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PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (1)
N/A
25
Psychology
04/25/2011

Term
 Scientific Method (Book)
Definition
 Set of assumptions, attitudes, & procedures that guide in creating questions, generating evidence, & drawing conclusions.
Term
 Scientific Method (Class)
Definition
 1 - Ask a question.2 - Research/Observation3 - Hypothesize4 - Test Hypothesis5 - Analyze Data6 - Results/Conclusion
Term
 Hypothesis
Definition
 Educated guess about relationship between 2 or more variables.
Term
 Null Hypothesis
Definition
 There is no relation between x and y variables.
Term
 Alternative Hypothesis
Definition
 There is a relation between x and y variables.
Term
 Population
Definition
 A complete set of "something"
Term
 Sample
Definition
 A randomly selected subset of individuals in a population.
Term
 Random Sample
Definition
 Goal of every group member having equal chances of being included in study.
Term
 Correlational Design
Definition
 Examines how strongly 2 variables are related/associated.
Term
 Dependent Variable
Definition
 Influenced by independent - Outcome Variable. Factor that is observed/measured for change.
Term
 Independent Variable
Definition
 Purposely manipulated factor to produce change in experiment - Treatment Variable.
Term
 Mean
Definition
 Most representative measure of central tendency.
Term
 Standard Deviation
Definition
 Measure of variability. (NOT RELIABLE WITHIN A SAMPLE)
Term
 Variance
Definition
 Related to range - want a small amount.
Term
 Confidence Interval
Definition
 Related to range - sample represents population. Goal of having accurate results.
Term
 Normal (Bell) Distribution
Definition
 A distribution of individual differences in a population in which scores cluster around the average.
Term
 Mediator
Definition
 A variable in the middle of 2 separate variables that make these 2 variables related.
Term
 Can you prove a hypothesis?
Definition
 No.
Term
 Causation in correlation?
Definition
 No, there is nothing causing something to do something else.
Term
 Ranges - Negative, Positive, None.And examples.
Definition
 Negative: -1.0 increase x, decrease y. (memory & age).Positive: +1.0 decrease x, increase y. (height & weight).None: 0 no relation between variables.
Term
 Large or small sample size?
Definition
 Small is better - will get more precise/reliable results
Term
 Strengths of correlation (can also refer to "-")
Definition
 Low: 0.0 - 0.2Med: 0.3 - 0.4High: 0.5 - 1.0
Term
 Naturalistic Observation
Definition
 Observation & recording of behaviors that occur in their natural setting.
Term
 Case Study
Definition
 Intense study of an individual or a small group of individuals.
Term
 Reliability
Definition
 Ability of a test to produce consistent results when administered on repeated occasions & under similar conditions.
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