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RELI 4002
Judaism Final Exam
282
Religious Studies
Undergraduate 4
05/05/2009

Additional Religious Studies Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
cherubs
Definition
the throne deis on  which the god is enthroned
Term
Solomon's heir
Definition
Rehoboam
Term
Annoints Jeroboam but is later rejected
Definition
"Ahijah of Shiloh (a Mushite priest)
Term
Worship centers in Israel set up by Jeroboam
Definition
Dan: northernmost city in Israel
Term
Moved capital of Israel to Samaria; father of Ahab
Definition
Omri
Term
Kingdom Splits date
Definition
922 BCE
Term
King with 700 wives and 300 concubines
Definition
Solomon
Term
Marries Ahab; daughter of the King of Tyre (Phoenicians)
Definition
Jezebel
Term
Moabite King who sacrificed the crown prince; disgusted, Judah, Israel and Edom leave the battle; Stella commemorates the victory
Definition
Mesha
Term
only place that practiced human sacrifice
Definition
Phoenician colony at Carthage
Term
Athaliah
Definition
daughter of Jezebel and Ahab; married to the King of Judah; kills all her male relatives so she can rule in Judah; only female ruler; one royal baby escapes and is raised by a priest and eventually retakes the throne
Term
Empire ruling everything in the region of Mesopotamia; Senacherib; Conquers Israel in 722
Definition
Assyrian Empire
Term
Prophet of Hezekiah
Definition
Isaiah
Term
Built a watershaft during the seige of Senacherib so that Jerusalem survives the seige; pays the Assyrians to go away
Definition
Hezekiah
Term
End of ancestor veneration
Definition
Hezekiah's reform and Assyrian empire's victory over Israel and surrounding areas
Term
Josiah
Definition
becomes king at a young age; institutes religious reform;
Term
last king of Judah; rebels against the babylonian empire and so Nebuchadnezzar comes and takes them over; kids killed in front of him; eyes gouged out;
Definition
Zedekiah
Term
last king of Judah; rebels against the babylonian empire and so Nebuchadnezzar comes and takes them over; kids killed in front of him; eyes gouged out;
Definition
Zedekiah
Term
Year that Jerusalem is destroyed; Temple destroyed; Jews taken captive
Definition
587 BCE
Term
Psalm that describes the destruction of the other gods
Definition
Psalm 82
Term
henotheism
Definition
there are many gods but there is one chief God
Term
Empire that succeeds the Babylonian empire
Definition
Persian Empire
Term
Leader of the Persians; founder of the Persian Empire
Definition
Cyrus the Great
Term
Priest and scribe; Has the Torah read publicly; connotation is teaching or instruction or law; religious leader during the time or the return from exile and rebuilding of the temple
Definition
Ezra
Term
(year) time of Ezra
Definition
450 BCE
Term
political leader during the time of the return from exile and rebuilding of the temple
Definition
Nehemiah
Term
etiology
Definition
a story or origins; tells how customs developed: ex: why snakes don't have legs; why women suffer in childbirth; why men dominate women; why roses have thorns, death, pain, sin, cloths, scattering of peoples and languages etc.
Term
First words to Abraham, Isaac & Jacob
Definition
Descendants will be a blessing to the world
Term
Original home/birthplace of the Jews (not Canaan)
Definition
Mesopotamia
Term
Hyksos
Definition
non-egyptian rulers in Egypt
Term
apiru or Habiru
Definition
not a national, racial or ethnic group rather a class of people who are always on the outside of society; down on land ; sometimes hired out as mercenaries
Term
Moses, Phinneas, Hophni are names from what language?
Definition
egyptian
Term
horeb
Definition
mt. sinai
Term
shamash
Definition
sun god
Term
dagon
Definition
grain god
Term
mot
Definition
death god
Term
the name of God that is a verb and not a noun
Definition
YHWH
Term
greatest appearances of god
Definition
1- to a mass of people: all of Isreal at Sinai where God speaks the 10 commandments to about 1.5 million people out loud and they swear to keep the oath but then ask for a mediator
2- to a group: Moses, Aaron and Aaron's sons and 74 elders go up on Mt. Sinai and have a vision of God; eat a sacred meal in his presence
3- to an individual: Moses sees the back of God
Term
Decalogue
Definition
The 10 commandments
Term
What happens if you hurt your slave?
