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Quiz 4 EMT A, Ch 5
Human Body
228
Health Care
Not Applicable
04/22/2012

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Term
abdomen
Definition
the body cavity that contains the major organs of digestion and excretion. it is located below the diaphragm.
Term
abduction
Definition
motion of a limb AWAY from the midline.
Term
acetabulum
Definition
the depression on the lateral pelvis where its three component bones join, in which the femoral head fits snugly.
Term
adam's apple
Definition
the firm prominence in the upper part of the larynx formed by the tyroid cartilage. it is more prominent in men than in women.
Term
adduction
Definition
motion of a limb TOWARD the midline.
Term
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Definition
the nucleotide involved in energy metabolism; used to store energy.
Term
adrenal glands
Definition
endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys that release adrenaline when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system.
Term
adrenergic
Definition
pertaining to nerves that release the neurotransmiter norpinephrine, or noradrenaline (such as adrenergic nerves, adrenergic response). the term also pertains to the receptors acted on by norepinephrine, that is, the adrenergic receptors.
Term
aerobic metabolism
Definition
metabolism that can proceed only in the presence of oxygen.
Term
agonal gasps
Definition
slow, gasping breaths, sometimes seen in dying patients.
Term
alpha-adrenergic receptors
Definition
portions of the nervous system that when stimulated can cause constriction of blood vessels.
Term
alveoli
Definition
the sir sacs of the lungs in which the exchange of carbon dioxide takes place.
Term
anaerobic metabolism
Definition
the metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen; the principal product is lactic acid.
Term
anatomic position
Definition
the position of reference in which the patient stands facing you, arms at the side, with palms of hands forward.
Term
anterior
Definition
the front surface of the body; the side facing you in the standard anatomic position.
Term
aorta
Definition
the principal artery leaving the left side of the heart and carrying freshly oxygenated blood to the body.
Term
apex (plural apices)
Definition
the pointed extremity of a conical structure.
Term
apnuestic center
Definition
portion of the pons that increases the length of inspiration and decreases the respiratory rate.
Term
appendicular skeleton
Definition
the portion of the skeleton that comprises the arms, legs, pelvis, and shoulder girdle.
Term
appendix
Definition
a small tubular structure that is attached to the lower border of the cecum in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen.
Term
arterioles
Definition
the smallest branch of arteries leading to the vast network of capillaries.
Term
atrium
Definition
one of the the two upper chambers of the heart.
Term
autonomic nervous system
Definition
the part of the nervous system that regulates functions, such as digestion and sweating, that are not controlled voluntarily.
Term
axial skeleton
Definition
the part of the skeleton comprising the skull, spinal column, and rib cage.
Term
ball-and-socket joint
Definition
a joint that allows internal and external rotation, as well as bending
Term
beta-adrenergic receptors
Definition
portions of the nervous system that when stimulated can cause an increase in the force of contraction of the heart, an increased heart rate, and bronchial dilation.
Term
biceps
Definition
the large muscle that covers the front of the humerus.
Term
bilateral
Definition
in anatomy, a body part that appears on both sides of the midline.
Term
bile ducts
Definition
the ducts that convey bile between te liver and the intestine.
Term
blood pressure (BP)
Definition
the pressure that the blood exterts against the walls of the arteries as it passes through them.
Term
brachial artery
Definition
the major vessel in the upper extremity that supplies blood to the arm.
Term
brain
Definition
the controlling organ of the body and center of consciousness; functions include perception, control of reactions to the environment, emotional responses, and judgment.
Term
brain stem
Definition
the area of the brain between the spinal cord and the cerebrum, surrounded by the cerebellum; controls functions that are necessary for life, such as respiration.
Term
capillary vessels
Definition
the tiny blood vessels between the arterioles and venules that permit transfer of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste between body tissues and the blood.
Term
cardiac muscle
Definition
the heart muscle.
Term
carotid artery
Definition
the major artery that supplies blood to the head and brain.
Term
cartilage
Definition
the support structure of the skeletal system that provides cushioning between bones; also forms the nasal septum and portions of the outer ear.
