Term

Definition
Displays the scores of a variable to show how frequently each value was obtained 


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Definition
Consists of previous learning 


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Definition
Consists of one's potential for learning and acquiring a skill 


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Definition
Consists of problem solving, adapting to change, abstract thinking, and profiting from experience  a mixture of achievement and aptitude 


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Definition
Provides limited information concerning the general shape of the distribution (Does NOT provide information about differences in a specific interval) 


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Definition
Indices of the central value or location of a frequency distribution with respect to the X axis 


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Definition
Takes into account all scores; the most "democratic" of all methods 


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Definition
Outliers have substantial influence on the outcome 


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Definition
Not affected by skewed data or outliers 


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Definition
All points are ignored except for those on the 50th percentile 


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Definition
An "interesting" statistic; possibly relevant frequently 


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Definition
Relies on classification; is a nominal level statistic 


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Definition
The average squared deviations around the mean 


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Definition
The square root of the average squared deviation around the mean 


Term

Definition
More, less, or same as a normal distribution 


Term

Definition
Difference between a score and the mean, divided by Standard Deviation 


Term
What 2 pieces of information does the ZScore give us about a raw score? 

Definition
Location (Above or below distribution mean?) Distance (How far the raw score falls from the mean) 


Term
How are ZScores different from TScores? 

Definition
ZScore has a mean of 0 and a SD of 1 TScore can range from 0100 with 5 SD's within (10z+50) 


Term

Definition
Points that dive the frequency distribution into equal fourths 


Term

Definition
Scores bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile (middle 50%) 


Term
What is norm and what is it used for? 

Definition
Performances by defined groups on particular tests Used as a reference when evaluating and interpreting individual test scores 


Term
What is norming and what is it used for? 

Definition
When you take a group of people and see how they perform on a test compared to others Used when you want to see how a particular group did compared to another. 


Term
What is standardization and what is it used for? 

Definition
When you take an individual outside of a group and comapare them to how they did compared to a previous group. 


Term
What are the five characteristics of a good theory? 

Definition
Explanatory power Broad scope Systematic Fruitful Parsimonious 


Term

Definition
Graphical tool that helps illustrate linear and nonlinear relationships 


Term
Correlation Coefficient, and what should it NOT be confused with? 

Definition
The degree of variation in one variable estimated based on the knowledge about another's variable variation.
Should NOT be confused with Causation 


Term

Definition
Perfect 1:1 correspondence between paired scores in the X and Y distributions 


Term

Definition
Perfect 1:1 inverse correspondence between paired scores in the X and Y distributions 


Term
Principle of Least Squares Relation to Regression line 

Definition
The bestfitting line is the one with the smallest sum of squared residuals 


Term

Definition
Degree to which two variables vary together Degree to which X&Y share a linear relationship Degree to which points of two variables fall along a least squares regression line 


Term
Principle of dilution in correlation 

Definition
An imperfect 2:1 correspondence between X&Y 


Term
Pearson Product Moment Correlation 

Definition
Most commonly used index of correlation, appropriately used when both variables are continuous 


Term

Definition
Difference between predicted value and actual value (The amount of Y "leftover") 


Term
Standard Error of the Estimate 

Definition
An index of the accuracy of prediction 


Term
Relationship between SEofE and Residuals? 

Definition
If highly accurate the differences between observed and predicted will be small because of the data points 


Term
Coefficient of Alienation 

Definition
A measurement of how things are NOT related 


Term

Definition
Often occurs when a regression equation is calculated using one group of subjects and used to predict performance in another group of subjects 


Term
Restricted Range What else is it called? What does it lead to? 

Definition
Occurs when the range of variables becomes restricted
Truncation
Leads to reduced variance and may significantly alter strength of the correlation 


Term
Purpose of using discriminant analysis 

Definition
Used to predict group membership (those who passed vs. those who failed; how many of you passed and studied X amount of hours) 


Term

Definition
A data reduction technique that identifies underlying constructs for us
An exploratory technique for exploring the data and then making decisions 


Term
Coefficient of determination 

Definition
An index of:  The amount of shared variance between variables X&Y  The degree to which the variation scores on X "explains" (but not necessarily causes) the variation in scores on Y 


Term
What is the regression formula? 

Definition
Y'=a+bX
Y' = Predicted Value of Y a = The Intercept b = the slope X = the variable 


Term

Definition
The higher the correlation between x and y, the stronger the correlation Therefore, the more we're able to predict with confidence, the less likely we are to make an error 


Term

Definition
Consistency in measurement operations, as well as stability 


Term

Definition


Term
What three components make up Classical Test Score Theory? 

