Shared Flashcard Set


Psych 327 Test 2 Unit 7
Psychology Pillow Fight
Undergraduate 1

Additional Psychology Flashcards




Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
1a. Componential Subtheory
Describes how mental process’ work together to give intelligent thought.
three types of components:
Knowledge-acquisition components –
Help encode, combine, compare: acquire new knowledge
Performance components –
Sort, classify, remember, write, type,
Metacomponents –
Supervise/evaluate functioning of other components
Experiential Subtheory
Addresses role of novelty(newness) and experience how they influence intelligence
We become more intelligence as we acquire new tasks and learn to perform them automatically
Example: learning to read –
Becomes more automatic and can summarize and make predictions
complex tasks –
Everything starts off hard and becomes more automatic and
Able to free up processing capacity and fit more info. in
creative intelligence –
Some people are quick at learning new tasks
See solutions easily
Contextual Subtheory
Show intelligent behavior in real life context
Adapting, selecting, and shaping enviornment.
Example: being in a new situation
Adapt – not going to change self or environment, just hope there is a good fit
Select – you can select a different environment that you like better
Shape – To try and change that environment to make it fit better
Example: marriage -
Adapt – ignore negatives and focus on positives
Select – leave the marriage
Shape – Change your partner
Other names for contextual intelligence –
Common sense, practical intelligence
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
linguistic: language skills and abilities
Logical mathematical
Bodily kinesthetic: good at athletics
interpersonal: how well you understand other people
7. intrapersonal: understand oneself
8. naturalist: understand plants and animals
How intelligences are determined –
All theorists recognize at least 2: Typically 1&2
Not just paper and pencil
Criteria for determining intelligences
1. Potential of isolation by brain damage
2. Looks at evolutionary history: would the intelligence have been important to human survival
Eight Intelligences
3. Identifiable core operation: specific skills involved in intellect
4. Evidence of exceptional abilitiesGardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences 2b. Profile of Intelligences
Everyone has all eight of them to an extent. All of us have a different profile of strengths and weaknesses.
We all have a different capacity to activate them.
Profile of Intelligences
school curriculum –
Did not believe school should be using this.
Some kids will learn better through some intelligence then others.
All 8 equal importance: school should not focus on a few but should focus on ALL Assessing Intelligence
Intelligence testing today
1a. Reliability: the consistency of scores across time 
Measuring reliability method 1- give test, wait, give test again correlate score. Want high (1)
Measuring reliability method 2 – give test once, split test into equal halves. Tally odds, Tally evens. Correlate scores.
What is good reliability –
.80 or higher
Intelligence Testing Today
1b. Validity: whether your test measures what it claims to.
Assessing validity – no direct measure, no easy method of calculating. Assessed indirectly.
When are intelligence tests deemed valid?: Method 1 – should predict school performance/job performance
When are intelligence tests deemed valid?:
Method 2 – correlate tests to other intelligence tests.
Intelligence Testing Today
1c. New Assessment Approaches
Main criticism of old tests – focuses on past learning and what you can do independently on your own. Don’t assess potential for future
Dynamic assessment (DA) –
Uses a test teach test format. How much improvement?
Method based on Migotskis formula
New Assessment Approaches
How to determine a child’s intelligence using
DA –
What child can do w/out assistance and
What they are capable of with help and assistance
Less help you need to solve more difficult problems the smarter you are, the more quickly you benefit, the smarter you are.
Assessing Intelligence
Extremes of Intelligence
2a. Genetic/Prenatal Causes of Mental Retardation: There are thousands of biological and psychotically reasons for this. Most severe are genetic. most common types of genetic disorders –
Down syndrome, fragile-x syndrome. Those 2 disorders alone effect 1 in every 500 children born. There are 700 other diseases that can contribute
Genetic Causes of Mental Retardation
prenatal damage – Toxics such as alcohol and drugs. Leading known cause is alcohol.
Birth – when infants suffer oxygen depravation or other trauma during birth.
Premature births.
Assessing Intelligence
. Ethnic Differences and Questions about
Cultural Bias: Asians first, African Americans last.
3a. Arguments Against Minority Testing
arguments against minority testing: 1. Cultural bias – They are culturally biased
Test items
Developers– White middle class people who bring own experiences to test. Lack knowledge of other cultural groups
Test items – biased to knowledge specific to white middle class society. Puts minorities at a disadvantage.
Arguments against minority Testing
2. less test-taking skill and experience – minorities have less test taking skills and experience. Effect learning style because only paper and pen.
People from minority groups have less practice b/c made by white middle class, the tests are made and written for them so no motivation to do best by minorities
3. test examiners – Most are white.
We don’t understand each others cultures so can’t answer a question when I ask 4. inadequate and inferior educational placements – lead to this. b/c of lower scores minority children are placed in special education classes. Curriculum isn’t all that good and they don’t get the support that they need. Now they have lower experience b/c they are labeled and perceived different. self-fulfilling prophecy – You believe them to be a certain way and treat them as such and so they only believe themselves to be capable of a certain standard.
stereotype threat – Causes so much anxiety that you do poorly. So concerned of not fulfilling stereotype that you fail.
Arguments in Favor of Using Intelligence
Sattler’s arguments favoring using intelligence tests:
1. evaluating present functioning –
Tests are useful in this way
Identifying problems – identify strengths as well as weaknesses and some suggest brain damage or psychological difficulties.
Changes in IQ – look for significant drops. May signal a need for a follow up. Why is there a drop?
May not be 100% accurate but reveal weakness that may need attention.
2. special programs – provide justification for special education. Help you to get services to improve. Services you are legally entitled to. 
3. evaluate programs – Can hold schools/programs accountable  
4. future functioning – useful in indicating this.
How well you will do in the future
Developing Academic Skills
Mathematics: some mathematical principals take longer to develop then others
1a. Mathematical Skills during Older
Childhood and Adolescence
bugs – Systematic error. Do it all the time when dealing with particular principal. Continue to give wrong answers. Common in all arithmetic operations and can persist for a while. Don’t want to ignore, want to address.
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