Term
cecum
Definition
the first part of the large intestine, into which the ileum opens.
Term
central nervous system (CNS)
Definition
the brain and the spinal cord.
Term
cerebellum
Definition
one of the three major subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the "little brain"; coordinates the various activities of the brain, particularly fine body movements.
Term
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Definition
fluid produced in the ventricles of the brain that flows in the subarachnoid space and bathes the meninges.
Term
cerebrum
Definition
the largest part of the three subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the "gray matter"; made up of several lobes that control movement, hearing, balance, speech, visual perception, emotions, and personality.
Term
cervical spine
Definition
the portion of the spinal column consisting of the first seven vertebrae that lie in the neck.
Term
chordae tendineae
Definition
thin bands of fibrous tissue that attach to the valves in the heart and prevent them from inverting.
Term
chyme
Definition
the name of the substance that leaves the stomach. it is a combination of all the eaten foods with added stomach acids.
Term
circulatory system
Definition
the complex arrangement of connected tube, including the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins, that moves blood, oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide, and cellular waste throughout the body.
Term
clavicle
Definition
the collarbone; it is lateral to the sternum and anterior to the scapula.
Term
coccyx
Definition
the last three or four vertebrae of the spine; the tailbone.
Term
coronal plane
Definition
an imaginary plane where the body is cut into front and back parts.
Term
cranium
Definition
the area of the head above the ears and eyes, the skull. the cranium contains the brain.
Term
cricoid cartilage
Definition
a firm ridge of cartilage that forms the lower part of the larynx.
Term
cricothyroid membrane
Definition
a thin sheet of fascia that connects the thyroid and cricoid cartilages that make up the larynx.
Term
dead space
Definition
any portion of the airway that does contain air and cannot participate in gas exchange, such as the trachea and bronchi.
Term
deep
Definition
further inside the body and away from the skin.
Term
dermis
Definition
the inner layer of skin, containing hair follicles, sweat glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels.
Term
diaphragm
Definition
a muscular dome that forms the undersurface of the thorax, separating the chest from the abdominal cavity. construction of the diaphragm (and the chest wall muscles) brings air into lungs. relaxation allows air to be expelled from the lungs.
Term
diastole
Definition
the relaxation, or period of relaxation, of the heart especially of the ventricles.
Term
diffusion
Definition
movement of a gas from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Term
digestion
Definition
the processing of food that nourishes the individual cells of the body.
Term
distal
Definition
farther from the trunk or nearer to the free end of the extremity.
Term
dorsal
Definition
the posterior surface of the body, including the back of the hand.
Term
dorsalis pedis artery
Definition
the artery on the anterior surface of the foot between the first and second metatarsals.
Term
dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
Definition
a portion of the medulla oblongata where the primary respiratory pacemaker is found.
Term
endocrine system
Definition
the complex message and control system that integrates many body functions, including the release of hormones.
Term
enzymes
Definition
substances catalysts designed to speed up the rate of specific biochemical reactions.
Term
epidermis
Definition
the outer layer of skin, which is made up of cells that are sealed together to form a watertight protective covering for the body.
Term
epiglottis
Definition
a thin, leaf-shaped valve that allows air to pass the trachea but prevents food and liquid from entering.
Term
epinephrine
Definition
a hormone produced by the adrenal medulla that has a vital role in the function of the sympathetic nervous system.
Term
esophagus
Definition
a collapsible tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach; contractions of the music in the wall of the esophagus propel food and liquids through it to the stomach.
Term
expiratory reserve volume
Definition
the amount of air that can be exhaled following a normal exhalation; average volume is about 1,200mL.
Term
extend
Definition
to straighten, the straightening of a joint.
Term
fallopian tubes
Definition
long, slender tubes that extend from the uterus to the region of the ovary on the same side and through which the ovum passes from the ovary to the uterus.
Term
femoral artery
Definition
the principal artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery. It supplies blood to the lower abdomenal wall, external genitalia, and legs. It can be palpated in the groin area.
