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Religion> Exam 3 (Final)
Religious Studies
Undergraduate 1

Additional Religious Studies Flashcards




-Original non-romanized name is kung-fu-zi
*Translated as master kung
-Died in 479 BCE
-found of Confucianism: philosophical school arising from the warring states period
*relevant to Korea, Japan, China, Vietnam
*The system of confucius has impacted Chinese history, culture, literature, education and society
*emphasis on filial piety, ancestral veneration, education
*The dao of the confucian system is known as the social dao
--specifically illustrated in education
--found in the analects
--Harmonious soceity organized in a hierarchy
*power and virtue are correlated in this pyramid
Warring States Period
-Chinese city-states constantly at war during the 5th C. BCE
-Constant warring led to different to development of different philosophies which led rise to different schools: Confucianism and Daoism
-period of strife, civil war, mayhem, death and destruction
-The cause of this period was greed, power and immorality in the Confucian perspective
*The Confucian solution to the warring states period is the rectification of names: to make sure every member of society acts according to their name
-The Qin dynasty was the first Chinese empire was the period that put an end to the warring states period
-The cause of this period from the daoist perspective would be that the system of morality was one that could not change and therefore did not have balance to change with the people
*The daoist solution to this problem would be the dao as the mother of the myriad of creatures.
manifest dao-> myriad creatures everywhere.
unmanifest dao->absolute reality.

-Also known as the Lun-yu

-Collection of Confucious' teachings put together by his students

-The types of texts found in the Analects have been memorized for generations and generations

*the sayings all start in the format of "the master says"

-Confucius was an ininerant teacher, did not write the Analects

-Volumes are en-largened by commentaries throughout generations

Rectification of Names
The social dao under the Confucian System in which members of society act according to their name that is given to them at birth. There are four levels in the pyramidal social structure. There is the ruler at the top, ministers below, fathers below, and sons at the bottom. This system is made up of pyramids within pyramids representing the similar smaller structures for different villages. The social structure depends on the exchange of power, virtue and respect. Education is the means of changing people. Hierarchical structure.
Gentleman(Prince, chun-tzu/junzi)
-The ideal educated figure
-Education is the only way of changing people(in reference to character and social status)
-This individual encompasses all of the Confucian virtues; Humaneness(ren), Righteousness (yi), Rights (li), knowledge(zhi), loyalty (xin), filial piety (xiao). They have also learned from the Confucian curriculum. They acknowledge the system of power, virtue and respect.
The Great Learning
-Extracted from the book of rites
-Teach one how to govern
-virtue must shine in order for people to see mandate of heaven
-learning is found in the past
-Regulate yourself by learning the virtues
Mandate of Heaven

-Order or decree from heavan/sky of (tian ming) which is the approval of heaven based on virtue

*believed that power comes from virtue

*when a ruler lacks one of the confucian values(humaneness, righteousness, rights, knowledge, loyalty and filial piety)they lose the mandate of heaven.

Five Classics(and their significance)
1)The Book of History> collected stories of virtuous deeds by rulers and people who are not virtuous. An example would be an immoral king who caused the collapse of his kingdom by engaging in constant physical pleasures.
2)The Book of Rites> Collection of manuals about different ceremonies. Etiquette, rank and class, funerary rituals, how to show veneration.
3)The Book of Poetry> Teaches them to express human emotions themselves in an apprpriate manner without being overly happy or overly sad. Demostrates what it means to be civilized. Help you understand your culture. Creates a socially elite hierarchy of ministers because those who know the poetry are higher up on the hierarchy.
4)Spring and Autumn Annals> History of the kingdom of Lu
5)Classical of change or yi jing> teaches people how to govern by teaching them how to make decisions
Confucian Virtues

Ren= Humanness, the human value that modulates absolute power, it is most important to those in power to create loyalty from those below them

Yi=Righteousness, there is one objective rightness in the universe to which all must abide

Li= Rites, "social etiquette" that establishes a hierarchy. Through rites ranks in society are physically manifested. Ancestral veneration or the glorification of the dead in altars is described here. Ancestral veneration is for continuity through generations. 

