Shared Flashcard Set


RELI Midterm #2 Notecards
Religious Studies
Undergraduate 3

Additional Religious Studies Flashcards




William Jennings Bryan
-Famous for participating in the Scopes Trial in 1925 where a teacher in Tennessee was prosecuted for teaching evolution
-Lawyer who fought against evolution being taught in schools
-Thought that evolution undermined Bible and led to increased hatred and evil in the world
-Warned against intellectual pride and attempting to interpret God’s words
Ann Lee
-Founded the Shakers in 1758
-Originally in Manchester, England  moved to upstate NY in 1774
-Believed that Christ returned to Earth as a woman
-No procreation; separation of sexes as protection from original sin
-Important in the evangelical culture. Known as “Mother in spiritual things”. Often seen as blasphemous.
-Warned followers of second coming
-The Holy Sacraments of the Catholic Church
-The idea that participation in the sacraments is necessary for salvation
-Baptism, confirmation, penance, Eucharist, holy orders, anointing of the sick
-Son of Mormon, a Nephite
-Buried gold plates before he died in 5th Century C.E.
-Became the angel that lead Joseph Smith to golden plates in 1820’s and instructed him to translate them
-Plates became source for the Book of Mormon
Black “colonization”
-The attempt of many groups to send black people back to Africa. Pre-Civil War
-Promoted the separation of races
-Thought that whites and blacks could never live together due to Racism, polarized social status, and innate differences.
-Advocated by many, including Thomas Jefferson
Oneida Community
-Utopian commune founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848 in Oneida, NY
-Practiced communalism (everything belongs to community)
-Perfectionism. Possible to be free of sin and be perfect in this world b/c Jesus already returned in 70 AD
-Complex marriage (every male married to every female)
-Movement to liberate original Christianity of New Testament from institutional accretions and denominational divisions
-Restore “primitive” purity of religion
-Very popular on the Western frontier, started in 1820 as the “Christian Connection”
-Became the Disciples of Christ and Church of Christ
Documentary Hypothesis
-Formulated by Julius Wellhausen
-Idea that there were four main sources for the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testament)
-Idea that the Bible might just be another book (not the Word of God, flying in the face of Evangelicals)
Urum and Thummim
-Object used by Joseph Smith to translate the golden plates
-Moroni told Joseph Smith about them
Burned-over District
-Used to describe western New York in the 1820’s during the Second Great Awakening
-Charles Grandison Finney and others conducted revivals
-The revivals were so intense and made more so by the economic and social impact of the Erie Canal that the region became a hotbed of evangelicalism, moral reform, and radical social and religious experimentation
Shouts and Barking
-Refers to the physical response of the crowds in many evangelical settings
-Second Great Awakening revivals
-Jerking motions and shouting; “testifying”
-Greek word for “universal”
-Root of the Catholic Church
-Signifies the belief in one true church rather than the Protestant belief in denominationalism
Malum in se
-Doctrine that something is innately sinful, not sinful because it is prohibited
-Associated with Northern Evangelicals (William Lloyd Garrison and Charles Grandison Finney) and abolitionism
-Slaveholding is wrong malum in se and was increasingly associated with sinfulness
No Religious Tests
-Clause in the United States Constitution saying that no federal employee must adhere to a particular religious belief as a requirement of their job
-Seen as a big part of the Founding Fathers original intent to keep church and state completely separate
-Controversial with Evangelicals, who believe that belief in a Supreme Being and afterlife of rewards and punishments should be required
-Founded in 1816 by lay preacher and former slave Richard Allen (he was their 1st priest)
-Second Great Awakening accelerated trend of conversion to Methodist Church
-Had 20,000 members by 1860, 50,000 members in 1865 (After Civil War)
-These institutions promoted radical identity and were central to the social, political, economic, and cultural life of the northern, free, urban, black communities. Abolitionists.
Charles Grandison Finney
-Minister from New York involved in Second Great Awakening
-Conducted Revivals through 1820s-1830s emphasizing a culture of evangelicalism, moral reform, and radical social and experimentation
-Known as the “Father of Modern Revialism”
-Revivals do not just happen by Divine Power
Ashkenazi Jews (Jews from Central and Eastern Europe)
-1830-1860, Ashkenazi Jews migration raised America’s Jewish population from 6,000 to 150,000
-German influx lead to Reform Judaism, lead by rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise
-Emphasized assimilation, ethics, and vernacular worship over traditional Hebrew-language ritual and ethic distinctiveness
