# Shared Flashcard Set

Quant Methods
Test 1
28
Geography
Undergraduate 3
01/30/2011

## Cards Return to Set Details

Term
 Major Goals of Scientific Inquiry
Definition
 1) Description  -Data Collection, Classification  2) Prediction  -Based on Inference from existing patterns 3) Explanation -Prediction of values 4) Control -Ultimately to change or manipulate physical or social process
Term
 Basic vs. Applied Research
Definition
 -Example: GIScience  -Basic Research (Making better GIS techniques and software) -Applied(Doing environmental studies with GIS)
Term
 Empirical Concepts
Definition
 -Case: The objects studied  Measurements: How we determine attributes or properties of cases  1) Literacy -Concepts, writing papers and reports  2) Numeracy  -Measurements, statistical understanding and quantitative analysis  3) Graphicacy  -Interpreting graphs, diagrams, maps and photographs
Term
 Ways of Knowing
Definition
 1) Realism enables empiricism  2) Causality moves in a forward direction  -Cause and effect are measurable  3) Simplicity  -Principle of parsimony 'elegant' solutions to problems 4) Skepticism  -Falsification by evidence  5) Quantitative Thinking  -Instruments, mathematical modeling and computation
Term
 Geography Methods
Definition
 -Methods are a major source of historical and modern contention in geography  +Quantitative Vs. Qualitative  +Physical Vs. Human Geography  +Quantitative Human Geography
Term
 Quantitative and Qualitative
Definition
 1) Data Collection  -Numeric Data  2) Structure  -Formal, structured research approach  3) Analysis  -Formal analytical methods
Term
 Primary and secondary
Definition
 -Primary Sources  +First hand data collection  -Secondary  +Census
Term
 Nominal
Definition
 -Classification of data -Qualitative  -Numeric Values refer to classes
Term
 Ordinal
Definition
 -Numeric values describing rank or relative order  -Top rankings -Rating Scales  +Preferences
Term
 Interval
Definition
 -Relative Quantitative values without a true zero +Express relative values  -Mathematical relations don't hold true  +Temp. -Examples +Temp +Time +Lat/Long
Term
 Ratio
Definition
 -Typical attribute data  -Mathematical relations hold true
Term
 Cumulative Frequency Tables
Definition
 -Cumulative frequency: Sum per category  -Relative frequency: Proportion (%) -Cumulative Relative frequency: Cumulative summation of relative frequency
Term
 Cumulative Frequency Diagram
Definition
 -Ogive +Sums up relative proportions
Term
 Kinds of Data Collection
Definition
 1) Physical Measurements -GPS; Weather Stations  2) Observation of behavior  -Subjects are not explicitly aware of being studied  3) Archival sources -Older data and photograph  4) Explicit Reports  -People being studied are aware of data collection  -Requires 'self-reporting' +Surveys +Open-ended questions 5) Computational Models
Term
 Hierarchy of Scales
Definition
 -Smaller scale processes 'nested' in larger scale processors  +Nested Scales +Ex: Local to Global economics, global climate change  +Ex: Remote Sensing Anderson's land cover classification
Term
 Discrete and Continuous
Definition
 -Discrete data have defined limits  +Population  -Continuous data can be estimated  +Snowfall interpolation  -Discrete data  +Nominal, Interval  -Continuous  +NOIR
Term
 Measurements
Definition
 -Discrete vs. continuous  +50 cm or 50.212cm -Accuracy: Correctness of measurement  +How close measure to the actual value  -Precision: Sharpness or resolution of measurement  +How repeatable? -Spurious Precision: +5.125345634566 inches  +Better to use one decimal place more than the original data
Term
 Descriptive Stats
Definition
 -Visual Methods  +Histograms, Boxplots  -Measures of Central Tendency +Mean, Median, Mode  +Absolute Frequency, Relative Frequency  -Variability  +Inter-Quatile range  +Variance and standard deviation  -Descriptive Spatial  -Mean Center  -Distance, Standard distance
Term
 Measures of Dispersion: Range
Definition
 -Min and Max -Symmetric and Skewed Distributions
Term
 Skewness
Definition
 -Is a measure of the asymmetry of a histogram  -A perfectly symmetric histogram has a skewness value of zero  -Positive Skew: More observations below the mean than above
Term
 Kurtosis
Definition
 -Is a measure of distribution (Histogram) asymmetry and peaksharpness  -Letokurtic (Thin) -Mesokurtic (Middle)  -Platykurtic (Flat) -Index measure of flatness or peakedness in distributions  -High peakedness, Kurtosis > 3.0 (Letokurtic) -Low peakedness, Kurtosis < 3.0 (Platykurtic)
Term
 Additional Measure
Definition
 -Coefficient of Variation (Relative Variability)- s/x(100) +Ratio of Standard Deviation to the Mean +Divide standard deviation by mean to give a standardized value for comparisons
Term
 Standard Scores
Definition
 -Standardizing observations from different distributions and different means  +Z-Score: Subtract a value from the mean and then divide by the standard deviation +Z-Score gives the number of standard deviations from the mean
Term
 Normal Distribution
Definition
 -Use standard scores (Normal deviate) or z-scores +Can be positive or negative
Term
 Measures of Variability
Definition
 -Sample variance s2 +Average squared deviation of observations from the mean
Term
 Methods: Processing spatial data
Definition
 -Multiple ways to address the same issue  -Points  -Counts  +Discrete Distribution-Point data within discrete areas, choropleth mapping  -Surfaces  +Continuous Distribution Statistical surfaces 'Smoothed' Surfaces
Term
 Modifiable areal unit problem
Definition
 How you divide space affects the density of the values, alters stats
Term
 Classification Methods
Definition
 -Equal Interval: Divides data into a number of classes of equal width  -Quantile: Data divided so that an equal number of observations falls within each class  -Natural Breaks- Divides data into classes divided from natural breaks in a data histogram
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