Zhi= Knowledge, this is the knoewledge of the confucian curriculum. Confucian school emphasizes the importance of knowledge because one becomes moral by means of knowledge. 

Xin= Loyalty, keeps the system bounded to a hierarchy as those below "stand by their word"

Xiao= Filial Piety. A junzi is supposed to embody all 5 virtues to serve as an example to all uneducated people. Obedience to those above, specifically to parents unifies a kingdom. Sense of gratitude and debt to one's parents that deepens when pondering about one's parents' sacrifice to provide for the things that one has.

*When someone lacks one of the Confucian virtues they lose the mandate of heaven

*Part of a good Confucian education

-education is considered the means of changing people *Rao>Xin>Zhi>Yi>Xiao

-Junzi is the ideal educated figure

-rectification of names

-importance of education and virtue

*without virtue society would not hold together and you would end up with the warring states period*

Paragons of Fillial Piety
• Confucian practice to reinforce the idea of respect, virtue, and power functioning within the social dao
• Tales of moral example told in traditional China to give children a sense of filial piety.
o Parable of Young Master Tan: Bringing Deer’s Milk to his Ailing Parents
o Parable of Wu Meng: Attracting mosquitoes to drink his blood to prevent his parents from getting bitten
o Parable of Wang Pu: crying the grave of his mother when thunder rolled to ease mother’s fear
o Parable of Meng Zong: tears brough bamboo-shoots from the frozen earth to help ailing parents
Lao-tzu (Laozi)
-founder of Daoism
-author of the Tao Te ching
-Lao=means old
-Zi=means master or boy
-Critisized Confucious for lack of balance in a pyramid that could not change> He siad that the cycle of changes in yin and yang should be considered
Dao de jing(tao te ching)

-One of the two texts that are part of philosophical daoism -also called the lao zi

 -calls upon the power of we wei(or not doing)

-a lot of talk about hub emptiness

-makes very pronounced distinctions between female(yin) and male(yang)

*often says to reader to keep to yin but observe the yang

--another way to say this is to tell the reader to watch the manifest dao to return to the unmanifest dao(the higher order of things)

*there is a lot of power in the subordinate position

-The dao manifests by a balance of yin/yang because there's two sides to one reality.
Yin> wet, cold, dark, female, emptiness
*water is the ultimate example of yin because it is fluid and always changing, it fills the hub
Yang> dry, hot, light, male, imposing
-water always changing direction(spontaneous= wu wei)
-no structure/ shape of it's own(being flexible/going with the flow/ wu wei)
*these forces are constantly changing but always remain balance. This is Lao Zi's replacement for Confucian pyramidal social structure.
*Part of Qi structures everywhere in nature
*Everyone/thing has a balance of this in their bodies and nature
*Imbalance of these forces(aka coagulation) is the cause of illness
* solution wu-wei
*Part of manifest Dao
-Lao Zi's replacement for Confucian pyramidal social structure
Manifest and unmanifest Dao
*The main two parts of the Dao
-Dao is known as the solution to the warring states period which is due to the rigid Confucian system of morality according to lao zi. He also says that the Confucian social system perverts human beings from changing.
*Unmanifest Dao is known as the higher order of wu wei.
-cannot be seen, tasted, smelled or perceived
--wu wei(non doing) says that the key to harmoney is simplicity. Doing nothing and geting everything done. It says to accept the natural flow without being rigid.
Be like a baby-> moldable and constantly taking in the environment around you like wu-wei
*Manifest Dao is known as how everything is manifest in yin and yang

-Philosophical daoism

-described by lao zi as the ability to harmonize oneself with the dao by doing nothing in order for all things to be accomplished singularly and naturally