Definition
they go free
Term
Jews could only be slaves for ___
Definition
6 years
Term
you can eat 4 legged animals that have what 2 things?
Definition
chew the cud and split hoof
Term
according to the law, fish must have:
Definition
fins and scales
Term
law of centralization
Definition
only worship god in one place; monotheism ( a new place used to be associated with a new god)
Term
homosexuality
Definition
forbidden for men and not mentioned for women
Term
to help the poor you cannot:
Definition
return to harvest the corners of your field or pick up after yourself
Term
sacred objects:
Definition
eternal light always burning in the temple, 7 branch candelabra or menorah
Term
symbol of the Jews
Definition
the menorah or candelabra
Term
in criminal cases you must have ___ witnesses
Definition
2
Term
Early precedents for a sophisticated legal system
Definition
system of appeal; a system of higher courts, reasons for dodging a draft,
Term
Early precedent for a sophisticated legal system
Definition
a system of higher courts
Term
ceremomy performed to release from levirate marraige
Definition
spitting and loosening of the shoe
Term
two ways to tell a real prophet
Definition
prophecies come to pass and he has really good poetry
Term
oral formulaic poetry
Definition
composed on their feet by the Biblical prophets
Term
prophet who did symbolic acts
Definition
hosea (marries a prostitute and names children for prophecies: Lo Ammi, Lo Ruhama: no mercy)
Term
Immanu-el
Definition
God is with us
Term
cowherd prophet
Definition
Amos
Term
Nabi
Definition
Hebrew word for prophet; may have derived from akkadian word meaning "to be called"
Term
most common subject for prophets
Definition
politics
Term
prophesied about an earthquake
Definition
amos
Term
prophet of comfort
Definition
second Isaiah
Term
number of letters in the hebrew alphabet
Definition
22
Term
you know God by his:
Definition
words in scripture and actions
Term
Documentary Hypothesis:
Definition
the various texts were separate, and later combined by one editor (or redactor).
Term
Evidence for the documentary hypothesis
Definition
convergence of evidence: doublets, contradictions, authors, language
Term
Two periods in Judaism:
Definition
Biblical and Rabbinic
Term
Tanakh = T- N-K
Definition
T- Torah; N-Nebi'im: Samuel, Kings and prophets (means prophets?) Isaiah, Jeremiah etc.; K- Ketubim: Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Esther etc.
Term
ruler after Alexander the Great who had the bible translated into the Septuagint
Definition
Ptolemy
Term
translated (traditionally) by 70 men in 70 different rooms; LXX
Definition
Septuagint
Term
made himself ruler after Alexander the Great along with Ptolemy; ruled Syria, Assyria, etc.
Definition
Selucid
Term
selucid king; put a statue of Zeus in the temple and sacrificed pigs on the altar; starting the Maccabbean Revolt
Definition
Antiochus IV
Term
Threw the Greeks out, cleansed the temple and rededicated it
Definition
Judah Maccabbee (Maccabbeus)
Term
synagogue is from what language
Definition
greek
Term
stem from Zadok, priests in the temple
Definition
Sadducees
Term
honor learning, continuously adding, predecessors to the rabbis
Definition
Pharisees
Term
produced a lot of documents, scrolls in Qumran (dead sea scrolls)
Definition
Essenes
Term
Rabbi means
Definition
"great" communicates respect
Term
9th of Ab/ Tisha b'Ab
Definition
day of the destruction of the 2nd temple; fall in July or early August; sad but beautiful day of fasting; sad/unlucky day historically for Jews
Term
(year) date of the destruction of the 2nd temple
Definition
70 CE
Term
year of the 2nd great rebellion (Bar Kochba) that utterly failed
Definition
135 CE
Term
Yohanon
Definition
Legend about a rabbi who wanted to do something to save Judaism; so he has his students put him in a coffin and take him outside the city; he goes up to Titus and says “Hail Caesar;” Titus says I’m not Caesar, but then a rider comes up and says Caesar died and Titus has been elected Emperor.
