# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Research Design
The Experimental Model and Its Variations
38
Criminal Justice
10/22/2011

Term
 Research design
Definition
 the plan or blueprint for a study and includes the who, what, where, when, why, and how of an investigation. The research design should flow from theproblem formulation and critical issues that were identified for observation.
Term
 THE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL
Definition
 the experimental model contains manyvariations and should not be restricted to this stereotypical view. Most studies of an empirical nature in criminology and criminal justice can be viewed as variations of the experimental model
Term
Definition
 treatment (independent variable), e.g., Foot Patrol Y  outcome (dependent variable), e.g., Crime Rate Z  any rival causal factor (other variables besides X that could really be causing a change in Y), e.g., history, selection bias, testing, etc.O  observation (some measurement or assessment of dependent variable)E  equivalence (randomization or matching)1, 2  time
Term
 Resolution of Causality Problem
Definition
 The first step involves the demonstration of a relationship orcovariance between variables. That is, one variable is related, increases or decreases in value, insome predictable manner along with increases or decreases in the value of another variable.The second step consists of specifying or indicating the time sequence of the relationship. Which variable is the independent or predictor variable X, and which is the outcome or dependentvariable Y? The third step involves the exclusion of rival causal factors, or the elimination of other variables that could conceivably explain away the original relationships the researcher had claimed.
Term
 spurious relationship
Definition
 is a false relationship;that is, one that is not caused by the believed variables but can be explained by other variables.
Term
 Three essential steps in resolving thecausality problem
Definition
 1. Demonstrate that a relationship exists between the key variables.2. Specify the time order of the relationship.3. Eliminate rival causal factors.
Term
 Rival causal factors
Definition
 any variables other than X (the treatment) that may be responsible for the relationship.
Term
 (RIVAL CAUSAL FACTORS)internal factors
Definition
 other variables within the study itself that may tend to invalidate one’sfindings and conclusions
Term
 (RIVAL CAUSAL FACTORS)external factors
Definition
 elements outside of one’s immediate study that may imperil the researcher’s attempts to draw generalizations from the study and infer one’s findings to be true of larger populations.
Term
 Validity
Definition
 refers to accuracy or correctness in research.
Term
 Internal & External validity
Definition
 Internal factors question the internalvalidity of research, whereas external factors impugn the external validity of findings
Term
 History
Definition
 refers to other specific events that may have taken place during the course of the study and may have produced the results.
Term
 Maturation
Definition
 refers to biological or psychological changes in the respondents during the course of study that are not due to the experimental variable. “Time heals all wounds,” refers to the phenomenon in medical research wherein a given numberof patients can be expected to reveal improved conditions with or without treatment.
Term
 Testing
Definition
 (pretest bias) refers to the bias and foreknowledge introduced to respondents as a result of having been pretested. On a second testing, the respondents are no longer naive regarding thesubject matter and can make use of sensitivities, information, and attitudes garnered from the first testing.
Term
 Instrumentation
Definition
 involves changes in the measuring instrument from the beginning or first period of evaluation to the second, later, or final evaluation. The measuring instrument may refer toobservers, questionnaires, interviews, analyses of existing records, or any standard method of data gathering.
Term
 Statistical Regression
Definition
 is the tendency of groups that have been selected for study on the basis ofextreme high or low scores to regress or move toward the mean or average on second testing.
Term
 Selection Bias
Definition
 occurs when the researcher chooses nonequivalent groups for comparison. Studies that compare the attitudes or behavior of volunteers and nonvolunteers are often subject to selection bias.
Term
 Experimental Mortality
Definition
 In studying the same group over a period of time, an expected loss of subjects can be anticipated.This loss is referred to as experimental mortality. One method of assessing possible bias as a result of the loss of respondents is to compareknown characteristics of respondents with those of nonrespondents.
Term
 EXTERNAL FACTORS: VARIABLES RELATED TO EXTERNAL VALIDITY
Definition
 Testing effectsSelection biasReactivity or awareness of being studiedMultiple-treatment interference
Term
 Testing Effects
Definition
 point to the tendency of pretests to destroy the naiveté of respondents with respectto the variable(s) being studied and decrease or more predictably increase the subjects’ awareness or sensitivity, thus complicating the ability to generalize their responses to a larger population thathas not been pretested.
Term
 Reactivity or Awareness of Being Studied
Definition
 tends to produce atypical or unnatural behavioron the part of subjects. Most people have had experience with previously announced inspections,visiting or guest teachers and the like, to realize that behavior observed during that day tends to be at times quite different from what normally occurs.
Term
 Multiple-Treatment Interferences
Definition
 occurs when more than one treatment or predictor variable is used on the same subjects.