Term
femoral head
Definition
the proximal end of the femur, articulating with the acetabulum to form the hip joint.
Term
femur
Definition
the thighbone; the longest and one of the strongest bones in the body.
Term
flex
Definition
to bend.
the bending of a joint.
Term
foramen magnum
Definition
a large opening at the base of the skull through which the brain connects to the spinal cord.
Term
gallbladder
Definition
a sac on the undersurface of the liver that collects bile from the liver and discharges it into the duodenum through the common bile duct.
Term
genital system
Definition
the reproductive system in males and females.
Term
germinal layer
Definition
the deepest layer of the epidermis where new skin cells are formed.
Term
greater trochanter
Definition
a bony prominence on the proximal lateral side of the thigh, just below theĀ  hip joint.
Term
hair follicles
Definition
the small organs that produce hair.
Term
heart
Definition
a hollow muscular organ that pumps blood through out the body.
Term
heart rate
Definition
the number of heartbeats during a specific time.
Term
Hering-Breuer reflex
Definition
a protective mechanism that terminates inhalation, thus preventing over-expansion of the lungs.
Term
hinge joints
Definition
joints that can bend and straighten but cannot rotate; they restrict motion to one plane.
Term
hormones
Definition
substances formed in specialized organs or glands and carried to another organ or group of cells in the same organism. Hormones regulate many body functions, including metabolism, growth, and body temperature.
Term
humerus
Definition
the supporting bone of the upper arm.
Term
hydrostatic pressure
Definition
the pressure of water against the walls of its container.
Term
hypoxia drive
Definition
A "backup system" to control respiration; senses drops in the oxygen level in the blood.
Term
ilium
Definition
one of three that fuse to form the pelvic ring.
Term
inferior
Definition
below a body part or nearer to the feet.
Term
inferior vena cava
Definition
one of the largest veins in the body; carries blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic and abdominal organs to the heart.
Term
inspiratory reserve volume
Definition
the amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal inhalation; the amount of air that can be inhaled in addition to the normal tidal volume.
Term
interstitial space
Definition
the space in between the cells.
Term
involuntary muscle
Definition
the muscle over which a person has no conscious control. It is found in many automatic regulating systems of the body.
Term
ischium
Definition
one of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.
Term
joint (articulation)
Definition
the place where two bones come into contact.
Term
joint capsule
Definition
the fibrous sac that encloses a joint.
Term
kidneys
Definition
two retro-peritoneal organs that excrete the end products of metabolism as urine and regulate the body's salt and water content.
Term
labored breathing
Definition
the use of muscles of the chest, back and abdomen to assist in expanding the chest; occurs when air movement is impaired.
Term
lactic acid
Definition
a metabolic end product of the breakdown of glucose that accumulates when metabolism proceeds in the absence of oxygen.
Term
large intestine
Definition
the portion of the digestive tube that encircles the abdomen around the small bowel, consisting of the cecum, the colon, and the rectum. It helps regulate water balance and eliminate solid waste.
Term
lateral
Definition
in anatomy, parts of the body that lie farther from the midline. Also called outer structures.
Term
lesser trochanter
Definition
the projection on the medial/superior portion of the femur.
Term
ligament
Definition
a band of fibrous tissue that connects bones to bones. It supports and strengthens a joint.
Term
liver
Definition
large solid organ that lies in the right upper quadrant immediately below the diaphragm; it produces bile, stores glucose for immediate use by the body, and produces many substances that help regulate immune responses.
Term
mandible
Definition
the bone of the lower jaw.
Term
manubrium
Definition
the upper quarter of the sternum.
Term
maxillae
Definition
the upper jawbones that assist in the formation of the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the palate and hold the upper teeth.
Term
medial
Definition
parts of the body that lie closer to the midline; also called inner structures.
Term
medula oblongata
Definition
nerve tissue that is continuous inferiorly with the spinal cord; serves as a conduction pathway for ascending and descending nerve tracts; coordinates heart rate, blood vessel diameter, breathing, swallowing, vomiting, coughing, and sneezing.
