Term
What is a Oneshot Case Study?
(Preexperimental Design)


Definition
A single group is exposed to a treatment and a dependent measure is assessed.
NO random assignment of people or conditions.
You give a pie to someone (or a group) and measure his or her glucose level afterwards.
Qualitative and Testimonials fall into this kind of design. 


Term
What is a OneGroup PretestPosttest Design?
(Preexperimental Design) 

Definition
This is like the oneshot study except there is a pretest.
Your analysis compares performance on the posttest with the pretest.
For example, you measure a pereson's glucose, give her a pie, and measure the glucose again.
Extraneous variables are NOT controlled. 


Term
What is a Posttest Only Design?
(Preexperimental Design) 

Definition
In this type of design, there is an experimental and control group, but they are only compared on the dependent measure AFTER the expimerntal treatment.
There IS AN EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL GROUP.



Term
What is a Pretest/Posttest Experiment?
(Trueexperimental Design)


Definition
Pretest important because it allows them to compare dropouts from the experiment with those who stay in.
Pretest scores  you can exclude outliers
Pretests can have their downside. (add a lot of time to the study and require more work of the research to administer and score, sensitize the participant to the kind of skills/point of view) 


Term
What is the difference between Repeated Measures and Independent Group Designs? 

Definition
You must decide whether you will present the subject with all levels of the independent variable (Called repeated measures) or whether you will have separate groups of for each level of the dependent variable.
Repeated Measures  fewer participants, uses a person as their own control group, fatigues participants, sensitivzes person with the types of problems they are dealing with. 


Term

Definition
Morality refers to the loss of participants from a study.
It is important to use a pretest design because people who drop out of the study might be different on something important from the participants who remain in the study. 


Term
What components must a true experimental design contain? 

Definition
A control and an experimental group
(participants randomly assigned to groups)
Pretest and Posttest
Dependent variables are measured for both groups after the exposure of the experimental to the independent variable. 


Term
What are Matched Groups?
(Complex Design) 

Definition
In complex designs, the participants (while randomly assigned) in each group are generally matched in relevant characteristics with the participants in other groups.
The groups are alike on relevant factors or on ones that might remotely be relevant (such as gender, muscle mass, or age) 


Term
What are Elaborate Independent Variables?
(Complex Design) 

Definition
These designs either have more indpendent variables or more levels of the one that they have.
Researchers want more information about the IV & DV, want to be able to detect curvilinear relationships and effect of many treatments.
Example, think of different levels of difficulty, might also have gender (see chart) 


Term
What are Multiple Dependent Variables ?
(Complex Design) 

Definition
Example, if we were interested in the side effects of presentation modality (how information is presented on a computer screen  as a graph, diagram,cartoon etc), we would want to test people in many ways.
Asking them in different ways!
a) the accuracy of the student b) the speed of the student c) the ability of the student to make inferences from what he/she has learned
Multiple dependent measures. 


Term
What is a QuasiExperimental Design? 

Definition
It is called this because in many cases it is similar to a standard experimental design. Its basic limitation is determined by the way it assigns participants to groups.
Difficult to claim causality.
Participants NOT randomly assigned to groups (often matched, or the groups are conveniently assigned.
Don't always possess a high level of internal validity 


Term
What is a Selection Bias? 

Definition
Any factor other than the program that leads to posttest differences between the groups. 


Term
What is a onegroup posttestonly design?
(Quasi Experimental)


Definition
Participants > Sit next to stranger> Measure time until stranger leaves
The missing piece of this design is that there are no control groups and the "strangers" are not random volunteers and may have all kinds of special characteristics.
Roughly equivalent to the oneshot design except in this case we're observing something occurring and in a typical one shot we are doing something to someone and testing the results 


Term
What are Nonequivalent group designs?
(Quasi Experimental) 

Definition
It usually has a pretest and posttest but not random assignment of participants.
Participants  Training program  Smoking Measured
Participants  no training program  smoking measured
Natural occurring groups  they are selected by nature, not the researcher.
Comparing achievements of firstborn children with that of laterborn children
Comparing student performance at schools, one of which has a lower studentteacher ratio.
IQ and weight. 


Term

Definition
This refers to the environmental events that occur between the different sesions that are not under control of the experimenter. 


Term

Definition
This refers to changes in the participant over time in the experiment that is not associated with the independent variable of the study. 


Term
Define Statistical Regression? 

Definition
If people are assigned to groups nonrandomly: say perhaps based on their scores on the pretest; high spatial ability people in one group low spatial ability in another.
This may result in regression to the mean so that the high scores, if their scores change it will go lower (toward the population mean) and the low scorers may tend to score higher at the end of the study (again towards the meant) 


Term
What is the Regssion discontinuity design? 

Definition
This is the type of design just described under "statistical regression"
Deliberately want to try and make low scoring people equivalent with high scoring people.
The football example ( good readers random story, poor readers football) 


Term
What are the Three major steps in doing science? 

Definition
Formulating a Hypothesis
Selecting a design for the study
Selecting the statistical test to analyze the findings and see if the hypothesis is correct. 


Term

Definition
This is a scale where the categories (or numbers) are used to classify people.
No less than/ greater than
Schizo, paranoi, manicdepression etc
NONPARAMETRIC 


Term

Definition
This scale occurs when the categories have a relation to one another.
Take the categories from earlier (Schizo, paranoia, etc)
If these cateogires can be arranged into degrees of severity (One is more severe than the next) then it forms an ordinal scale (ordered)
FORM A RANK ALONG A CONTINUUM
NONPARAMETRIC 


Term

Definition
This is an interval scale with a true zero so that if you change the scale labels, that ratio stays the same (lbs to grams)
(Generally physical measurements of weight or time measures such as duration or reaction time)
PARAMETRIC 


Term
Define an Interval Scale? 

