Shared Flashcard Set


RELI #140 Final Notecards
Final Notecards
Religious Studies
Undergraduate 3

Additional Religious Studies Flashcards






Limited Atonement




-Atonement is limited to those predestined to salvation

-Others cannot, by atonement for their sins alone, gain salvation

-A big belief in the reformed tradition, based on John Calvin’s ideas

-Important in places where the tradition took hold (Scotland, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland) and, thus, influenced those who came to the New World from those places as opposed to those coming from England (Anglicans)



Unite together and create peace

Ex. Martin Luther King: Religiously-grounded vision for ethical  America, & Non-violent civil disobedience




-Elected trustees charged with controlling day-to-day affairs of Anglican parishes in colonies

-Done because there was too much space and not enough Priests to give them power everywhere

-Failure of parish system


“The Forward”


-Daily Jewish newspaper founded by Abraham “The Big Boss” Cahan in 1897 in NYC

-Originally published in Yiddish

-Mouthpiece of the Jewish Left, advocated trade unionism and democratic socialism

-Also significant advocate for garment workers (Labor Zionism)

-Grew along with growth of poorer Jews coming to America  (from Russia, Poland, and Ukraine)


Ann Lee


-Founded the Shakers in 1758

-Originally in Manchester, England è moved to upstate NY in 1774

-Believed that Christ returned to Earth as a woman

-No procreation; separation of sexes as protection from original sin

-Important in the evangelical culture


Four Noble Truths


-Central tenets of Buddhism

-Existence is suffering; suffering is caused by desire; to obtain peace and enlightenment (nirvana), transcend suffering by eliminating desire; achieve nirvana by following the eightfold path

-Big among early immigrants from China and other countries where the people look like Kit, but also big among educated Euro-Americans, who more sympathize with the tenets



1924 Immigration Act


-Used a quota system based on race and ethnicity

-Slowed the growth of Catholic immigration considerably (subtle aim of the act)

-Aimed to curb immigration from Southern and Eastern European countries

-Unexpectedly allowed Catholics to settle into their lives as American Catholics (Social activism of Priests under New Deal, Economic Stability, Political Represenation)

-Also, eliminated immigration from East and South Asia


Northern Hunting Tradition


-Animal Ceremonialism

-Annual Ceremony of Cosmic Rejuvenation

-Few stationary cult practices

-Emphasis on quest for spiritual

-Shaman and Shamanism

-Male Supreme Being

-Life after Death was beyond the horizon or in the sky

-Oglala Sioux in the Plains and Shoshoni out west in Rockies

-Were one of two types (Southern Agricultural Tradition) that demarcated native peoples’ religious orientation





-The body of Islamic religious law

-Legal framework within which the lives of Muslims are regulated

-Big contradictions between Shari’a and US common law

-Leads to problems with which one Muslims are bound by


The Late Great Planet Earth


-1970 book

-Treatment of premillenialist prophecy

-Talks about the rapture, Second Coming of Christ, the Antichrist ruling the Earth

-First book about the rapture to be picked up by a secular publisher

-Extremely popular (best nonfiction seller of the 1970’s)




Nationalist: Encourages Blacks to separate from white society. Establish their own culture and adopt own values. Ex. Malcolm X: Advocated founding a separate country for Black people, Protection “by any means necessary”



Authoritarian Groups




-Groups with strong communities and, often, a dictatorial father figure

-Frequented by those who found that street counterculture did not them with security

-One example is unificationists, led by Moon: followers call him “father” and he commanded his followers to say “what I wish must be your wish”; parents who tried to remove their children from the group were labeled Satanic agents.

-Another example is the People’s Temple led by Jones-considered himself a personification of God. The whole group (over 900 people) committed suicide or were murdered. 

