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Radiation
Revision on nuclear radiadion
24
Physics
10th Grade
12/16/2018

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Cards

Term
Describe the nature of  alpha particles
Definition

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An alpha particle is basically the nucleus of a Helium atom, consisting of 2 protons and 2 neutrons. Alpha particles can be emitted by very heavy, unstable radioactive nuclei that need to lose mass and become more stable.

Term
Describe the nature of Beta particles
Definition
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Term
Describe the nature of Gamma radiation
Definition

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Gamma radiation is a high energy electromagnetic radiation. It travels at 3 x 108 m.s-1

Term
State what is ionisation and describe what effect it has on a neutral atom
Definition

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Ionisation is when an atom gains or loses an electron. An electron is negative. When a neutal atom gains an electron it becomes negative and when it loses an electron it becomes positive 

Term

List alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of their ionising effects.

 

Justify your answer.

 

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Definition

Alpha is most ionising, whilst gamma is least ionising.

Alpha particles have a charge of 2+ and are larger than beta and gamma particles, therefore it is most ionising.

 

Beta is very small, but has a charge of -1, therefore it is mildly ionising.

 

Gamma on the other hand has no charge and moves as fast as the speed of light, therefore it is the least ionising. 

Term

List alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of their penertration ability. 

 

Justify your answer.

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Definition

Gamma is most penetrating, whilst alpha is the least penetrating. 

 

Gamma radiation is a high energy electromagnetic radiation (v=3x108m.s-1), therefore is most penetrating. Beta particles are very small and travels faster than alpha particles, but slower than gamma, therefore is mildly penetrating. Alpha partuicles are large and slow, therefore are the least penetrating.

Term

Define  activity in terms of the number of nuclear disintegrations and time.

 

What does the activity of 80 Bq mean?

Definition

Activity is the number of nuclei decaying per second.

An activity of 180 Bq means there are 180 nuclei decaying per  second.

 

Term

State the activity equation. 

 

List the units of each componenet of the equation.

Definition
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Term
List the main sources of background radiation
Definition
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Term
State what is equivalent dose
Definition

The EQUIVALENT DOSE is a measure of the biological effect of radiation.

Term
What does the equivalent dose take into account?
Definition

Equivalent dose takes into account:

Øabsorbed dose
Øand the type of radiation.
Term

The effect of an equivalent dose of 2 mSv of gamma radiation is                     an equivalent dose of 2 mSv of beta radiation.

Definition

The effect of an equivalent dose of 2 mSv of gamma radiation

is the same as  an equivalent dose of 2 mSv of beta radiation.

They are the same because equivalent dose takes into account the type of radiation.

Term

State the..... 

 

  1. Average annual background radiation in UK: 
  2.  Annual effective dose limit for member of the public: 
  3. Annual effective dose limit for radiation worker: 
Definition

 Average annual background radiation in UK: 2·2 mSv.

 

 Annual effective dose limit for member of the public:       1 mSv.

 

 Annual effective dose limit for radiation worker: 20 mSv.

Term
Hospitals are keen to reduce the amount of radiation   absorbed by patients to as low a dose as possible.  State   three factors which affect the risk of biological harm from   radiation.
Definition
type of tissue exposed
type of radiation
absorbed dose
Term

State the dangers of ionising radiation to living cells.

 

Why is there a need to measure the exposure to radiation?

Definition

The radiations from radioactive materials – alpha, beta and gamma radiation – are all ionising radiations which can damage living cells. This happens because ionising radiation can break molecules into bits called ions.

 

Measuring the exposure to radiation may help scientists to reduce the harmful effects of ionising radiation on living tissue in our body.

Term

Define half-life

 

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Definition

The HALF LIFE of a radioactive source is the time it takes for the activity to decrease by half.

Term
Describe nuclear fission in terms of a chain reaction
Definition
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Term
Describe nuclear fusion
Definition
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Term
Explain plasma containment during fusion reaction
Definition
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Term

How does the heat generated in fusion and fission reaction is used to generate electricity?

 

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Definition

The heat generated during the fission and fusion reactions heat the water. The water turns into steam. The steam turns the turbine, which turns magnets in a coil. This generates electricity. 

 

 

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Term
Describe uses of nuclear radiation in traces
Definition
ØA radioactive chemical is injected into the blood stream.
ØIt flows around the body and emits gamma radiation which penetrates out of the body.
ØThe path taken inside the body is detected by a gamma camera outside the body which will show any abnormalities.
Term
Describe radiotherapy
Definition
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Term

Convert the following to m:

  1. 5 nm
  2. 80 km
  3. 40 mm
  4. 700 μm
  5. 60 Mm
  6. 500 Gm
Definition

Convert the following to m:

  1. 5 nm = 5 x10-9 m
  2. 80 km = 80 x 103 m or 80 000m
  3. 40 mm = 40 x 10-3m or 0.04m
  4. 700 μm = 700 x 10-6 m or 0.0007m
  5. 6Mm = 6 x 106m or 6 000 000m
  6. 5Gm = 5 x 109m or 5 000 000 000m
Term

Write the equations for absorbed dose, equivalent

dose, and equivalent dose rate.

 

Also include the units of each component.

Definition
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