-the key to harmony is simplicity

-non-action stresses on the idea of things flowing naturally, so in order to be in harmony one must not intervene with nature or its course but go parallel to it

-Rigidity prevents natural flow of nature so one must take a position to practice non-intervention

-free of a fixed perspective
-empty of a fixed perspective
-allows for change; allows for vitatlity or action
-one must be empty of a fixed perspective in order to flow in the way of nature naturally.
The Female
-Takes up yin energy in terms of manifest Dao
-The prime example would be water/snow
*always chagning direction(wu wei)
*no structure or shape of it's own
*subordinate to the vessel that it encompasses
*Kung-fu is a practice that is based on the daoist belief of qi and the power of the position taking control of the higher or yang
Uncarved block/unhewn log

- There is a tree that cannot be made into anything

-Carpenter says to chuang zi that the tree is so useless. Zhuangzi says the tree is useful by being useless. It is useful to it's self.

 -Uncarved black is a state of spontanaity, bound to change -Junzi is a carved block because he is useful to others, does not engage in wu-wei

Water imagery
-representative of yin in the philosophical daoist school
-shows yin in a yang perspective, also demonstrates that yin has its own power
*the confucian school holds no place for yin

*One of the two books in philosophical Daoism

*parables that have talking animals to mock the rigid structure of confucian curriculum

-important symbols that take precedence are female, water, the hub and the infant


*made to poke fun at audience and reader

*think that reader needs encouragement to think outside box

*no doctrine/belief

*a lot of over lap with Dao De Jing

-discussion of the power of the female

-wu wei(non-action)

*Incorporated parables of peng bird, frog in the well, butcher ding, uncarved blook, holy man/sage

Peng Bird
-Li=.4 miles
-talks about a gigantic bird who flies for thousands and thousands of li
-then the little bird says that the gigantic bird is a ridiculous concept
-makes fun of confucious' belief that there isn't the dao(single huge force in nature) because they can't see it
*zhuangzi says that you can't talk about big things with small minds because it is outside their experience and understanding
-the dao is the cosmos and confucian scholars know only very little in comparison to the immensity of the reality of the cosmos; so their perspective limits reality
Usefulness of uselessness
- There is a tree that cannot be made into anything
-Carpenter says to chuang zi that the tree is so useless. Zhuangzi says the tree is useful by being useless. It is useful to it's self.
-Zhuang zi is a carved block b/c he is useful to others.
-Uncarved black is a state of spontanaity
-by attempting to show how one is useful(through hihg esteemed education, one departs from the natural self, therefore the dao.
-the uncarved block signifies spontaneity or an unfixed perspective that allows for the person to find change and harmonze with the flow of nature by changing with it
Butcher Ding(Cook Ting)
-Engaging in wu-wei because he is not intervening with the dao
-a chef has a knife for 19 yrs; says a good chef has a knife for a year because he cuts. A bad chef has a knife for a month because he hacks. He finds the space in the meat so he never replaced the knife{he's not really cutting he's just separating due to wu-wei}
-loses vitality by fighting the way
-using the dao in daily life
-One must find the natural flow of things instead of imposing a fixed reality on it
Holy Man (on Gu-she mountain
-he is reclusive/lives in a far away mountain {rejects confucian society}
-skin is light and made of ice(yin)
-he doesn't eat grains(doesn't fight the way by killing a plant)
-he sucks the air and drinks the dew (accomplishes everything by doing nothing)
-wanders across the fear seas(he is not rooted or fixed, he is free)
-one who harmonizes with the dao increases his vitality, extends his life
*this individual is supposed to subsist on the dao
-Speaks of the ultimate goal is attaining the union with the Dao
-Also speaks of the man living on the mountain with ice and snow
* this ice and snow speaks of the ultimate essence of yin {water with no heat}
-someone who is unfixed and unbounded
-making fun of Confucious because he hides his power as opposed to showing state