Term
 RELATED RIVAL CAUSAL FACTORSHawthorne Effect
Definition
 serves as an example ofreactivity resulting in atypical behavior or attitudes on the part of research subjects as a result of their awareness of being studied.
Term
 RELATED RIVAL CAUSAL FACTORSHalo Effect
Definition
 was coined by Thorndike, who noticed that when supervisors rated subordinates, the ratings were all “higher than reality.” It refers to observer bias in which observers,perhaps unconsciously, follow an initial tendency to rate certain objects or persons in a particularmanner; this initial orientation carries over into all subsequent ratings.
Term
Definition
 A researcher’s own hidden biases and expectationsmay influence his or her perception of events so as to bring about that which had been assumed.
Term
 Placebo Effect
Definition
 the tendency of subjects to react to a knownstimulus in the predicted manner. Commonly used in medical research, the “sugar pill” or a placebo (fake treatment) with no known effects is administered to the study group to hide the real treatment group and also to control for the placebo effect.
Term
 Three general types of experimental designs
Definition
 1. Experimental designs (sometimes called “true experimental designs”) are characterized by random assignment to treatment and control groups and include the classical, posttest-onlycontrol group, and Solomon four-group designs.2. Quasi-experimental designs do not use random assignment of groups and instead employ matching or other means of obtaining equivalence of groups. Quasi-experimental designs include time-series and counterbalanced designs.3. Preexperimental designs lack any equivalence of groups and include one- and two-group ex post facto and one-group before–after designs.
Term
 THE CLASSIC EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNcontains three key elements:
Definition
 Equivalence- refers to the attempt on the part of the researcher to select and assign subjectsto comparison groups in such a manner that they can be assumed to be alike in all major respects.Pretests and posttests- observation priorto exposure to treatment and a posttest or measurement after exposure to treatment.Experimental and control groups-experimental group; the group that is not exposed to the stimulus or predictor variable is the control group.
Term
 Community Policing
Definition
 The term broadly refers to a variety of strategies that attempt to get the police away from rapid response to service and closer to the community on a day-to-day basis. Order-maintenance, community crime prevention, problem solving, neighborhood safety, foot patrol, and a host of police–communityrelations strategies are all included under community policing
Term
 Stratified Random Samples.
Definition
 rely on knowledge of the distributionor proportion of population characteristics to choose a sample that assures representativeness of these characteristics. Such characteristics are generally demographic innature, such as age, sex, race, social class, or of pertinence to the study, such as area of residence, nature and type of criminal record, region, or some quality of importance in the analysis.
Term
 Simple Random Samples.
Definition
 samples in which eachelement of the population (or universe) has an equal probability of being selected. Sometimesthe mnemonic device EPSEM samples are used to denote the key features of an SRS
Term
 Systematic Samples.
Definition
 every nth item in a list is included in the sample. (In the language of statistics, n represents every second, third, fourth, or nth case.) Purists insist that such a sample is a nonprobability sample, because various patterns, for example ethnic surnames,may exist in a list that would destroy its representativeness. If offenders or arrestees were listed in order of offense seriousness, the final sample may be biased.
Term
 Beware of statistics of convenience
Definition
 types of analyses that may have been chosen by theresearcher on the basis that they would most likely shed the best possible light on the data.
Term
 Cluster sampling
Definition
 generally used in surveys that involve field interviews and is most useful in studies that involve widely dispersed subjects. The population to be surveyed is divided into clusters, for example, census tracts, blocks, and sections, and then a probability sample of clusters is selected for study. Such a sampling procedure is less time consuming and costly, particularly in terms of field staff.
Term
 representative sample
Definition
 Victim surveys involve questioning a representative sample of the population to obtainan estimate of victimization, a portion of which is not reported to the police.
Term
 meta-analysis
Definition
 (the analysis of analysis)Statistical analysis of data from many differentstudies dealing with the same research question in order to determine general findings.
Term
 Cluster sampling
Definition
 is generally used in surveys that involve field interviews and is most useful in studies that involve widely dispersed subjects. The population to be surveyed is divided into clusters, for example, census tracts, blocks, and sections, and then a probabilitysample of clusters is selected for study. Such a sampling procedure is less time consuming and costly, particularly in terms of field staff.
Term
 Consumer Price Index (CPI)
Definition
 (CPI) has been under attack despite the fact that it is generally considered one of the best price measures in the world. This index represents the composite average increase in prices consumers pay for such items as shelter, food, utilities, clothing, furnishings, upkeep, transportation, health, and entertainment.
Supporting users have an ad free experience!