-Important because they show how the political and social climate of the day encouraged such devotion (seeking nontraditional security)




Immigration Act of 1965




-Set limitation of 170,000 visas per year from Eastern Hemisphere (compared with 120,000 from Western Hemisphere)

-Many contended that it would not change the ethnic makeup of the US; however, 37% of all immigrants from 1960-1989 were Asian

-However, still only constitute 3% of the population, so, though it was a large increase in immigration, it really was only a drop in the bucket



Convert Buddhism



-Modernist beliefs (egalitarianism, feminism, individualism)

-Emphasis on meditation and the psychological aspects of practice

-Fusing of lay/monastic practice

-Important people who worshipped the Great Fat Man: Transcendentalists, Theosophists (Henry Steel Olcott, who was a Buddhist convert but who held that every religion has parts that lead to human perfection), Beat Generation (Kerouac and Ginsberg), Counterculture (Timothy Leary and Ram Dass)

-Every book seems to be about Zen and shit


Softshell Crab


-Softshell crab was on the menu at the first Hebrew Union College graduation

-This is funny because, under Kosher laws, Jews are forbidden from eating shellfish

-However, the HUC was a Reform seminary, founded by Isaac Mayer Wise

-They advocated gender equality, relaxing of dietary laws and Sabbath observances, and other Barone-esque Jew stuff

-Thus, they could softshell crab

-This is the worst ID ever.  It shows how relaxed Reform Jews in America were compared to their European counterparts, but the absolute inane nature of this ID makes me want to steal Vince’s Vespa and crash it.




-Founded in 1816 by lay preacher and former slave Richard Allen (he was their 1st priest)

-Evolved from Allen’s “Mount Bethel” church and joined other Methodist churches (black of course)

-Second Great Awakening accelerated trend of conversion to Methodist Church

-These institutions promoted radical identity and were central to the social, political, economic, and cultural life of the northern, free, urban, black communities. Abolitionists.

-Similar in worship to white Methodist Churches but focused on education and benevolence within black communities

Vatican II

-- 1962-1965- series of meetings with bishops from worldwide, called by Pope John XXIII.  Defined by “spirit of aggiornamento,” which means “bringing up to date” or a spirit of change or openness .  Drastically changed the Catholic Church in many different aspects:

            -liturgical reform—masses looked different. Ex: priests faced congregation, spoke in vernacular (not Latin), etc.  Attempt to encourage more active participation in worship

            -inspired social activism

            -showed that Catholic Church was capable of change and subject to discussion

            -gave new roles to laity, nuns, and priests within Church and changed relationship with other Christian and non-Christian religions

            -liberal Catholics vs. conservative Catholics variance occurs as a result.  Debate over abortion, homosexuality, clergy-abuse scandals, ordination of women (women as clergy), growing Hispanic population, etc


-Russian/E. Europe pogroms—a pogrom is essentially a riot directed against a particular group—in this case Jews.  Pogrom” is Russian for “to destroy, wreak havoc, demolish violently.”  So these were basically large-scale anti-Semitic riots that began in 1881 in the Russian Empire.  The reason for these outbursts was the assassination of Tsar Alexander II, which was blamed on the Jews.  Also rough economic conditions contributed to high tensions. 

                        -these pogroms led to mass emigration of Russian Jews to the US (“Russian Wave” of US Jewish history)—most of whom were poorer than previous Jewish immigrants.  Many moved to Lower East side of NY. 

                        -The Jewish Left—movement in US that coincided with Russian Wave of immigrants. Labor Zionism (Socialist economics combined with Judaism and return to Palestine/Israel) and other Socialist and leftist ideas become prominent



Brown v Board of Education


-1954 ruling that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson 

-separate but equal was not constitutional

-far from the end of civil rights movement, rather there was a turn to mass action (sit-ins) over legal action (including those mentioned in Chapel Hill)

-this lead to Montgomery Bus Boycott and other actions from people like MLK Jr.


