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For the final
International Studies
Undergraduate 2

Additional International Studies Flashcards




What was Reagan's situation when he entered office?
Cold War
Iran-Contra Affair
Bollan Amendments to Appropriations bill,
we didn’t think we should be overthrowing governments, amendments passed - it was illegal to send money to contras and overthrow government,
arms embargo on Iran,
Congress can’t buy and sell weapons to Iran,
Israel would give arms that we gave them to Iran and money we would give Israel would give money to contras, we broke these amendments,
a lot of people charged for breaking these laws,
was the President involved in breaking the law?
he was not directly involved,
problem for his administration
What was Reagan's policy toward Arab-Israeli conflict?
Carter started this,
Reagan follows this tradition,
wants to recognize Palestinian homeland,
wants some pull in Israel, but Israel doesn’t listen,
Israel remains defined and problems break out,
this of the time of terrorism,
when PLO chose route of terrorism,
Reagan caught in middle because some people wanted to stop PLO which lead into conflict with Israel
Reagan on Nuclear War possibility
We can fight and win a nuclear war,
“Yes there could be a limited nuclear war in Europe” “
We have to fire a warning shot at the Sov Un, warning of US intentions to begin a nuclear war.”
Secretary of State Haig - not good news to European allies and even people in US,
Reagan approves Natl Sec Dec Doc (NSDD) committing US to fight and win nuc global war
General Situation
Carter - reducing perceived US-Sov strategy and European imbalance of arms
Continued Soviet arms build up
Perceptions that imbalance had grown worse
Carter - reducing conv arms trade
But conv arms trade
American prestige seems to be slipping
Carter - restore amer power influence, prestige in 3rd world and elsewhere US seemed to be losing ground
In Southwest Asia
Iran: fall of Shah and hostage crisis (11/4/79)
Afghanistan: Dec 1979
In Africa
Angola: since independence from Portugal - 1975 (Sov equipment and 12 k Cuban troops to help MPLA)
Ethiopia: 1977-78, Sov Equipment, 17,000 Cuban soldiers
Namibia: Since 1966 SWAPO (SW African Peoples Organization - with Cuban and Sov support)
In Asia
Philippines/Marcos: New People's Army: communist, Moro National Liberation Front: muslim group
In Western Hemisphere
Nicaragua - Sandinistas take control in 1979
El Salvador - Farabundo Marti (Popular Liberation Forces - FMLN since 1970)
Guatemala - since 1960s, EGP (Guerilla Army of the Poor), ORPA (Revolutionary Org of Armed People), FAR (Rebel Armed Forces), PGT (Guatemalan Labor Party)
Grenada: 1979 New Jewell Movement
Cuba: (with Sov help); supports communist movements in hemisphere, Marielitos incident (1980), Soviet Combat Brigade (fall 1979)
Panama: Canal had been "given away"
Many leaders who had supported the US felt abandoned
Humans Rights abuses everywhere (Haiti, Dom Rep, Argentina)
Conv arms trade continued to grow
Some Successes
Camp David Accords
Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty - 1979
Phased withdrawal from Sinai - full diplo relations
Begin negs with Palestinians in West Bank/Gaza
US identifies with black African nationalism
Trade improves and Carter rep high
Somalia: Soviets expelled in 1977, US gains access to mil facilities
Reagan the candidate argues
While US disarming in 1970s, USSR arming
Sovs have exploited A/C process, US now threatened with "Window of Vulnerability"
Pres Carter had signed "fatally flawed SALT II"
Carter had abandoned many US friends in HR campaign
US place excessive faith in multi-lateral neg
During 1970s, US standing in world had fallen
Anemic, inflationary econ reduced US ability to provide intl leadership
Reagan the Man
willing to take risks
resilient in face of adversity
reputation as a winner
Reagan had little experience in foreign affairs and little interest
Reagan Beliefs
Devil Theory - USSR source of international insecurity
Major US build-up
Need to change America's mood to gain support