• Titus gives Yohanon (the rabbi) anything he wants (except to save Jerusalem)
• Yohanon asks to build a school (Yeshiva) in Yabneh to train rabbis.
Term
Yabneh
Definition
place of the first yeshiva?
Term
all committed suicide before the Romans could kill them
Definition
Masada
Term
Judah Hannasi
Definition
o famous he can just be called ‘Rabbi’)
• Wrote down the major texts of the rabbis, Mishna (a word meaning ‘teaching’)
Term
Hillel
Definition
more lenient teaching
Term
sect of teaching that is more strict
Definition
Shammai
Term
Doctrine of the Two Torot
Definition
One is the written Torah
• The second is the oral Torah (which Moses received on Mt. Sinai and taught it to Joshua, who passed it to the elders, elders to prophets, and prophets to the men of the great assembly, the predecessors of the rabbis)
• So you were supposed to accept the rabbi’s teaching (even over the Bible). Completely eliminated the priests.
Term
defining doctrine of Rabbinic Judaism.
Definition
Doctrine of the Two Torot
Term
3 ways of betrothal
Definition
• Money/something of value (“Behold you are betrothed to me according to the law of Moses.”)
• Hillel said it could be as little as a penny (perutah).
• So even a poor man can get betrothed without shame.
• Hillel’s law won out; demonstrates more leniency.
• Shammai said it had to be much more (dinar).
• Because Jewish girls shouldn’t go cheap.
• Document
• The man would write the words, and if she accepted it they would be engaged.
• Sexual intercourse
• Rabbis: it’s legal, but you still shouldn’t do it.
Term
2 ways to get out of marraige
Definition
• Divorce
• Death of the husband
Term
Jewish court
Definition
Sanhedrin:

Small Senhedrin is 23 rabbis
• Large is several hundred
• Decisions by the majority.
Term
Rebellion in 135 CE
Definition
The second rebellion
• Led by Bar Kochba
• Rabbi Akiba (the nasi, president of the Jews)
• Supposedly Akiba said Bar Kochba is the Messiah
Term
200 CE
Definition
The Mishna
Term
Mishna
Definition
while the Mishna was written in Hebrew, the language of the Bible, some of the words were ‘Aramaized.’Six sections (called the six orders) Each section has sections within it (called Tractates, -- total).
Term
6 orders of the Mishna
Definition
The six sections are different sets of law
• 1) damages/torts (Nizikin)
• 2) holidays (Moed)
• 3) women (Nashim)
• 4) seeds (Zeraim) – agricultural law
• 5) holiness (Kedoshim) – concerning sacrifice, priestly rituals,etc.
• 6) purity (Taharot)
Term
Sections within the orders of the mishna are called:
Definition
tractates
Term
tanna
Definition
rabbi who was in the generation that produced the Mishna; plural Tannaim
Term
Rabbinic teaching divided into two kinds
Definition
Halakhah – the law
• Aggadah – everything else that’s not strictly law(stories)
Term
Midrash
Definition
background stories added by the rabbis
• Example: Abraham’s father was an idol maker
Term
Emperor Constantine converts to Christianity (year)
Definition
300 CE
Term
Hebrew: “to finish” “to complete” “the teaching”
Definition
Gemara
Term
Gemara
Definition
Expansion of the Mishna; The Gemara and the Mishna = the Talmud
• Two Talmuds (the one from the Jews in Babylon and the one from the Jews in Palestine)
• The rabbis in Babylon are the greatest, at that point (around 500)
• The spreading around of the Jews (in Greece, Egypt, Babylonia, etc.) is called the Diaspora
• Gemara is written in mixed language (Hebrew and a lot of Aramaic)
• The Mishna simply gives the law; the Gemara explains the reasoning behind the law (thus combined they form the Talmud)
Term
French medieval rabbi, first commentarty of the Torah
Definition
Rashi
Term
First Hebrew book printed
Definition
Commentary of Rashi
Term
Rabbi Shelomoh son of Isaac
Definition
the winemaker, Rashi
Term
Mishna Abot
Definition
a collection of views on life (fathers):

Examples of Hagadah
• Don’t become known to the government
• Be very cautious of the government, who will two-time you
• Pray for the good of the government, so there’s not anarchy
Term
Shechinah
Definition
word never occurs in the Bible; starts in the Talmud in the Rabbinic period; translated as “presence”/the presence of God
• Suffix –ah is feminine
• Does not necessarily mean that it’s manifesting god’s feminine nature
Term
Examples of Hagadah
Definition
Be a man in a place where there are no men (i.e. “everyone’s doing it” isn’t a good excuse)
• Sin leads to sin (doing something bad leads you to more bad things); good deeds lead to more good deeds
• Bible: don’t eat pork; rabbis: if the pork is less than 1/60 of the dish you can eat it
• Bible: don’t cook a kid in mother’s milk; rabbis: don’t cook any meat in milk (extended to prohibit cheeseburgers, eating dairy on the same plate as meat, etc.)
