# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Psych 304 Test 1
Chapters 1,2,3,4,6
79
Psychology
10/10/2008

Term
 Frequency Distribution
Definition
 Displays the scores of a variable to show how frequently each value was obtained
Term
 Achievement
Definition
 Consists of previous learning
Term
 Aptitude
Definition
 Consists of one's potential for learning and acquiring a skill
Term
 Intelligence
Definition
 Consists of problem solving, adapting to change, abstract thinking, and profiting from experience -- a mixture of achievement and aptitude
Term
 Histogram
Definition
 Provides limited information concerning the general shape of the distribution (Does NOT provide information about differences in a specific interval)
Term
 Central Tendency
Definition
 Indices of the central value or location of a frequency distribution with respect to the X axis
Term
Definition
 Takes into account all scores; the most "democratic" of all methods
Term
Definition
 Outliers have substantial influence on the outcome
Term
Definition
 Not affected by skewed data or outliers
Term
Definition
 All points are ignored except for those on the 50th percentile
Term
Definition
 An "interesting" statistic; possibly relevant frequently
Term
Definition
 Relies on classification; is a nominal level statistic
Term
 Variance
Definition
 The average squared deviations around the mean
Term
 Standard Deviation
Definition
 The square root of the average squared deviation around the mean
Term
 Kurtosis
Definition
 More, less, or same as a normal distribution
Term
 Z-Score
Definition
 Difference between a score and the mean, divided by Standard Deviation
Term
 What 2 pieces of information does the Z-Score give us about a raw score?
Definition
 Location (Above or below distribution mean?)Distance (How far the raw score falls from the mean)
Term
 How are Z-Scores different from T-Scores?
Definition
 Z-Score has a mean of 0 and a SD of 1T-Score can range from 0-100 with 5 SD's within (10z+50)
Term
 Quartiles
Definition
 Points that dive the frequency distribution into equal fourths
Term
 Interquartile range
Definition
 Scores bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile (middle 50%)
Term
 What is norm and what is it used for?
Definition
 Performances by defined groups on particular testsUsed as a reference when evaluating and interpreting individual test scores
Term
 What is norming and what is it used for?
Definition
 When you take a group of people and see how they perform on a test compared to othersUsed when you want to see how a particular group did compared to another.
Term
 What is standardization and what is it used for?
Definition
 When you take an individual outside of a group and comapare them to how they did compared to a previous group.
Term
 What are the five characteristics of a good theory?
Definition
Term
 Scatterplot
Definition
 Graphical tool that helps illustrate linear and non-linear relationships
Term
 Correlation Coefficient, and what should it NOT be confused with?
Definition
 The degree of variation in one variable estimated based on the knowledge about another's variable variation.Should NOT be confused with Causation
Term
 Positive Correlation
Definition
 Perfect 1:1 correspondence between paired scores in the X and Y distributions
Term
 Negative Correlation
Definition
 Perfect 1:1 inverse correspondence between paired scores in the X and Y distributions
Term
 Principle of Least SquaresRelation to Regression line
Definition
 The best-fitting line is the one with the smallest sum of squared residuals
Term
 Covariance
Definition
 Degree to which two variables vary togetherDegree to which X&Y share a linear relationshipDegree to which points of two variables fall along a least squares regression line
Term
 Principle of dilution in correlation
Definition
 An imperfect 2:1 correspondence between X&Y
Term
 Pearson Product Moment Correlation
Definition
 Most commonly used index of correlation, appropriately used when both variables are continuous
Term
 Residual
Definition
 Difference between predicted value and actual value (The amount of Y "leftover")
Term
 Standard Error of the Estimate
Definition
 An index of the accuracy of prediction
Term
 Relationship between SEofE and Residuals?
Definition
 If highly accurate the differences between observed and predicted will be small because of the data points
Term
 Coefficient of Alienation
Definition
 A measurement of how things are NOT related
Term
 Shrinkage
Definition
 Often occurs when a regression equation is calculated using one group of subjects and used to predict performance in another group of subjects
Term
 Restricted RangeWhat else is it called?What does it lead to?
