# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Research Exam 2
levels of measurement-inferential statistics
48
10/27/2010

Term
 What are the four different levels of measurement?
Definition
 1. Nominal: classify 2. Ordinal: +order 3. Interval: +determine differences 4. Ratio +determine ratios
Term
 What are two distinguishing characteristics of nominal questions.
Definition
 Mutually exclusives Exhaustive
Term
 What are dichotomous questions?
Definition
 Used to classify responses into 1 of 2 groups Usually yes or no
Term
 What are multiple choice questions?
Definition
 -Same as dichotomous but categories are more focused  -Demographic data
Term
 What are checklist questions?
Definition
 A series of dichotomous questions, to save time and space
Term
 What is the goal of ordinal questions?
Definition
 Order response according to a predefined characteristic Rank order scaling
Term
 What is the difference between ordinal questions and interval questions?
Definition
 Interval questions provide an estimate of the native distance between items
Term
 What are 4 different types of rating scales?
Definition
 Graphic: mark on a line Itemized: very unlikely, unlikely...etc Semantic differential: opposite words Likert: sd, d, n, a, sa
Term
 What is a determining characteristic of ratio level questions?
Definition
 They have a meaningful zero value
Term
 What are the 7 "additional considerations"?
Definition
 1. Explicit Instructions 2. Simple active language 3. Avoid bias 4. Avoid ambiguity 5. No double-barrelled questions 6. No assumptions 7. Personal information
Term
 What are the components of an experiment
Definition
 Independent variable - cause Dependent variable - effect
Term
 What are the characteristics of a focus group?
Definition
 3-15 people Sample size = 15-45 Used when the presence of others will generate ideas
Term
 What are demand characteristics?
Definition
 People want to be perceived as good
Term
 What is groupthink?
Definition
 The tendency for a group to reach a consensus and not venture outside of that opinion
Term
 What is mixing opposing subgroups?
Definition
 No middleground presence in a group, focus groups consisting of one pole or another
Term
 What three steps are involved in preparing for a focus group?
Definition
 1. Problem statement 2. Create discussion guide 3. Determine group characteristics
Term
 What are the 4 steps in conducting a focus group?
Definition
 1. Prefatory remarks 2. Introduction of participants 3. Set the stage 4. Main discussion
Term
 What are the components of prefatory remarks?
Definition
 -introduction of the moderator -explanation of moderator's role -topic of discussion -guidelines for discussion -observation -rules for reporting/informed consent
Term
 What are the components for introduction of the participants?
Definition
 -name -basic demographic info -something relevant to the discussion
Term
 What are the components associated with setting the stage?
Definition
Term
 Main discussion
Definition
 open ended questions stay true to discussion themes discussion is dynamic, not static
Term
 What is the goal of an experiement?
Definition
 Determine causality
Term
 What are the 3 requirements for causality?
Definition
 1. covariance = the changes in the IV must correspond with changes in the DV 2. temporal order = IV must have occurred before the DV 3. Elimination of alternative explanations
Term
 What is internal validity?
Definition
 The extent to which you can eliminate alternative explanations for experiment results
Term
 What are the threats to internal validity? (6)
Definition
 1. Testing (process of testing/retesting affects a subject's behaviors) 2. History (historical events beyond the control of the researcher have an effect) 3. Maturation (the subject naturally changes during the course of the experiment) 4. Instrumentation (data collection techniques change) 5. Selection (experimental and control groups must be comparable) 6. Mortality (subjects drop out)
Term
 What is the purpose/goal of experimental design?
Definition
 To increase internal validity minimize threats
Term
 What is the difference between quasi and true experiments?
Definition
 Quasi- no control group True- subjects are randomly assigned to control and experimental groups
Term
 What are the 2 quasi experimental designs?
Definition
 One group posttest only One group pretest/posttest
Term
 What are the four true experimental designs?
Definition
 Simulated pretest/posttest Posttest only w/ control Pretest/posttest w/ control Solomon 4 group design
Term
 One group posttest only
Definition
 IV -- DV
Term
 One group pretest/posttest
Definition
 Pretest -- IV -- DV
Term
 Simulated pretest/posttest Threats minimized?
Definition
 Group 1: Pretest Group 2: IV -- DV Testing, mortality
Term
 Posttest only w/ control Threats minimized?
Definition
 Group 1: DV Group 2: IV -- DV Testing, history, maturation, instrumentation
Term
 Pretest/posttest with control Threats minimized?
Definition
 Group 1: Pretest -- DV Group 2: Pretest -- IV -- DV testing, history, maturation, instrumentation, selection
Term
 Solomon 4 group design Threats minimized?
Definition
 Group 1: Pretest -- IV -- DV Group 2: Pretest -- DV Group 3: IV -- DV Group 4: DV Testing, interaction, history, maturation, instrumentation, selection, mortality
Term
 When are complex experimental designs used?
Definition
 When you have more than 2 variations (levels) of IV
Term
 Multiple levels of IV
Definition
 Group 1: pretest -- DV Group 2: pretest -- IV1 -- DV Group 3: pretest -- IV2 -- DV Group 4: pretest -- IV3 -- DV
Term
 Factorial Design
Definition
 Used to examine IVs that interact with each other G1: factor AX G2: factor AY G3: factor BX G4: factor BY
Term
 Within subjects design
Definition
 Each participant gets every level of the IV, so subjects can make their own comparisons G1: IV1 -- DV -- IV2 -- DV -- IV3 -- DV G2: IV2 -- DV -- IV3 -- DV -- IV1 -- DV G3: IV3 -- DV -- IV1 -- DV -- IV2 -- DV
Term
 What are the three measures of central tendency?
Definition
 Mean Median  Mode
Term
 Which measure should be used most often? When should it not be used? What is used instead?
Definition
 Mean Outliers Median
Term
 What is a correlation coefficient?
Definition
 A measure of the strength of relationship between 2 different variables ranges between -1 and 1
Term
 What are inferential statistics?
Definition
 determine how much confidence we can have in the inferences we make
Term
 _ x
Definition
 sample mean
Term
 μ u
Definition
 Population mean
Term
 σ
Definition
 Population standard deviation
Term
 N
Definition
 Sample size
Term
 s
Definition
 sample standard deviation
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