• Bible: don’t eat the blood of any meat; rabbis: invented kosher meat (soak and salt to draw out blood, roasting, etc.)
Term
Siddur
Definition
prayer book
Term
minyon
Definition
10 people
Term
Ketubah
Definition
marriage contract
• Written in Aramaic
• After it’s signed, the man gives it to the woman to keep (as a protection)
Term
Items you need, by Law
Definition
Tallit: a fringed garment
• Tephillin: a black box contain the Torah, one on your forehead and one on your arm (attached with leather)
• From the Greek, Phylactories
• Mezuzah: box containing some text from the Torah nailed to the door
Term
Havdalah
Definition
: ceremony ending the Sabbath
• Havdalah candle: two twisted around in a helix
Term
Capital punishment
Definition
Stoning, burning, decapitation, and strangulation
• Stoning was actually being thrown off a cliff
• Burning, your stuff molten stuff down their throat
• Strangulation, upside down with ropes around your neck and people ran in opposite directions
• Decapitation was merely an up or down decision
Term
three things the world stands on (Opening text of the Mishna)
Definition
• The Torah
• Worship
• Acts of kindness
Term
Alenu
Definition
“it is upon us”/it’s our obligation – to praise God for making us different from everyone else
Term
Kaddish
Definition
Written in Aramaic
• Praises God in all different ways
• Whoever was mourning a relative had the honor of leading this prayer; so it became a prayer of mourning
• Parent, child, sibling, or spouse = close relative
Term
Ashkenazic
Definition
Jews from Christian countries
Term
Sephardic –
Definition
Jews from North Africa, Muslim Countries (Spain)
Term
Nachmanides
Definition
Term
Maimonides
Definition
Moses Ben Maimon
• Mishneh Torah – a teaching of Torah, in which he lays out the law
• Lists the 613 commandments from the Torah
Term
Shulhan Arukh
Definition
“the set table”, Joseph Karo
• Expands on the Mishneh Torah
• If you crack an egg and there’s a spot of blood, it must be thrown away if it’s in the yolk; if it’s in the white, it can be cut out.
Term
13 Principles of Faith
Definition
Maimonides
Term
Judah Halevy
Definition
Khazars-
Tried to make his country Jewish
• Wrote the Kuzari, as a work of philosophy
• Makes a philosophical argument in support of Judaism
Term
Geniza
Definition
Term
Rosh Hashanah
Definition
the New Year
• Takes place in the beginning of the fall.
• In Leviticus, you’re supposed to hold a sacred festival.
• Apples and honey are associated with RH.
• Biblically, you have to blow a ram’s horn (shofar).
• You’re supposed to reflect and try to do better next year.
• 10 Days of Repentance
Term
Tenth day of Rosh Hashanah
Definition
Day of Atonement; Yom Kippur
• On Yom Kippur you don’t:
• Eat
• Bathe
• Wear leather shoes
• YK – you spend the whole day in the temple and read the book of Jonah.