US needs to be pro-active
Nations needed to embrace private capitalism/reject managed economies
Support for friendly dictators
Major US build-up
Would thwart Sov nuc/conv threat
Would intimidate USSR into concessions in negs
Thus Reagan seeks mil superiority
Largest peacetime build-up in history
Approves construction of B-1 $3 B each
Orders stockpiling of RB/ER weapon
Renews production of poison gas for chem warfare
Enlarges navy - 450-600 ships
Beefs up special forces
Continues Trident II sub, CM, Stealth, MX, Midgetman
Approves mil maneuvers around globe
Pentagon spending $28 M/hour
Star Wars - 1983
Need to change America's mood to gain support
Eliminate self-doubt
Stimulate patriotism, reverse malaise
US needs to be pro-active
Result Reagan Doctrine: US opens support for anti-Commie revs
- CIA funds rebels in Afghanistan, Anti-C rebels in Angola
- Central America: Cuba used to advance communism in LA, bans tourism, restricts import of newspapers and magazines, denies official visas to Cubans to travel to US
- Fights leftists in El Salv and Guatemala
- Invades Grenada
US pro-active in Middle East
Reagan seeks to gain support for homeland for Palestinians and guarantee Israel security, but peace talks stall
Lebanon descends into civil war - invaded by Israel June 83, later occupied by Syria, US arrange for Israel and PLO to leave Beirut, American included in P’ keeping forces, Amer perceived as taking sides in civil war on side of Christians, US Embassy bombed, Marine barracks bombed, Reagan had insisted keeping Marines in Lebanon to be credible but withdraws Marines in Feb 84
Reagan blames much terrorism in ME and elsewhere on Libya and Gadhafi - saw Gadhafi as a stooge for USSR, tries to tackle and then invades
Nations needed to embrace private capitalism and reject managed economies
Deregulate, Denationalize, Decentralize
Support for friendly dictators
Iran and Nicaragua
Kirkpatrick: our authoritarians vs their totalitarians, ex. Philippines, Chile, S. Africa, S. Korea
US must serve as a model for other nations
US = econ miracle
World's hopes rest on America's future
"It is not arrogant to demand that others adopt our ways. it is a realistic belief in the relative and proven success of the American experiment
Reactions to Reagan
USSR publishes (Feb 1982): "Whence the Threat to Peace"
Broad appeals in US for restraint by wide variety of peace groups but also others:
American Medical Association - there is no adequate response to nuclear holocaust
Roman Catholic Bishops of US - condemn nuc arms as immoral because they kill indiscriminately and called end to arms race
Nov 1983 - ABC "The Day After": Scientists raised concerns about nuc winter
Europeans: Fall 1981: call for AC negs and ban on PII+CM, reacted violently to Reagan and Haig comments - concerned that US thinks nuc war is winnable
Reagan Responds
Begin INF talks in Geneva
May 1982 Pres announces SALT to replace START
Talks resume in June 1982
US proposes deep cuts
But cuts to fall on USSR's most important deterrent forces
March 23, 1983: Pres proposes SDI
Obstacle to Talks, inter alia
Sov leadership transitions - three leaders and then Gorbachev
KAL 007 shot down - Sep 1, 1983: shoot down airline
Reagan and Rise of Gorbachev
Dec 14, 1984: Thatcher meets Gorbachev and is impressed
Nov 1985: Gorby and Reagan meet in Geneva
Early 1986: Gorbachev calls for end to all nucs by 2000
Rekjavik Summit
October 1986
START agreement seemed close
Agreed to reduce WHs, missiles, and bombers on each side
agreed to remove all US and Sov INF from Eur
But meeting did not resolve SDI (Star Wars Strategic Defense Initiative)
Ending nucs in Russia
May 28, 1987: Mathias Rust flies from Helsinki to Red Square in Cessa 172B undetected
By Dec 1987 - INF Treaty signed: eliminates all conv, nuc ballistic + CMs - 500-5500 miles in Europe (US 846; USSR 1,846)
Signs of new friendliness in US Sov relations evident
But serious debate in US over whether Gorby just gaining time for USSR to strengthen itself
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