# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Psychology f-test
ftest
36
Psychology
12/02/2009

Term
 IV Psych Test 13, 16, 17
Definition
Term
 ANOVA stands for
Definition
 analysis of variance
Term
 An analysis of variance is conducted when
Definition
 there are more than two experimental groups
Term
 Basic formula equals
Definition
 ¨Between-groups variability           Error variability
Term
 Between groups variability occurs (allegedly) because
Definition
 of the independent variable
Term
 Error variability occurs because
Definition
 of other differences within the groups (errors resulting from random assignment)   For this reason, error variability is also called   within-groups variability
Term
 A “one-way” ANOVA means
Definition
 we are only manipulating one independent variable
Term
 If we had two or even three IVs
Definition
 then we would be conducting a two-way ANOVA, or a multivariate ANOVA
Term
 statement for F
Definition
 Ex: ¨F(2, 21) = 4.71, p < .05 ¨2 equals dfbg ¨21 equals dferror
Term
 The effect size measure for ANOVA
Definition
 called eta squared
Term
 Ch !6
Definition
Term
 External validity
Definition
 does it generalize
Term
 Internal validity
Definition
 are changes in the dependent variable based on the independent variable?
Term
 Pre-testing lets us figure out
Definition
 how much the IV actually affected the group
Term
 But, it presents some problems….
Definition
 §Taking a pre-test is a form of practice, so isn’t it possible that practicing the test will affect the outcome too? §Yes.
Term
 ¡To get around the problem, we use a control group
Definition
 §We give one group a pre-test and then a post-test, but not the SAT class in the middle §Then we compare how much the control group improved with how much the SAT class group improved
Term
 ¡When working with single subjects, some version of AB designs are used
Definition
 ¡A = baseline measure B = measurement during or after treatment     ¡So in it’s most simple form (AB design), we measure the baseline, introduce an IV, and then measure again
Term
 If B is different than A following treatment, how can we be sure it’s because of the IV (this is the question of internal validity)
Definition
 ¡We take the IV away, and then measure again §This is now an ABA study ¡If the measurement has returned to baseline, we assume the IV had something to do with it
Term
 ¡Quasi-experimental design
Definition
 We can randomly select people in this case, but we cannot randomly assign ¡This violates one of the primary assumption of experimental psychology §That the two groups are equal before the experiment starts
Term
 Non-equivalent group design
Definition
 ¡What I’d want to do is find two groups of people who were as similar as possible with the exception of health insurance §Gender, SES, neighborhood, annual income, etc etc etc…. §Then I compare my treatment group (the one with insurance) to my control group (the one without)
Term
 Non-equivalent group design(cont)
Definition
 ¡Note that in this case, we did not assign variables randomly—we used pre-existing conditions ¡In fact, our first “observation” isn’t an observation at all, it’s just a logical way to match people ¡We must be very careful not to use the word cause in this situation
Term
 Solomon Design
Definition
 4-group design includes every possible combination of pre-testing, post-testing, and IV introduction R  O      O R  O  X O R           O R       X O
Term
 Interrupted Time-series design
Definition
 ¡One way we can try to reduce the effects of a nuisance variables is with an interrupted time-series design O  O  O  X  O  O  O  Basically these just involves a lot of observations before and after the manipulation of interest Again—red-light cameras example Problems—time consuming, expensive, etc.
Term
 Ch !7
Definition
Term
 External Validity
Definition
Term
 Population generalization
Definition
 do the findings apply to people other than the ones we tested?
Term
 Environmental generalization
Definition
 do the findings apply in the “real world?”
Term
 Temporal generalization
Definition
 do the findings apply at different times of day/year/etc?
Term
 Methods-Based Treats to Ex. Validity
Definition
Term
 •Interaction of testing and treatment
Definition
 ▫Does the act of testing or measuring itself cause a change? ▫Pre-testing can bias performance
Term
 •Interaction of selection and treatments
Definition
 When a treatment effect is foundonly for a specific sample of participants
Term
 •Reactive arrangements
Definition
 ▫Is the experimental set-up so contrived that it causes people to behave unnaturally? ▫Hawthorne Experiments ▫Can people really act naturally when they know they’re being measured?
Term
 Demand Characteristics
Definition
 •Occur when participants behave based on their own agenda—they deliberately alter their behavior in some manner ▫This could be considered a threat to both a methods-based and a participant-based threat to validity—they cannot be controlled ▫Good subject, “screw you,” desirable responding, etc etc etc
Term
 •Comparative psychology
Definition
 The study of behavior in different species including humans
Term
 How can we claim external validity
Definition
 •Replication with extension
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