Term
Sukkot
Definition
Feast of Tabernacles – Sukkot
• Lasts for eight days (comes five days after Yom Kippur)
• Eat fruit
• Live in a sukka
• Take a lulav (a palm branch with some other branches) and hold it with an etrog (a citron) and shake them to the north, south, east, and west and say prayers.
• Essentially it’s a harvest festival.
• The last day (of the eight) is Simhat Torah – the joy of the Torah
• You read the last column of Deuteronomy, and then roll up the scroll and immediately read the beginning of Genesis, symbolizing the never-ending study of the Torah.
Term
Passover
Definition
Lasts for seven days
• Seder night
• Matzah Pesah
• Spring holiday
Term
Shavuot
Definition
Feast of Weeks – Shavuot
• The summer holiday
• Celebrates the giving of the Torah at Mt. Sinai
Term
Hannukah
Definition
dedication, Maccabee etc.
Term
Purim
Definition
Celebrates the events in Esther
Term
Ninth of Ab – Tisha b’Ab
Definition
The only sad Jewish holiday
• You think about all the bad things that have happened in life.
Term
Most important Jewish holiday
Definition
Sabbath
Term
Ghetto
Definition
italian word referring to walled-off areas where the Jews were forced to live; first in Venice
Term
Exclusions of Israel/Jews:
Definition
UN Security Council, until they were accepted into a European regional group
• Jewish professors of the Bible were not hired in the US until the 60s; there’s still only one in Europe.
• The Red Cross does not work in Israel because they insist on using the cross symbol – except in Muslim countries where they use a red crescent.
• In USSR, ID papers listed nationality as “Jew” – not Polish, Ukrainian, etc.
Term
Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Definition
a book claiming the elders in Judaism are plotting to take over the world.
Term
Spain expels the Jews (Inquisition)
Definition
1492
Term
Portugal expels the Jews (because the prince of Portugal married a princess of Spain)
Definition
1496
Term
Conversos
Definition
Jews who pretended to convert in Spain (aka Marranos – pigs)
Term
Pogrom:
Definition
everyone in town who’s not Jewish beats up everybody who is. Break windows, steal their stuff, sometimes they were killed.
Term
Goy(im)
Definition
Hebrew for ‘nation;’ on par with the n-word in its reference to non-Jews.
Term
Shiksa
Definition
comes from the creation o f bugs; derogatory term for a non-Jewish woman.
Term
Baal Shem Tov
Definition
Founder of Hasidism
Term
Moses Mendelson
Definition
Germal Philosopher
Term
Felix Mendelson
Definition
Composer; grandson of Moses Mendelson
Term
Benjamin Disraeli
Definition
prime minister under Victoria
Term
Beilis Case
Definition
1911
• A young Christian boy was found murdered; Jews were accused.
• Blood libel: the belief that the Jews put the blood of an uncircumcised Christian boy in their matzah on Passover.
• Beilis, a Jewish man, was put in prison for two years. When he was finally put on trial, he was acquitted.
Term
German Emancipation
Definition
emancipation (freedom) of the Jews; could go to school, get jobs, etc. German Jews were the most assimilated and had it better than many other Jews.
Term
Yid:
Definition
German for Jew
Term
Yiddish
Definition
Jewish (language)
• Composite of old German and Hebrew
Term
Ladino
Definition
A mixture of Spanish and Hebrew; developed in Spain
Term
I. L. Peretz
Definition
Excellent writer
Term
Klesmer
Definition
Jewish music (played on Jewish TV weddings)
• Originated in Eastern Europe
Term
Kol Nidre
Definition
Term
Neshama
Definition
literally translated, “soul”
Term
Al Jolson
Definition
Term
Sabra
Definition
native born Israeli
Term
Leo Frank
Definition
Jewish Northerner who owned a pencil factory in Atlanta
• A young girl who worked at the factory was found dead; Frank was convicted, even though it was known that someone else did it.
• Sentenced to execution; the governor commuted the sentence to life imprisonment (thinking evidence would exonerate him). A crowd broke into the prison and lynched him.
• Greatly increased the power of the Klan; the participants were blatant (a police officer, the prosecutor, a governor’s son, senator, etc. took part) and took pictures.