*Vital energy that takes up all matter -The yin and yang symbol represents the unity of the dao(which is considered the mother of the myriad creatures)

-There are two types of this energy Yin and Yang

-There are three categories of places in which Qi is encompassed {Heaven, man, and earth}

*heaven> study of tracking flux and flow of the cosmos to act in accordance with the nautral flow of things, the fluctuation of the seasons

*man> can harmonize internal energy by means of physical exercise, medicine and meditation

*world> stabilization of energy in the environment can be achieved through feng shui

-emphasis on the idea that the cosmo are a product of the dao

-vital energy is found in many forms like breath: the control of the breath increases vitality

-The practice of harmonzing man's relationship to the landscape.
-Known as the art of placement
-The main way of compromising the flow of Qi throughout the earth.
-Ailment can result from a disruption between man and landscape, a means to harmonzie energy between the two is through feng shui
-functions on the idea that in any dwelling there's a flow of ch'i
-wing and water are vital types of ch'i in the environment
Tai-ji practice and martial arts
-The great ultimate
-Harmonzing ch'i clow through slow body movement
*promotes good health
*different styles by mimiking animals or plant movements {ex: cat or bamboo style}
*One of the ways that Qi in encompassed through man, in the form of exercise
-should be non-action or wu-wei
Daoist Medicine
-One of the ways to re balance Qi in man
-Two kinds:
*Accupuncture/meridians> Convergences in the body where Ch'i could get coagulated. This revolves around the idea that an illness is an imbalance of Qi flow. Also because it works as one system the source of coagulation might be a different location from that of the ailment. Idea of meridians emphasizes the flow of nature, interconnected through the three realms
*herbal medicine> ingestion of plant, animal and/or mineral substance that supposedly posses yin/yang to re balance Qi.
-Two examples: Melon(yin) and Ginseng(yang)
Secret of "Forgetfulness"
-practice in meditation known as qi yong: actively controlling ch'i with the mind . Hardest form of transformation or manipulation of ch'i. Harvesting of energy flow through meditation
-forget your efforts, just try
-do not have attachment to your efforts
-Similar to the idea of wu-wei in meditation
Master Yin-Shih
-proposes the secret of forgetfulness as one of the best illustrations of manipulating ch'i
*in order to make meditation natural one should forget about that which is being attempted to be controlled
-Wu-wei is emphasized in the secret of forgetfulness because one takes every thought away in order for the mind to undergo transformation and for energy to be transformed.
-Essentially forget about your ailment and the idea of attempting to cure your ailment in order for the natual flow to occur because if through meditation one concentrates on curing the illness the person becomes stagnent
-wrote book about one experience with qi yong
-Convergences in the body of Ch'i
*An illness is an imbalance of Qi flow.
-one of the main principles behind the idea of acupuncture
-Acupuncture/meridians is one of the ways that man re balances Qi
-The idea of meridians is that it works one system as a whole and that the place of pain is not necessarily going to be the place that is coagulated with Qi.
Inner Alchemy
-secret art of turning lead into gold
* increase in vitality by means of secret techniques=intaking chi from cosmos
*refining and stretching ch'i to reach immortality
*esoteric meditation
Master Wang, Ma and Sun
-master wong is a famous daoist teacher
*teaches mister ma and miss sun inner alchemy which creates an inner source of energy which leads to transmutating ch'i and immortality
* talks of how miss. sun thinks she sees master wang in her room and speaks of how she needs to stop being so rigid in her practice and incorporate yin and yang in her study
*She freaks out and tells mister ma that master wang was in her room telling her about yin and yang. Mister Ma says that Master Wang was with him all day and that the only way it could be possible was that masters in the Daoist practice could project themselves.
True Stove

-A place in your body where you combine the energy from the universe (specifically of yin and yang) to give birth to a ch'i baby

*significance of the baby is because the baby is so moldable which creates immortality

