Shared Flashcard Set


Public Relations
Public relations final
Undergraduate 3

Additional Journalism Flashcards




Seven characteristics of employer, employee relationships:
a. Confidence and trust between employer and employees
b. Honest, candid information flowing freely up, down, and sideways in the organization
c. Satisfying status and participation for each person
d. Continuity of work without strife
e. Healthy or safe surroundings
f. Success for the enterprise
g. Optimism about the future
Potential value of bulletin boards for employee communications
a. Use is widespread
b. Represents physical spaces that display traditional notices and electronic notices
c. Good public place to corroborate information with brief messages
d. Quick access for making announcements and countering rumors
e. Require regular attention and frequent updates to be effective
Vision statements and mission statements
a. Vision statements provide an overview of future organizational goals
b. Starting point for developing a more specific organizational mission
c. Represents a future goal that outlines priorities for where the organization is headed
d. Why does this organization exist? What would we like to accomplish?
e. A vision statement spells out a target for strategy and the future goal of an organization.
f. Important for helping manage reactions to changes in the internal environment
g. Created at the highest level of the organization, although this misses the opportunity to engage internal publics
h. Mission statements convey goals, organizational structure, strategy, legitimacy, values, participation, ownership, responsibility, ethical priorities and commitment to publics
i. How are we different from our competitors?
j. The mission statement helps employees set priorities and goals, so that all members of the organization are committed to achieving the mission specified in the statement.
k. Encourage members of an organization to focus on its strengths
l. Focus fostered by a compelling mission statement can provide a competitive advantage
Five PR uses of displays
a. Create or maintain an identity of the organization, emphasizing its successes
b. Show the depth and breadth of the organization’s operations
c. Reinforce organizational culture and generate a team spirit
d. Recruit personnel
e. Remind visitors of what the organization values
Elite newspapers
a. Outlined by John Merrill- professor of journalism at University of Missouri
b. Le Monde in France, Times of London and Manchester Guardian in England
c. In the US- NY Times, Washington Post, LA Times, Christian Science Monitor- today Wall Street Journal would be added
PR Newswire and Business wire
a. Similar to AP wire
b. Paid news distribution service to daily newspapers
c. Surmounts AP’s ability to say what is or isn’t news
d. Business wire is a direct competitor
Chester Burger’s ten guidelines for working with the press
a. Talk from the viewpoint of the public’s interest, not the organizations.
b. Make the news easy to read and use.
c. If you don’t want some statement quoted, don’t make it.
d. State the most important fact at the beginning.
e. Don’t argue with a reporter or lose your cool.
f. If a question contains offensive language or simply words you don’t like, don’t repeat them even to deny them.
g. If the reporter asks a direct question, give an equally direct answer.
h. If spokespersons don’t know the answer to a question, they should simply say so.
i. Tell the truth, even if it hurts.
j. Don’t call a press conference unless you have what reporters consider news.
9. scheduling, locating and managing a news conference
Four-step PR problem-solving model
a. Defining the problem or opportunity
i. Situation analysis- expands on the problem
ii. Probing and monitoring knowledge, opinions, attitudes and behaviors of those concerned with and affected by the acts and policies of an organization
iii. This is an organization’s intelligence function
iv. Provides the foundation for all the other steps in the problem-solving process by asking “what’s happening now?”
b. Planning and programming
i. Strategy
ii. Information gathered in the first step is used to make decisions about program publics, objectives, action and communication strategies, tactics and goals
iii. Involves factoring the findings from the first step into policies and programs of the organization
iv. Answers “based on what we have learned about the situation, what should we change or do, and say, and why?
c. Taking action and communicating
i. Implementation- develop a theme
ii. Implementing the program of action and communication designed to achieve the specific objectives for each of the publics to accomplish the program goal
iii. “Who should do and say it, and when, where and how?”
d. Evaluating the program
i. Assessment- all the way through and after its over
ii. Assessing the preparation, implementation and results of the program
iii. Adjustments are made while the program is being implemented, based on evaluation feedback on how it is or isn’t working
iv. Programs are continued or stopped after learning “how are we doing, or how did we do?”
Value of conducting focus groups
a. Runs from open town meetings to highly structured and video taped techniques
b. Involves 8-12 people who discuss a topic, led by a moderator
c. Used to explore how people will react to proposals and to gather information useful for developing questionnaires to be used in more formal research methods
d. Serendipitous findings are unexpected insights gained
e. Unanticipated reactions are the best reason to use these groups
content analysis and surveys
a. content analysis is the application of systematic procedures for objectively determining what is being reported in the media
b. press clippings and broadcast monitor reports have been used as the basis
c. indicate what is being printed or broadcast, not what is read or heard
d. do not measure whether or not the audiences learned or believed message content
e. can provide valuable insight into what is likely to be on the public agenda in the future
f. trend report gives corporate and government subscribers an early warning system for forecasting social and economic conditions
g. surveys are systematic queries of subsets of the population under study
h. administered in many ways- mail, person, telephone, online
i. read the specifics of each type in the book
j. research builds the information foundation necessary for effective PR practice and management
corporate strategic thinking and PR
a. involves predicting or establishing a desired future goal state, determining what forces will help and hinder movement toward the goal, and formulating a plan for achieving the desired state
b. programs represent strategic interventions for which both planners and their organizations are held responsible
c. corporate level strategy provides the overall goal and direction within which an organization’s divisions operate
d. business level strategy establishes the goals and directions for each division, each operating unit or each business
e. planning mode- strategy takes the form of a systematic plan and guidelines for achieving corporate and business level strategies
f. evolutionary mode- strategies develop over time, representing a patter of decision that respond to opportunities and threats in the environment
g. increasingly accepted to deal with rapidly changing organizations and environments
h. reliance on research findings as the basis for strategic planning to achieve effective PR varies