Term
Holocaust
Definition
Burnt offering from the septuagint
Term
Main work of Kabbalah; a multi-volume work; main text; Aramaic (but the Aramaic is unique; not what was spoken in Biblical times) w/ some Hebrew
Definition
Zohar
Term
Reform movement
Definition
Excluded more of the tradition and focused on the religious aspect. Tried to assimilate.
• Moved the Sabbath to Sunday (now all but one has changed back to Saturday).
• Ate pork, worked on Sabbath, etc.
Term
Orthodox
Definition
Moved towards tradition (in response to Reform)
• Many from Germany
Term
Conservative
Definition
The liberal movement.
• The native American sect of Judaism.
• Formed after a reform movement dinner during which shellfish was served.
• Zechariah Frankel – the leader of the Conservative movement
• How much do you observe?
• We agree with reform that the law can change, but we don’t agree that it can change by revolution – only be evolution (natural development through the life of the community).
• So if Jews started eating pork to where 95% were, at that point the rabbis at that age could allow pork (but they can’t do it preemptively).
• Socio-economic changes (the development of suburbs) affected the religion (whether or not you had to walk or could drive to the synagogue).
Term
Zechariah Frankel
Definition
leader of the conservative movement
Term
Reconstructionist movement
Definition
Developed within the conservative movement
• Started by Mordecai Kaplan
• Professor at Jewish theological seminary
Term
Die Endlosung
Definition
Final Solution
Term
Anschluss
Definition
the annexation of Austria
Term
Kabbalah
Definition
The mystical form of Judaism
Term
Doctrine of Kabbalah
Definition
when you do good or evil, when you perform a ritual, observe the Sabbath, etc. – it’s not just an act in the world, you are participating in God, and putting the world back together.
Term
G. Scholem
Definition
pioneered the scholarly field of Kabbalah
Term
Shabbetai Zevi
Definition
claimed to be the messiah in Eastern Europe; later converted to Islam
Term
Shtetl
Definition
village
Term
priest, judge and prophet from Shiloh
Definition
Samuel
Term
Saul is from what tribe?
Definition
Benjamin
Term
Babi Yar
Definition
Lined up thousands of Jews and mowed them down with guns; the Jews were later accused of doing the same thing at the begging of the state of Israel.
Term
laws for the king
Definition
cannot have too many wives, too much money, or too many horses, and must be chosen by God (a prophet) an cannot go to egypt
Term
Ishbaal
Definition
son of Saul "man of God:"
Term
earliest reference to Israel
Definition
Pharaoh Merneptah erected a stella for victory over Israel
Term
oldest complete Bible
Definition
Leningrad Codex
Term
Abimelek
Definition
son of Gideon; killed his brothers and set himself up as king for a little while
Term
Jebusites
Definition
people from Jerusalem
Term
countries surrouning Israel
Definition
Edom, Moab, Ammon (Jordan) Aram, Philistia (Syria) Phoenecia, (Lebanon)
Term
tel
Definition
big flat building like a mesa found in escavations
Term
3 goddesses
Definition
Asherah, Ishtar, Anat
Term
Yamm
Definition
god of ocean, sea
Term
4 possible things that made the Israelites an identifiable people
Definition
1) Isarelistes libed in Hill country some in teh low lands; reamin separate; chariots and agriculture make different societies
2) Peasant revolt; rebelled against kings and united; Marxists scholars
3) Israelites were Canaanites. but a group of them had an experience of slavery in Egypt; led out by Moses who worshipped Yahweh
4) Conquest; biblical account
Term
one monotheistic pharaoh
Definition
IkhnAten - Aten=sun god
Term
2nd reference to Israel
Definition
Mesha stella - Moabite king refers to defeating Onri king of Israel
Term
First Aaronid priest
Definition
Zadok from Judah
Term
First Mushite priest
Definition
Abiathar from the north
Term
professional army
Definition
Cheritites & Peletites
Term
backers of Adonijah without luck
Definition
Joab and Abiathar
Term
three cities built by Solomon
Definition
Meggido, Hazor, Gezer
Term
corvee
Definition
public works projects; labor taxing; reminiscent of slave labor
Term
missim
Definition
task master
Term
Solomon meets people here when he first becomes king
Definition
Shechem
Term
priest who backs Jeroboam but is disenfranchised
Definition
Ahijah
Term
suzerain
Definition
over king; empreror
Term
vassal
Definition
conquered king
Term
Components to Treaty documents that are similar to the 10 commandments
Definition
1) Introduction - in 1st person by the Suz. 2) Historical Prologue- how it all went down; history of what the suz. did for the vassal 3) Prime stipulation - no other suzerain before me 4) Remaining stipulations
Term
how must you treat an alien according to the law
Definition
the same as a citizen
Term
ugarit
Definition
semitic language with passage about the kid and the milk
Term
shaatnez
Definition
garment from wool and linen; worn by high priest and forbidden to others
Term
herem
Definition
total destruction warfare
Term
said "they'll beat their swords into plowshares"
Definition
first Isaiah then Micah
Term
hosea's kids names
Definition
lo ammi "not my children" and lo ruhana - "no mercy"
Term
Miracle of Isaiah (Hezekiah?)
