when the variables are measured at the interval or ratio level of measurement. 


Term

Definition
(analysis of variance) tests for differences between means of dependent variables. More flexible than other analyses because it can be used to examine data from two or more groups. Tests for differences in variance. The results of an ANOVA are reported as an F statistic. The F distribution table is used to determine the level of significance of the F statistic. If the F statistic is equal to or greater than the appropriate table value, there is a statistically significant difference between the groups. 


Term

Definition
occurs when the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true. Thus, the researchers concluded that significant results exist in a study, when in reality they do not. The risk of a type I error is indicated by the level of significance 


Term

Definition
occurs when the null hypothesis is accepted when it is false. Thus, the researchers conclude the study results are nonsignificant when in actuality the results are significant. Type II errors often are a consequence of flaws in the research methods. The risk of a type II error can be determined using power analysis. 


Term
Level of Statistical Significance 

Definition
the probability level at which the results of statistical analysis are judged to indicate a statistically significant difference between the groups. The level of significance selected for most nursing studies is 0.05. This means that if the level of significance found in the statistical analysis is 0.05 or less, the experimental and comparison groups are considered to be significantly different. 


Term

Definition
the probability of discovery  directly related to sample size 


Term

Definition
A Confounding Variable is an extraneous variable whose presence affects the variables being studied so that the results you get do not reflect the actual relationship between the variables under investigation. 


Term

Definition
clarify concepts, suggest factors within concepts, relationships 


Term

Definition
valid and reliable measurable concepts tested, shown valid 


Term

Definition
propose specific approaches to practice 


Term
What are the differences between QuasiExperimental and Experimental Studies? 

Definition
Quasiexperimental
 less control of environment, sample
 few participants
 not randomly selected
 not randomly assigned to treatment groups
Experimental
 tight control of environment, sample
 large sample
 random selection
 random assignment to treatment groups



Term

Definition
group of individuals, elements that are focus of research 


Term
Target (study) Population 

Definition
meet study criteria, accessible 


Term

Definition
everyone you have access to 


Term

Definition
a representative portion of the population 


Term

Definition
allow for control of extraneous variables 


Term

Definition
allow for generalizability/inference 


Term

Definition
additional research with participants provides no new information 


Term
What are the ways to collect data? (4) 

Definition
 nominal
 ordinal
 interval
 ratio



Term

Definition
mutually exclusive categories, but no rank 


Term

Definition
categories in rank (pain scale, Likert scale) 


Term

Definition
categories, in equal distances, in rank (calculated, both negative and positive, eg. thermometer) 


Term

Definition
categories, rank, equal distance, must have zero quality (eg height, weight) 