Definition
When the categories have a relation expressed numerically (Example, the degrees of severity)
Not just that one cateogry has more of something than another category, it consitutes an interval scale.
In a measurement of anxiety 1011 would be the same as 5051
PARAMETRIC 


Term
What does Parametric mean? 

Definition
These make assumptions about the population that your sample comes from  presumably a normal distribution. They assume at least an interval scale and the measure of central tendency is the mean. 


Term
What does Nonparametric mean? 

Definition
These make no assumptions about the population distribution. Assumes either nominal or ordinal scale. It is frequency based (mode; exact probability) 


Term
What are ChiSquare Tests? 

Definition
Designed to compare observed frequencies within groups to their expected frequences.
The bigger the difference between expected and observed, the bigger the chisquare, the more likely it is that the observed frequency did not come from the population on which the null hypothesis is based.



Term

Definition
A survey is a form of stylized interview with precise questions and limited answers that can be collated numerically.
Summary results of a survey in terms of qualitative data (typically medians, but maybe means)
P 


Term
In relation to surveys what is the Sample design? 

Definition
The sample design are the participants randomly selected; what procedures were followed to insure randomness or that the participants were "farily" selected. 


Term
In relation to surveys what is the nonavailability problem? 

Definition
Are the people who participate have different characteristics that those who do and are these differences relevant. Are the nonparticipants included in the computation of the margin of error? 


Term
In relation to surveys what is the Refusal Problem? 

Definition
The refusal problem is the refusal rate different on the particular variable we are measuring? That is, do people refuse to answer some questions and not others? Does this mean that we will not be getting relevant data because of refusal? 


Term
Define Margin of Error (Think about survey's) 

Definition
When we obtain a percentage in favor of a particular candidate, we want to know how reliable the number is.
The margin of error is the variability around an obtained number that you would expect. 


Term
Define Simple Random Sampling? 

Definition
Each member of the populatoin has an equal chance of being included. 


Term
Define Stratified Random Sampling? 

Definition
The population is divided into strata followed by random sampling from each stratum
Area probability sampling is when the strata consist of geographic areas. 


Term

Definition
A sample is chose to reflect the numerical composition of various subgroups in a population. 


Term
Define Haphazard "convenience" sampling? 

Definition
Subjects are chosen in haphazard way, usually based on whoever is available. 


Term
What are Inferential Statistics? 

Definition
This type of statistics allows researchers to make inferences about the true difference in the population on the basis of the sample data and gives the probability that the difference between means reflects random error rather than a real difference.
However, if the groups are initially equivalent, then any differences in the dependent variable must be due to the effect of the independent variable. 


Term
Define Statistical Significance? 

Definition
Statistical significance assesses the probability that results could be due to chance rather than the hypothesized cause.
For example, can observed difference (in means) be accounted for JUST by chance? Where chance is everything not accounted for in your manipulation.
How likely it is that we have a true or real difference between groups. 


Term
Define a Null Hypothesis? 

Definition
Population means are equal the observed difference is due to random error. The independent variable has no effect. 


Term
Define Research Hypothesis? 

Definition
Population means are not equal and the independent variable had an effect. 


Term
What do you do if your results havea pvalue less than .05? 

Definition
We confirm our research hypothesis (reject the null hypothesis) 


Term
What if our results have a pvalue of greater than .05? 

Definition
We reject our research hypothesis and fail to reject the null hypothesis. 


Term
Define RankOrder Correlation? 

Definition
Used with ordinal data, assesses the degree of relationship between two variables.
The example of the two Judges ranking the four essays. If their rankings of the four essays are positively correlated, then you would say that they're using the same standards in grading them.
Used when you have at least ordinal data and need to do a comparison of positions in that ordering. Most often used when data do not meet the standards of normality (normal distribution), homoscedasticity (equal variability in the two distrubtion) or linearity (increasing in scores) If they meet these requirements, then the appropriate correlation would be basic, simple correlation technique. 


Term
Define Simple Correlation? 

Definition
A correlation is a single number that describes the degrees of relationship between two variables.
(Need Interval data) 


Term
Define Multiple Correlation? 

Definition
This type of correlation invlolves two or more independent variables and one dependent one.
A's and Self Esteem Example. 


Term
What is a Regression Anlalysis? What are the three main purposes of one? 

Definition
First it tells you which independent variable is/are more important in the prediction of the dependent variables.
Second, it tells you how much of the variability in the dependent measure is explained by one or more of the independent variables
Finally, regression analysis provides the basis for an equation that relates the one or more expresses the relationship between two (more) variables algebraically. 


Term
What are the three basic criterion for performing ethical research? 

Definition
Beneficence  There should be a benefit for the researcher (cost/benefit analysis) to society and/or the individual participant
Autonomy  The research should treat the participant with respect
Justice  Says there should be equity in treatment and inclusion/exclusion of people within the study. 


Term
What are the three main categories of risk? 

Definition
Exempt research in which there is no risk or harm
Minimal Risk Research when the risk of harm is no greater than risk encountered in daily life or routine physical or psychological tests.
Harm
Physical harm/ stress/ loss of privacy and confidentiality 