Definition
shadow goes backwards
Term
Pentateuch
Definition
"five scrolls" 5 books of Moses
Term
originator of the documentary hypothesis
Definition
Welhausen
Term
Penu-el
Definition
face of God; where Jacob wrestles with God
Term
hellas/hellenization
Definition
greece/greekifying
Term
dynasty of the Maccabbean family
Definition
Hasmonean
Term
Rabbi who goes out to meet Titus in a coffin
Definition
Yohanan Ben Zakkai
Term
Founder of Yeshiva at Yabneh
Definition
Yohanan ben Zakkai
Term
Judah Hannasi
Definition
Mishna; political and administrative leader
Term
Pharasaic tradition
Definition
respect for learning and Torah pervades life
Term
Oral Torah
Definition
passed from Moses to Joshua to the elders to the prophets to the great assembly to the rabbis
Term
leader of 135 CE rebellion
Definition
Bar Kochba
Term
Rabbi Akiba
Definition
president of the jews said that bar kochba was the messiah
Term
nasi
Definition
prince; president of the jews
Term
6 orders of the Mishna
Definition
1. Damages (torts) Nizikin 2. Holidays - Moed 3. Women -Nashim 4. Seeds - Zeraim - Agricultural law 5. Holiness - Kedoshim 6. Purity - Taharot
Term
number of tractates in the mishna (volumes)
Definition
63
Term
halakhah
Definition
law; required
Term
ahhadah
Definition
stories
Term
gemara
Definition
completion of the teaching: Palestinian and Babylonian (babylonian more prevalent)
Term
Talmud
Definition
Mishna plus Gemara plus some Rashi
Term
tosephot
Definition
additions to Rashi; other commentaries
Term
year of talmud?