Definition
Observed score, true score, error 


Term

Definition
One data point within an entire test score distribution if parallel versions were administered many times
Also, the true score plus of minus the error that's there (assumes unsystematic error) 


Term
How can error impact the observed score? 

Definition
Measurement error leads to a difference in the true and observed scores
As standard error of the estimate increases/decreases, so does the size of the observed score 


Term
What does Kuder Richardson let us do? 

Definition
Way to test if you can predict how you do within the same test. 


Term
Mathematical formula for Kuder Richardson? 

Definition


Term
Mathematical formula for Kuder Richardson? 

Definition


Term
What does Cronbach's Alpha do? 

Definition
Looks at how all your items get along; measures the degree of judges' agreement using *continuous* data 


Term
How does Cronbach's Alpha measure internal consistency? 

Definition
Appropriate for dichotomous and nondichotomous values Based on the average interitem covariances Mean of all possible splithalf correlations, corrected by the SB formula 


Term
Name the three ways test reliability is usually estimated 

Definition
Timeretest reliability Parallel forms reliability Internal Consistency 


Term

Definition
 Evaluates error from the same test given on two administrations  Only valuable when measuring stable characteristics  Usually overestimates/inflates the true reliability 


Term
Parallel/Alternate Forms reliability 

Definition
 Compares two equivalent forms measuring the same attribute  Different items between forms with the same selection rules  Equivalent content, difficulty, means, variances  Different sections (split half reliability) 


Term

Definition
 Examines homogeneity with which a test measures a construct 


Term

Definition
When the first session influences the second 


Term

Definition
Test is given once and divided into separately scored halves
Halves are compared by correlating the two halves
Examines the stability in scores for two equivalent halves of the same test 


Term
SpearmanBrown Prophecy Formula 

Definition
Predicts the reliability of a whole test based on using only part of it; improves estimation of splithalf reliability. 


Term

Definition
Examines consistency among judges evaluating the same behavior 


Term

Definition
Measure of agreement between two or more judges who each rate a set of objects using nominal data 


Term
What does the standard error of measurement do? 

Definition
Represents that there is some error in prediction. 


Term
What types of irregularities might make reliability coefficients biased or invalid? 

Definition
 Inflated variance  Constricted variance  Restriction of range  Outliers 


Term
How can one address/improve reliability? 

Definition
 Increase the length of test  Throw out items that run down the reliability  Estimate the true correlation if the test did not have measurement error 


Term
Purpose of factor and item analysis? 

Definition
 Factor analysis is used to ensure items measure the same thing  Tests are more reliable if they are unidimensional  One factor accounts for more of the variance than any other 


Term
What example was given in class regarding reliability? 

Definition


Term

Definition
Offers two alternatives for each item 


Term
Advantages of dichotomous format? Disadvantages? 

Definition
Adv: Simplicity, easy to administer, easy and quick scoring, flexibility, absolute judgment Disadv: Encourage memorization, truth often comes in shades of gray, 50% guessing probability 


Term

Definition
Resembles dichotomous except each item has more than two alternatives 


Term
Advantages of polytomous format? Disadv.? 

Definition
Adv: Easy to administer and score, familiar format, probability of correct answer is lower than dichotomous Disadv: Harder to write, need good distractors for reliability 


Term
What types of questions are "selectedresponse format"? 

Definition


Term
Which three types of questions would be considered "constructedresponse format?" 

Definition
Short answer Fill in the blank Essay 


Term
What are the 2 major formats of summative scales? 

Definition
Cumulative scoring Subscale scoring 


Term
What scales most frequently use the Likert format? 

Definition
Multiplepoint scales Personality and attitude 


Term
What are the primary differences between the Likert and Category formats? 

Definition
 Likert uses 5, 6, or 7 point scales; Category uses manypoint scales  Category is used to make more finegrained discrimination 


Term
In creating a category format, the use of what will reduce error variance? 

Definition
Clearly defined anchor intervals (endpoints and midpoints) 


Term
When does the category format begin to reduce reliability? 

Definition
After using more than the 9 or 10 point maximum. 


Term
What are four questions that should be asked when generating a pool of candidate test items? 

Definition
 What construct is the test designed to measure?  What are the test's objectives?  Who will use this test?  Who will take this test? 