JFK's 1960 election


-social activism and economic stability lead to more optimism and security for Catholics before the time of his election

-Catholics were finally accepted by the Protestant majority

-this is the point where they know what it means to be “American Catholics”

-Some people still worried that he would worry about what the Pope thought instead of the American people, but this proved to be incorrect

-Donald Thorman article (308) discusses assimilation into American life for Catholics




a)      International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKON) – Hare Krishna

b)      Unlike other groups who venerate Krishna (including Jains, Buddhists, Baha’is), ISKCON venerates Krishna as supreme. 

c)      Practice sankirtana (some sort of party where everyone dances and chants hare Krishna and other nonsense)

d)      The Vedas and Bhagavad-gita are the sacred texts.

e)      Teach bhakti, the way of devotion

f)       ISKon followers chant Hare Krishna as a way of awakening love for God and they believe that it brings liberation and purification. 

g)      Chanting is also thought to bring understanding and knowledge and it cleanses the mind and heart of illusions.

h)      ISKCON and Hinduism both initiated from teachings in the Vedas and the Bhagavad-gita.  Hinduism regards Krishna as an incarnation of Vishnu (Preserver God and one of Hindu trinity of deities), ISKCON regards Krishna as highest Lord over all deities, even Vishnu.

i)        Krishna was thought to be a prince who lived 5,000 years ago in the Indian village Vrindavana.  He lived in hiding for some of his life and herded cows, slayed demons, and performed amazing acts in order to protect the village.

j)        Other outrageous things about this guy:

i)        Some believe that Krishna was immaculately conceived. 

ii)      He later returned to kill his evil uncle and restore the kingdom.  He married a princess and according to some texts, over 16,000 other women, some of whom he rescued from a demon. 

iii)    It is said that Krishna ascended into heaven after sitting under a tree in a forest and meditating.


Burned Over District


a)      Used to describe western New York in the 1820’s during the Second Great Awakening

b)      Charles Grandison Finney and others conducted revivals

c)      The revivals were so intense and made more so by the economic and social impact of the Erie Canal that the region became a hotbed of evangelicalism, moral reform, and radical social and religious experimentation




-period of pronounced change within the Christian Churchà backlash against perceived wrongdoings/corruption within medieval Catholic Church

          Desire to return to simpler and more vital form of Christianity

          Campaign by educated clergy and laity, starting with Martin Luther in Germany

        95 Theses posted at Wittenburg 1517 sparked Reformation

          Rejection of Medieval Catholicism

        Hierarchy: Apostolic Succession, Obedience

        Traditions of the Church

        Sacramental rites (baptism, the Eucharist)

          Reinforced by feudal system, close-knit communities allowed Reformation ideas to spread

        Reformation split into several smaller groups (Lutherans, Anabaptists, Calvinists, etc.)


Moral Majority


·         started in 1979- disbanded in 1989

·         Appeal: between a half-million and four million people

·         Goal: to register conservative voters and influence legislation at the local, state and national level

·         Success: brought together variety of constituents

·         Jerry Falwell- major leader of movement- went against Baptist principle of not mixing religion w/ politics

o   “If God does not judge America soon, He will have to apologize to Sodom and Gomorrah.”

§  Basically thought America was going to Hell due to moral decay, and wanted to join together conservative Christians across nation


William Jennings Bryan


 -Famous for participating in the Scopes Trial in 1925 where a teacher in Tennessee was prosecuted for teaching evolution

-Lawyer who fought against evolution being taught in schools

-Thought that evolution undermined Bible and led to increased hatred and evil in the world

-Warned against intellectual pride and attempting to interpret God’s words

-Ruling of Scopes Trial favored the Fundamentalist Protestants. Later found that this decision lead to waning public opinion of the Fundamentalists

-Brought the concept of evolution to center stage in America.  Tolerance/Acceptance now allows us to teach evolution now.



Old-Fashioned Revival Hour


- Radio broadcasting show started by Charles Fuller in 1937.

-Part of the Resurgent Evangelicals movement

-Began the trend of evangelicals dominating the airwaves. By 1941 the Old-Fashioned Revival Hour was broadcasted nationwide, which gained their message access to millions of listeners.

- Foundation deemed as one of “the most effective, in terms of souls saved.

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