Term
midbrain
Definition
the part of the brain that is responsible for helping to regulate the level of consciousness.
Term
midsagittal plane (midline)
Definition
an imaginary vertical line drawn from the middle of the forehead through the nose and the umbilicus (navel) to the floor.
Term
minute volume
Definition
the amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs per minute minus the dead space. Also called minute ventilation.
Term
motor nerves
Definition
nerves that carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body.
Term
mucous membranes
Definition
the lining of body cavities and passages that communicate directly or indirectly with the environment outside the body.
Term
musculoskeletal system
Definition
the bones and voluntary muscles of the body.
Term
myocardium
Definition
the heart muscle.
Term
nasopharynx
Definition
the part of the pharynx that lies above the level of the roof of the mouth, or palate.
Term
nervous system
Definition
the system that controls virtually all activities of the body, both voluntary and involuntary.
Term
norepinephrine
Definition
a neurotransmitter and drug sometimes used in the treatment of shock; produces vasoconstriction through its alpha-stimulator properties.
Term
oncotic pressure
Definition
the pressure of water to move, typically into the capillary, as the result of the presence of plasma proteins.
Term
orbit
Definition
the eye socket, made up of the maxilla and zygoma.
Term
oropharynx
Definition
a tubular structure that extends vertically from the back of the mouth to the esophagus and trachea.
Term
ovaries
Definition
female glands that produce sex hormones and ova (eggs).
Term
palmar
Definition
the forward facing part of the hand in the anatomic position.
Term
pancreas
Definition
flat, solid organ that lies below the liver and the stomach; it is a major source of digestive enzymes and produces the hormone insulin.
Term
parasympthetic nervous system
Definition
a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system, involved in control of involuntary vegetative functions, mediated largely by the vagus nerve through the chemical acetylcholine.
Term
parietal regions
Definition
the areas between the temporal and occipital regions of the cranium.
Term
patella
Definition
the kneecap; a specialized bone that lies within the tendon of the quadriceps muscle.
Term
pathophysiology
Definition
the study of how normal physiologic processes are affected by disease.
Term
perfusion
Definition
the circulation of oxygenated blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells' current needs.
Term
peripheral nervous system
Definition
the part of the nervous system that consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves. These peripheral nerves may be sensory nerves, motor nerves, or connecting nerves.
Term
peristalsis
Definition
the wavelike contraction of smooth muscle by which the ureters or other tubular organs propel their contents
Term
plantar
Definition
the surface of the feet.
Term
plasma
Definition
a sticky, yellow fluid that carries the blood cells and nutrients and transports cellular waste materials to the organs of excretion.
Term
platelets
Definition
tiny, disk-shaped elements that are much smaller than cells; they are essential in the initial formation of blood clot, the mechanism that stops bleeding.
Term
pleura
Definition
the serous membranes covering the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity, completely enclosing a potential space known as the pleural space.
Term
pleural space
Definition
the potential space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura. It is described as "potential" because under normal conditions, the space does not exist.
Term
pneuotaxic (potine) center
Definition
a portion of the pons that assists in creating shorter, faster respirations.
Term
pons
Definition
an organ that lies below the midbrain and above the medulla and contains numerous important nerve fibers, including those for sleep, respiration, and the medullary respiratory center.
Term
posterior
Definition
in anatomy, the back surface of the body; the side away from you in the standard anatomic position.
Term
posterior tibial artery
Definition
the artery just behind the medial malleolus; supplies blood to the foot.
Term
prostate gland
Definition
a small gland that surrounds the male urethra where it emerges from the urinary bladder; it secretes a fluid that is part of the ejaculatory fluid.
Term
proximal symphysis
Definition
a hard bony and cartilaginous prominence found at the midline in the lowermost portion of the abdomen where the two halves of the pelvic ring are joined by cartilage at a joint with minimal motion.
Term
pubis
Definition
one of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.
Term
pulmonary artery
Definition
the major artery leading from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs; it carries oxygen-poor blood.