3 crisis types an organization may encounter
a. An effective corporate crisis communications plan is essential
b. Crises are issues confronting the organization that have reached the critical stage
c. Unexpected nature of events creates the crisis situation- it’s a low-probability, high-impact even that threatens the viability of the organization and is characterized by ambiguity of cause, effect and means of resolution, as well as a belief that decisions must be made swiftly
i. Most dreaded type because it happens suddenly and unexpectedly so there is little or no time for research and planning
ii. Calls for working out in advance a consensus among top management for a general plan on how to react to such a crises to avoid confusion, conflict and delay
i. May erupt suddenly after brewing for long periods
ii. Challenge is to convince top management to take corrective action before the crisis reaches the critical stage
i. Persist for months or years despite the best efforts of management
g. Practitioners who prepare for the worst are anticipating and responding to the needs of the top management
h. Most organizations know how to deal with operational crises internally
i. A quick response is critical because of unplanned visibility
five reasons some information campaigns fail
a. there exists a hard core of chronic know-nothings- they are difficult to reach no matter what the level or nature of information
b. interested people acquire the most information- motivation is essential to learning and assimilating knowledge
c. people seek information that is compatible with their prior attitudes and avoid exposure to that which is not compatible
d. people interpret the same information differently- selective perception and interpretation of content follows exposure
e. information doesn’t necessarily change attitudes-changes in view or behavior following exposure to a message may be differentially affected by the individual’s initial predisposition
components of a PR plan (12 of them)
• problem or opportunity statement- news release
• situation analysis- made stronger by research
• publics- always more than one public (extern and internal)
• value goals- what are you attempting to accomplish, prove your value to your client
• objectives- must have at least 2 objective statements for each goal statement, how will you move towards accomplishing your goal, must always be measurable and quantifiable
• strategies- specific maneuvers to accomplish objectives
• tactics- what you do hour by hour
• calendar- beginning, intermediate and end dates- by importance
• budget- how much will it cost to complete your proposal, allocation of staff time and time to complete proposal
• approval presentations- any program has to be approved by senior management, clients etc
• implementation- begin to see your plan in action
• evaluations- never wait until the end to make assessments, have intermediate points as well
seven C’s of PR communication
a. credibility- communication starts with a climate of belief, built by performance of the institution, reflecting a desire to serve stakeholders and publics
b. context- communications program must realize the realities of its environment, the context must provide for participation and playback, provided by a supportive social environment
c. content- message must have meaning and must be compatible with value systems, it must have relevance, content determines the audience
d. clarity- message must be simply said, complex issues should be compressed, organization should speak with one voice
e. continuity and consistency- communication is an unending process, requires repetition to achieve penetration, repetition with variation contributes to learning and persuasion
f. channels- established ones should be used, creating new ones can be difficult, expensive, time consuming, different channels have different effects and serve different purposes
g. capability of the audience- communication must take into account the capability of an audience, involves factors of availability, habits, reading ability and prior knowledge
a. United states information agency created in 1953
b. Interpreted public opinion in more than 200 locations in 140 countries
c. Provided analysis and commentary on overseas trends to the government
d. International news and information disseminator
e. Originated in WWII- office of war propaganda- voice of America radio program out of DC
f. Named changed to USIA under Eisenhower
g. Independent foreign affairs agency in the executive branch that reported directly to the president
h. Globally known as the USIS- US info service
i. Chief USIS officials in American embassies were public affairs officers
j. Advised ambassadors and other diplomats on relevant PR issues affecting US interests and policy and embassy operations and relations with host countries
PR in US military services
a. Geared toward boosting public opinion about armed forces, maintaining or improving personnel morale, procuring financial support for its programs and nurturing public understanding and support.
b. Developed a statement of principle for telling its own story to the American public, for projecting its own brand of public affairs, and for guiding military-media relations
c. Exemplified the principle by expanding its embedding policy during operation Iraqi freedom
d. This principle, embedded in journalism, results in broad accomplishments for the military- unprecedented access, better understanding of military life, reporters serve as the link back home, greater trust, increased information exchange, better media-military relationships
e. Military’s programs and policies are often criticized by the news media
f. Both military public affairs and journalism need a vigorous educational program to understand the other side, endure frustrations and setbacks, educate each other on the peculiarities of the other’s culture and build on similarities and mutual interests
g. It is essential that the military abandon its self-protective, reclusive nature when responding to the press
five aims of PR in support of nonprofits
a. define or brand the organization, gain acceptance of its mission and protect its reputation
b. develop channels of communication with those an organization serves
c. create and maintain a favorable climate for fund raising
d. support the development and maintenance of public policy that’s is favorable to an organization’s mission
e. inform and motivate key organizational constituents to dedicate themselves and work productively in support of an organization’s mission, goals and objectives
four PR objectives for public schools
a. to increase awareness of educational issues, especially funding issues, to dispel information and rumor
b. to cultivate relationships with key constituents to build public support and help ensure adequate funding, including donations where appropriate
c. to gain public acceptance of educational initiatives and support when making educational changes
d. to enhance the reputation of schools among key target audiences
four continuing problems facing higher education
a. financial support is insufficient and precarious
b. competition for qualified students is spirited and costly
c. government constraints and regulations make university administration difficult and costly
d. academic freedom and tenure are challenged by both internal and external stakeholders
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