-Featured in the story of master wang, ma and sun

-When yin and yang combine you have a fetus of ch'i

• Story goes that the disciples distance themselves from their “true stove”

o Dead sitting makes you rigid and inflexible

o Male and female cannot exist without each other, must copulate

The Fetus, babe, infant
-baby is born and the people can ascend to the heavens
-not a real baby, a ch'i baby=a new source(orb) of energy that becomes your new source of vitality
-create a source of energy that doesn't decline, an amorphous and regenerate source
Why is the book of poetry important to Confucians?
-it allows expression of emotion without licentiousness or too much emotion{compared to a child}
-embodies your culture
-learn to communicate> which in turn helps you govern
How is Qi encompassed in the heavens?
astronomy/astrology> tracks the changes in the season (changes between yin and yang)
How is Qi encompassed in man?
Medicine, exercise, meditation
What are the 2 types of medicine in man that use Qi? Describe them.
-acupuncutre/ meridians> The idea that an illness is an imbalance of Qi flow. And that meridians are places in which Qi will converge in the body and get coagulated. Therefore the small needles will help release some of the energy outside of the body and since it is one system the pain and the source of coagulation might be two different places.
-herbal medicine>ingestion of plant, animal and mineral substance that supposedly posses yin/yang to rebalance ch'i.
How is Qi encompassed in meditation?
two types of meditation known as Qi gong and esoteric
What are the two types of meditation that help modulate the amount of Qi in man? Describe them.
Qi Gong> Literally translated into Qi work. Believes in the constant flow of Qi. Long life, vitality, and health can be increased by directly manipulating Qi flow with the mind. Esoteric> teaches them inner alchemy which creates an inner source of energy which leads to immortality. teaches one to transmutate ch'i. when yin and yang combine one has a fetus. story of mister ma, master wang and miss sun.
What are two popular herbal medicines that encompass yin and yang?
Ginseng> yang
Melon> Yin
How is Qi encompassed in earth?
Feng shui> harmonize man's relationship to the landscape
*known as the art of placement
*Wind and Water> 2 parts of a landscape that moves through the landscape
-demonstrated in Daoist inspired paintings
Frog in the well
-Frog was stoked about his well and he talked to the turtle about how awesome his well was.
-The turtle said the universe and the ocean is more expansive and there fore better
-the frog is considered to be representative of confucianists
-the turtle is considered to be daoists
-the message of the parable is that you cannot make people with small minds see a large thing such as the dao.
I ching
- a set up 64 hexagrams
*one long line and two broken lines underneath
-used oracle bones
-used to predict the future and correlates to a poem in the i ching which will give you an answer to your yes or no question
-forecasting for the future, planning is important for the minister
-board of rites study the I-ching
What are the four names of the paragons of filial piety?
1)Parable of young master tan
2)parable of wu meng
3)parable of wang pu
4)parable of meng zong
Young master tan
His parents were very sick and needed deer's milk to help his parents. Deer milk was very expensive and they couldn't afford it. So he dressed up like a deer and milked to deer and brought his parents the milk. One time when he was doing it there was a hunter and he almost got shot b/c the hunter thought he was a deer. The hunter brought master tan to the govenor and the govenor gave him an award for his filial piety.
Wu Meng
A family had a lot of mosquitos and they would bite the family all night and nobody would get any sleep. So Wu Meng would take off his shirt to protect his parents and get bitten instead so his parents wouldn't get bitten and they would get a good night's sleep.
Wang Pu
His mother got terrified whenever the thunder came. So he would run home to comfort his mother whenever it would thunder. When his mother was passed away he would still run to her grave to comfort his mother. When he was eventually a teacher he would get sad and start to cry whenever reading a passage about devotion of sons or daughters to deceased parents. So his students ripped out all the pages of those books.
Meng Zong
His mother was sick and needed bamboo soup in the middle of winter. He looked all over for bamboo but there was none. He started to cry and bamboo shoots would spring up from the frozen earth to help his ailing mother.
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