# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Pulmonary ventilation p. 47
pulm ventilation and interpretation of arterial blood gases
25
Archaeology
04/17/2009

## Additional Archaeology Flashcards

Term
 value for normal tidal volume
Definition
 7 ml/kg of ideal body weight(~500 mL)
Term
 value for anatomic dead space volume
Definition
 2 ml/kg(~150 mL)
Term
 values measured with a spirometer
Definition
 tidal volume and vital capacity
Term
 name 3 ways to measure functional residual capacity (FRC)
Definition
 helium dilution, nitrogen washout, or body plethysmography
Term
 How do you calculate total ventilation (VE) (also called minute ventilation)?
Definition
 tidal volume (VT) x respiratory rate (RR)
Term
 Calculate PIO2: partial pressure of inhaled oxygen in the lungs
Definition
 0.21 x (PB-PH2O) = 0.21 x (760 - 47) = 149 mmHg
Term
 Calculate PICO2
Definition
 0.0004 x (760-47) = 0.29
Term
 What are the alveolar partial pressures of O2 and CO2 (PAO2, PACO2) at sea level?
Definition
 PAO2 = 100, PACO2 = 40 mmHg
Term
 Equation for alveolar PAO2
Definition
 PAO2 = PIO2 - (PACO2/R) +F (usually ignored, R = VCO2/VO2 ~ 0.8
Term
 Equation for measuring physiologic dead space
Definition
 VD/VT = (PACO2-PECO2)/PACO2 = (PaCO2-PECO2)/PaCO2
Term
 normal pH range
Definition
 7.35-7.45
Term
 normal values for PaCO2
Definition
 35-45 mmHg
Term
 Normal values for PaO2
Definition
 80-100 mmHg
Term
 normal SaO2 values (hemoglobin saturation)
Definition
 96-100%
Term
 normal HCO3- values
Definition
 range between 22-32 mmol/L
Term
 causes of abnormally low PaO2
Definition
 decrease in partial pressure of PIO2 (high altitude), hypoventilation, diffusion limitation in the lungs, shunting of blood, V/Q mismatch
Term
 metabolic acidosis
Definition
 pH is low, HCO3- is low
Term
 metabolic alkalosis
Definition
 pH is high, HCO3- is high
Term
 respiratory acidosis
Definition
 pH is low, PaCO2 is high
Term
 equation and normal values for calculation of anion gap
Definition
 [Na+]-[Cl-]+ [HCO3-]; normal range: 10-14
Term
 Disorders in which diffusing capacity is is reduced:
Definition
 emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, pulmonary edema, anemia
Term
 Disorders in which diffusion capacity is increased:
Definition
 polycythemia, alveolar hemorrhage, early heart failure
Term
 PFTs that are reduced in people with neuromuscular disease or respiratory muscle fatigue
Definition
 maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP)
Term
 characteristics and examples of obstructive lung disease:
Definition
 decreased expiratory flows, decreased FEV1/FVC, TLC is normal or increased (hyperinflation); examples: asthma, emphysema
Term
 characteristics and examples of restrictive lung disease:
Definition
 decreased expiratory flows, but normal FEV1/FVc, decreased TLC, decreased compliance; examples: pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonia, neuromuscular disease, kyphoscoliosis
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