Term
pulmonary circulation
Definition
the flow of blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary arteries and all of their branches and capillaries in the lungs and back to the left atrium through the venules and pulmonary veins; also called the lesser circulation.
Term
pulmonary veins
Definition
the four veins that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Term
pulse
Definition
the wave of pressure created as the heart contracts and forces blood out the left ventricle and into the major arteries.
Term
quadrants
Definition
the way to describe the sections of the abdominal cavity. Imagine two lines intersecting at the umbilicus dividing the abdomen into four equal areas.
Term
radial artery
Definition
the major artery in the forearm; it is palpable at the wrist on the thumb side.
Term
radius
Definition
the bone on the thumb side of the forearm.
Term
rectum
Definition
the lowermost end of the colon.
Term
red blood cells
Definition
cells that carry oxygen to the body's tissues;also called erythrocytes.
Term
renal pelvis
Definition
a cone-shaped collecting area that connects the ureter and the kidney.
Term
residual volume
Definition
the air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration.
Term
respiration
Definition
the inhaling and exhaling of air; the physiologic process that exchanges carbon dioxide from fresh air.
Term
respiration system
Definition
all the structures of the body that contribute to the process of breathing, consisting of the upper and lower airways and their component parts.
Term
reticular activating system
Definition
located in the upper brain stem; responsible for maintenance of consciousness, specifically one's levels of arousal.
Term
retroperitoneal
Definition
behind the abdominal cavity.
Term
sacroiliac joint
Definition
the connection point between the pelvis and the vertebral column.
Term
sacrum
Definition
one of three bones (sacrum and two pelvic bones) that make up the pelvic ring; consists of five fused sacral vertebrae.
Term
sagittal (lateral) plane
Definition
an imaginary line where the body is cut into left and right parts.
Term
salivary glands
Definition
the glands that produce saliva to keep the mouth and pharynx moist.
Term
scalp
Definition
the thick skin covering the cranium, which usually bears hair.
Term
scalpula
Definition
the shoulder blade.
Term
scabaceous glandss.
Definition
glands that produce an oily substance called sebum, which discharges along the shafts of the hairs.
Term
semen
Definition
seminal fluid ejaculated from the penis and containing sperm.
Term
seminal vesicles
Definition
storage sacs for sperm and seminal fluid, which empty into the urethra at the prostate.
Term
sensory nerves
Definition
the nerves that carry sensations of touch, taste, heat, cold, pain, and other modalities from the body to the central nervous system.
Term
shock l.
Definition
an abnormal state associated with inadequate oxygen and nutrient delivery to the metabolic apparatus of the cell.
Term
shoulder girdle
Definition
the proximal portion of the upper extremity, made up of the clavicle, the scapula, and the humerus.
Term
skeletal muscle
Definition
muscle that is attached to bones and usually crosses at least one joint; striated, or voluntary, muscle.
Term
skeleton
Definition
the framework that gives the body its recognizable form; also designed to allow motion of the body and protection of vital organs.
Term
small intestine
Definition
the portion of the digestive tube between the stomach and the cecum, consisting of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
Term
smooth muscle
Definition
involuntary muscle; it constitutes the bulk of the gastrointestinal tract and is present in nearly every organ to regulate automatic activity.
Term
somatic nervous system
Definition
the part of the nervous system that regulates activities over which there is voluntary control.
Term
sphincters
Definition
muscles arranged in circles that are able to decrease the diameter of tubes. Examples are found within the rectum, bladder, and blood vessels.
Term
sphygmomanometer
Definition
a device used to measure blood pressure.
Term
spinal cord
Definition
an extension of the brain, composed of virtually all the nerves carrying messages between the brain and the rest of the body. It lies inside of and is protected by the spinal canal.
Term
sternum
Definition
the breastbone.
Term
stratum corneal layer
Definition
the outermost or dead layer of the skin.
Term
stroke volume (SV)
Definition
the volume of blood pumped forward with each ventricular contraction.
Term
superficial
Definition
closer to or on the skin.