- By 1880, most of America’s 250,000 Jews and 270 synagogues were Reform and of German background
Scopes Trial
-American legal case held in Tennessee in 1925, which made it unlawful to teach the theory of evolution in state-funded schools
-John Scopes was the teacher that was accused of teaching out of Charles Darwin’s Origin of the Species.
-The ruling favored the Fundamentalist Protestants who believed in the inerrancy of the Bible. Later found that this decision lead to waning public opinion of the Fundamentalists
-Brought the concept of evolution to center stage. In 1958 the National Defense Education Act stressed the importance of evolution as a unifying principle of biology.
-Allowed to teach evolution now.
Plural Marriage
- One of the defining characteristics of the Latter Day Saint movement was the doctrine and practice of plural marriages, a type of polygamy
-Became famous during 19th century when it was outlawed by the U.S. government
- President of the LDS Church Wilford Woodruff announced the church's official abandonment of the practice in 1890
-Few groups of Mormon fundamentalists still practice plural marriages, but mainstream Mormons caught practicing it are excommunicated.
- A composition of beliefs, suspicions, and actions with roots in African, Native American, and Western European cultures in America
- The action of a conjuration is traditionally linked to the task of repelling negative spirits away, and protecting an individual, space or collectivity.
-Christians societies believe that magic, and thus conjuration, is an inherently evil practice.
-According to these beliefs, conjurers summon demons or other evil spirits to cause harm to people or things, to obtain favors from them, or simply to enter servitude to such beings.
Angelina Grimke
- 1830s, Grimke, a Quaker, was an American politician, lawyer, abolitionist and suffragist
- Used Bible to Justify Abolishment of Slavery
- Believed that all men were created equal and had the unalienable right to liberty as written the declaration of independence
Orestes Brownson
- Catholic Convert (1844), prominent writing in 1850s as a New England publicist intellectual and activist
- Brownson now saw Catholicism as the only religion that could restrain the undisciplined American citizens and thus insure the success of democracy.
-To him, America was to be a model to the world, and the ideal model was a Catholic America.
-Thought Presbyterian church was misguided
Brigham Young
-1847- American leader and president of the Latter Day Saint movement and church
-Led ¾ of LDS westward to Great Salt Lake Basin, & is responsible for much of Mormon expansion
-Most prominent Mormon polygamist, 55 wives
-Responsible for revoking the priesthood and temple blessings from black members of the LDS faith, who had been treated equally in this respect under Joseph Smith's presidency.
Joseph Smith
-1830s-1840s. Founder of the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (1830) & LDS movement.
- Gathered a religious following after announcing that an angel had shown him a set of golden plates containing a scriptural account of ancient America, which indicated that only Mormons where alive in America to record the events.
-Smith published this account and formed the Book of Mormon
-introduced plural marriage
-Murdered in 1844
Hush harbor
- 1850s. The place where slaves secretly gathered to practice Christianity or syncretic worships. Sang religious spirituals
-Located in fields, swamps, or wooded areas to hide the sounds of the worship
-slaveholders discouraged the practice of private spirituality in antebellum America because it encouraged literacy and understanding amongst slaves.
-Slaves would be whipped if caught participating in hush harbors.
Frederick Douglass
- 1845. Former slave who became a strong American abolitionist. One of most prominent African Americans in history for being a women’s suffragist, editor, orator, author, statesman and reformer during the Civil War.
- Strongly believed in equality of all people. Fought for emancipation of slaves.
-Corruption of church, hypocritical to nature of the Lord
Higher Criticism
-Late 19th century. Literary analysis that investigates the origins of the text (the Bible).
-Under “Modernism”- liberal Protestantism shaped by Darwinian biology, etc. it challenged the traditional and literal interpretation and assumed Scripture to be a product of historically located beings rather than divine inspiration
-Rejected Calvinist notions of human sinfulness, instead taught human goodness, humanity of Jesus, and the church’s responsibility to address the ills of society
John Carroll
-The first bishop (1789) and archbishop (1808) in the United States
-Benjamin Franklin recommended Carroll and he was made Superior of Missions in the United States of North America, establishing a hierarchy in the United States
-This action removed the Catholic Church in the U.S. from the authority of the bishop who headed the Roman Catholic Church in England
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