# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Psychology Statistics
Chapters 1-3
38
Psychology
02/04/2014

Term
 Study of Statistics
Definition
 1. To help understand the common use of statistics in our daily lives 2. To be able to read and understand scientific articles and conduct research in the social and behavioral sciences
Term
 Variability
Definition
 refers to the fact that the score measurement values obtained in a study differ from one another, even when all the subjects in the study are asssesed under the same circumstances
Term
 Measurement Error
Definition
 Factors that influence scores of performance and that are associated with how measurements are made
Term
 Unreliability
Definition
 Source of variability
Term
 Statistics
Definition
 The study of methods for describing and interpreting quantitative information, which is called DATA
Term
 Descriptive Statistics
Definition
 Refers to procedures for organizing, summarizing, and describing data
Term
 Inferential Statistics
Definition
 Includes methods of making inferences about a larger group of individuals on the basis of data actually collected on a much smaller group
Term
 Population
Definition
 All of the available number of indiivduals being studied
Term
 Probability
Definition
 Quanitification of a "likelihood"; assigned a number ranging from 1.00 = complete certainty to 0.00 (impossible)
Term
 Measurement
Definition
 The orderly assignment of a numerical value to a characteristic
Term
 Scale of Measurement
Definition
 The ordered set of possible numbers that may be obtained by the measurement process Properties Include: 1. Magnitude 2. Equal Intervals 3. Absolute Zero
Term
 Magnitude
Definition
 One instance of the attribute being measured can be judged greater than, less than, or equal to another instance of the attribute
Term
 Absolute Zero Point
Definition
 A value which indicates that nothing at all of the attribute being measured exists
Term
 Ratio Scale
Definition
 Any scale of measurement posessing magnitude, equal intervals, and an absolute zero point
Term
 Interval Scale
Definition
 Possesses the properties of magnitude and equal intervals but not an absolute zero point Example: Farenheight or Celcius
Term
 Nominal Scale
Definition
 Results from the classification of items into mutually exclusive groups that do not bear any magnitude relationship to one another  Example: Political Party affiliation, numbers on the back of a football player's jersey, etc...
Term
 Ordinal Scale
Definition
 Reflects only magnitude and does not possess the properties of equal intervals or an absolute zero point  Example: "bmw better than a porsche", "bubble gum A sweeter than bubble gum B"
Term
 Constant
Definition
 Quantity that doesn't change in value within a given context  Ex; Pie (math 3.14....) temp of boiling water 212F, etc...
Term
 Discrete Variable
Definition
 1, 2, 3, 4 children not 1 and 1/2
Term
 Continuous Variable
Definition
 Weight, temperature, volume, etc....
Term
 Real Limits
Definition
 Measurement of 1/2 Unit above and one half measurement unit below that number
Term
 Lecture Notes 1/15/14 Now Forward
Definition
Term
 The Scientific Method
Definition
 A. Observation and Question B. Hypothesis: something that can be verified C. Experiment 1. Independent Variable: Difference between groups that exists prior to measuring characteristic of interest 2. Dependent Variable: characteristic of interest/ underlying property (thing being measured) a. Underlying Property (characteristic) b. Operational Definition: Specification of how we are going to measure underlying property. Determines which statistics you are able to use in underlying data c. Measurement Scale: set of possible values that can be obtained by the active measurement  D. Observation/Data Collection E. Analysis statistics F. Drawing Conclusions G. Communication  (Look at notes/ Table from class)
Term
 Measurement Scale
Definition
 1. Magnitude 2. Absolute Zero 2. Equal Intervals
Term
 4 types of Measurement Scale
Definition
 1. Ratio 2. Interval 3. Ordinal 4. Nominal
Term
 Order of Operations  (PEMDAS) Parantheses, Exponent, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction
Definition
 Make sure you understand order of operations
Term
 Frequency Distribution
Definition
 *Report to 3 decimal places* Creating the table 1. Begin with X from top to bottom, biggest value to smallest 2. Next frequency (amount of times they show up in the data) *should always add up to N* 3. Next relative frequency (Ex; out of 33 scores, 9 of them are a value of 10, so you take 9/33=0.273 4. Next Cumulative Frequency: start from bottom to top; add the frequency of Xs as you go up. Top should equal N.  5. Cumulative Relative Frequency: Crf: lists the proportion or % of scores at each X or lower
Term
 Instructions for Graphing
Definition
 1. Title 2. Axis Tables 3. Mark of axes with equal intervals 4. Graph a. Histogram: make a bar centered at each X, with a height=frequent measure for X if scale has magnitude, bars should touch! b. Polygon: Plot points (X, freq measures for that X) and connect w/ straight lines
Term
 Descriptive Statistics (3 types)
Definition
 1. Central Tendency 2. Variability 3. Skew
Term
 Central Tendency
Definition
 1. Mode, Mean, Median 2. Indicate: center of distribution, typical score of the middle (i)
Term
 Variability
Definition
 1. Range, Interquartile Range, Variance, Standard Deviation,Skew  2. Indicates: Differences between data values (spread)
Term
 Skew
Definition
 Symmetric or lopsided distribution
Term
 Mode (Mo)
Definition
 The most frequently occurring score; can have more than one mode in a distribution  (look at notes) * can be used with any type of measurement scale*
Term
 Mean, Average, X(bar above), M (in papers)
Definition
 The mean is the "balance point" or "center of gravity" of the distribution *Mean will put both sides at balance" ****Sum of deviations from mean will ALWAYS equal zero****** (To calculate mean one MUST have magnitude + equal intervals; Interval or Ratio Scale)
Term
 Median (Md)
Definition
 Theoretically, the mean is th emiddle score for which it is true that half the scores are above that value and half the scores are below that value (MUST BE IN ORDER) Magnitude
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