Term
superior
Definition
a above a body part or nearer to the head.
Term
superior vena cava
Definition
one of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the upper extremities, head, neck, and chest into the heart.
Term
sweat glands
Definition
the glands that secrete sweat, located in the dermal layer of the skin.
Term
symphysis
Definition
a type of joint that has grown together forming a very stable connection.
Term
synovial fluid
Definition
the small amount of liquid within a joint used as lubrication.
Term
synovial membrane
Definition
the lining of a joint that secretes synovial fluid into the joint space.
Term
systemic circulation
Definition
the portion of the circulatory system outside of the heart and lung.
Term
systemic vascular resistance (SVR)
Definition
the resistance that blood must overcome to be able to move within the blood vessels. SVR is related to the amount of dilation or constriction in the blood vessel.
Term
systole
Definition
the contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially that of the ventricles.
Term
temporal regions
Definition
the lateral portions on each side of the cranium.
Term
tendons
Definition
the fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
Term
testicle
Definition
a male genital gland that contains specialized cells that produce hormones and sperm.
Term
thoracic cage
Definition
the chest or rib cage.
Term
thoracic cavity
Definition
the chest cavity that contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, and great vessels.
Term
thoracic spine
Definition
the 12 vertebrae that lie between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. One pair of ribs is attached to each of the thoracic vertebrae.
Term
thorax
Definition
the chest cavity that contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, and great vessels.
Term
thyroid cartilage
Definition
a firm prominence of cartilage that forms the upper part of the larynx; the Adam's apple.
Term
tibia
Definition
the shin bone, the larger of the two bones of the lower leg.
Term
tidal volume
Definition
the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one relaxed breath; about 500mL for an adult.
Term
topographic volume
Definition
the superficial landmarks of the body that serve as guides to the structures that lie beneath them.
Term
torso
Definition
the truck without the head and limbs.
Term
trachea
Definition
the windpipe; the main trunk for air passing to and from the lungs.
Term
transverse (axial) plane
Definition
an imaginary line where the body is cut into top and bottom parts.
Term
triceps
Definition
the muscle in the back of the upper arm.
Term
tunica media
Definition
the middle and thickest layer of tissue of a blood vessel wall, composed of elastic tissue and smooth muscle cells that allow the vessel to expand or contract in response to changes in blood pressure and tissue demand.
Term
ulna
Definition
the inner bone of the forearm, on the side opposite the thumb.
Term
ureter
Definition
a small, hollow tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
Term
urethra
Definition
the canal that conveys urine from the bladder to outside the body.
Term
urinary bladder
Definition
a sac behind the pubic symphysis made of smooth muscle that collects and stores urine.
Term
urinary system
Definition
the organs that control the discharge of certain waste materials filtered from the blood and excreted as urine.
Term
vagina
Definition
a muscular distensible tube that connects the uterus with the vulva (the external female genitalia); also called the birth canal.
Term
vasa deferentia
Definition
the spermatic duct of the testicles; also called vas deferens.
Term
ventilation
Definition
the movement of air between the lungs and the environment.
Term
ventral
Definition
the anterior surface of the body.
Term
ventral respiratory group (VRG)
Definition
a portion of the medulla oblongata that is responsible for modulating breathing during speech.
Term
ventricle
Definition
one of two lower chambers of the heart.
Term
vertebrae
Definition
the 33 bones that make up the spinal column.
Term
voluntary muscle
Definition
muscle that is under direct voluntary control of the brain and can be contracted or relaxed at will; skeletal, or striated, muscle.
Term
V/Q ratio
Definition
a measurement that examines how much gas is being moved effectively and how much blood is gaining access to the alveoli.
Term
white blood cells
Definition
blood cells that have a role in the body's immune defense mechanisms against infection; also called leukocytes.
Term
xipoid process
Definition
the narrow cartilaginous lower tip of the sternum.
Term
zygomas
Definition
the quadrangular bones of the cheek, articulating with the frontal bone, the maxillae; the zygomatic processes of the temporal bone, and the great wings of the sphenoid bone.
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