Definition
500 ce
Term
3 main things in Judaism
Definition
Torah, God and Israel
Term
shema
Definition
"love the lord your god with all your hear, sould and mind and love your neighbor as yourself"
Term
Amidah
Definition
18; 18 blessings of God (but there actually 19 which says God hsould defeat the evil sayers, traitor Jews)
Term
Huppah
Definition
canopy for wedding ceremony
Term
tallit
Definition
fringed garment
Term
tephillim
Definition
phylactories; pair of black leather boxes with text inside
Term
mezuzah
Definition
box with scroll inside with text in hebrew nailed to the door
Term
havdalah
Definition
ceremony of division: includes wine, candles and spices
Term
shofar
Definition
rams horn blown on holidays
Term
Maimonides
Definition
moses son of Maimon; greek name; believed talmud was too much for people; listed the 613 laws; wrote Mishneh Torah; Wrote Shulhan Arukh which means "set table" expand 4 volumes; "Guide for the people" and "13 principles of faith"
Term
geniza
Definition
storage place in ground or sealed building; started one in Cairo for old documents; early 1900's brought to Cambridge University;
Term
Judah Halevy
Definition
interested in king of Khazars; wrote Kuzari; makes philosophical argument for why Judaism is good
Term
Mohel
Definition
performs circumcision
Term
shivah
Definition
sitting for 7 days to mourn
Term
yahrzeit
Definition
one year anniversary of death
Term
kaddish
Definition
prayer said over the dead
Term
Rosh Hashanah
Definition
Jewish New Year; beginning of fall; sacred festival; apples and honey; blow a ram's horn; 10 days of repentance 10th day is Yom Kippur
Term
Yom Kippur
Definition
don't eat, drink, bathe, annoint yourself or wear leather shoes; read the book of Jonah; Most sacred holiday
Term
Feast of Tabernacles
Definition
Sukkot; 5 days after yom kippur; 8 days long; eats lots of fuit and take lulav and palm branch and hold in hand with etros (citron) and shake north south east and west; last day = Simhat Torha =joy of torah; lread last column of Deut and finish scroll and go back to Genesis then sing, dance and drink
Term
Passover (Pesah in Hebrew)
Definition
1st month of spring, 1st of the month; aka Feast of Unleavened Bread; no beer or yeast or bread except Matzah bread; big meal = seder dinner; tell passover story; 7 days; Seder night is the first night
Term
Feast of Weeks
Definition
Shavuot; 49 days after passover; summer holiday; celebrates the giving of Torah at mt. Sinai
Term
Purim
Definition
Esther and Jews in Persian empire saved
Term
Rashi's three possibilites for the fruit on the tree
Definition
1)fig tree 2) wheat 3)the fruit of the knowledge of good and evil
Term
Ashkenazic
Definition
German Jews (Jews in christain countries)
Term
Sephardic
Definition
Jews from Spain (Jews in Muslim countries)
Term
cantor
Definition
song leader; had to male until reformed Judaism
Term
Hapertorah
Definition
goes with torah portion; sometimes thematically; reading from the prophets
Term
distinctions of Judaism
Definition
1) not just a religion 2) religion of law 3)Non-theological; anthropocentric 4) Religion of History
Term
deicide
Definition
killing god
Term
Jewish military for with temple in egypt for YHWH and 2 others; destroyed
Definition
Elephantine
Term
Chabod
Definition
extremely open to non-jews; accepting of Jew unlike themselves; Lubav, Poland
Term
Baal Shem Tov
Definition
developed Hasidic movement
Term
opposite of Chabod
Definition
Satmar; Hungarian Hasidism; not welcoming
Term
The Rebbi
Definition
Schneerson
Term
Beilis case
Definition
blood libel - christian boy killed; Jews blamed; arrested for it; blood of a christian boy put into Matzah bread at passover
Term
Louie Brandise
Definition
Jew on Supreme Court
Term
Kol Nidre
Definition
service on the night of Yom Kippur; all vows canceled
Term
Famous Jewish Baseball playersq
Definition
Hank Greenberg; Sandy Cofax
Term
Jonas Salk
Definition
developed polio vaccine
Term
NeShamama
Definition
Jewish Black soul music
Term
Jazz finger
Definition
first talking movie
Term
Leo Frank
Definition
Northern jew in ATL; ran a pencil factory; accused of murder; gov. changed sentence but mob lynched him; sparked the ADL
Term
ADL
Definition
Anti-defamation League: created especially to fight anti-semitism but expanded
Term
Zechariah Frankel
Definition
Founder of Conservative movement: law can change through evolution but not revolution
Term
Founder of Reconstructionist movement
Definition
Mordecai Kaplah
Term
central figure of Kabalah
Definition
Shabbetai Zevi; claimed to be Messiah
Term
simsum
Definition
contraction of God into a single point then god bust out from that point into 10 containers
Term
sefirot
Definition
10 indescribable things; levels of existence; all part of God
Term
En Sof
Definition
w/o end infinite point of infinite density; hebrew
Term
responsa
Definition
rabbis responses to contemporary problems
Term
Haredi
Definition
ultra orthodox; most intensely observant
Term
Hebrew word repentance means=
Definition
return
Term
author of the Shulhan Aruk
Definition
Joseph Karo
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