Definition
 Occurs when the range of variables becomes restrictedTruncationLeads to reduced variance and may significantly alter strength of the correlation
Term
 Purpose of using discriminant analysis
Definition
 Used to predict group membership(those who passed vs. those who failed; how many of you passed and studied X amount of hours)
Term
 Factor Analysis
Definition
 A data reduction technique that identifies underlying constructs for usAn exploratory technique for exploring the data and then making decisions
Term
 Co-efficient of determination
Definition
 An index of:- The amount of shared variance between variables X&Y- The degree to which the variation scores on X "explains" (but not necessarily causes) the variation in scores on Y
Term
 What is the regression formula?
Definition
 Y'=a+bXY' = Predicted Value of Ya = The Interceptb = the slopeX = the variable
Term
 When is Regression used?
Definition
 The higher the correlation between x and y, the stronger the correlationTherefore, the more we're able to predict with confidence, the less likely we are to make an error
Term
 Reliability
Definition
 Consistency in measurement operations, as well as stability
Term
 Reliability ISN'T
Definition
 AccuracyValidity
Term
 What three components make up Classical Test Score Theory?
Definition
 Observed score, true score, error
Term
 Observed Score
Definition
 One data point within an entire test score distribution if parallel versions were administered many timesAlso, the true score plus of minus the error that's there (assumes unsystematic error)
Term
 How can error impact the observed score?
Definition
 Measurement error leads to a difference in the true and observed scoresAs standard error of the estimate increases/decreases, so does the size of the observed score
Term
 What does Kuder Richardson let us do?
Definition
 Way to test if you can predict how you do within the same test.
Term
 Mathematical formula for Kuder Richardson?
Definition
 KRsub20
Term
 Mathematical formula for Kuder Richardson?
Definition
 KRsub20
Term
 What does Cronbach's Alpha do?
Definition
 Looks at how all your items get along; measures the degree of judges' agreement using *continuous* data
Term
 How does Cronbach's Alpha measure internal consistency?
Definition
 Appropriate for dichotomous and non-dichotomous valuesBased on the average inter-item covariancesMean of all possible split-half correlations, corrected by the SB formula
Term
 Name the three ways test reliability is usually estimated
Definition
 Time-retest reliabilityParallel forms reliabilityInternal Consistency
Term
 Time-retest reliability
Definition
 - Evaluates error from the same test given on two administrations- Only valuable when measuring stable characteristics- Usually overestimates/inflates the true reliability
Term
 Parallel/Alternate Forms reliability
Definition
 - Compares two equivalent forms measuring the same attribute- Different items between forms with the same selection rules- Equivalent content, difficulty, means, variances- Different sections (split half reliability)
Term
 Internal Consistency
Definition
 - Examines homogeneity with which a test measures a construct
Term
 Carryover effect?
Definition
 When the first session influences the second
Term
 Split half reliability
Definition
 Test is given once and divided into separately scored halvesHalves are compared by correlating the two halvesExamines the stability in scores for two equivalent halves of the same test
Term
 Spearman-Brown Prophecy Formula
Definition
 Predicts the reliability of a whole test based on using only part of it; improves estimation of split-half reliability.
Term
 Inter-rater reliability
Definition
 Examines consistency among judges evaluating the same behavior
Term
 Kappa coefficient
Definition
 Measure of agreement between two or more judges who each rate a set of objects using nominal data
Term
 What does the standard error of measurement do?
Definition
 Represents that there is some error in prediction.
Term
 What types of irregularities might make reliability coefficients biased or invalid?
Definition
 - Inflated variance- Constricted variance- Restriction of range- Outliers
Term
Definition
 - Increase the length of test- Throw out items that run down the reliability- Estimate the true correlation if the test did not have measurement error
Term
 Purpose of factor and item analysis?
Definition
 - Factor analysis is used to ensure items measure the same thing- Tests are more reliable if they are unidimensional- One factor accounts for more of the variance than any other
Term
 What example was given in class regarding reliability?
Definition
 Rubber yardstick
Term
 Dichotomous format
Definition
 Offers two alternatives for each item
Term
Definition
 Adv: Simplicity, easy to administer, easy and quick scoring, flexibility, absolute judgmentDisadv: Encourage memorization, truth often comes in shades of gray, 50% guessing probability
Term
 Polytomous format
Definition
 Resembles dichotomous except each item has more than two alternatives
Term
Definition
 Adv: Easy to administer and score, familiar format, probability of correct answer is lower than dichotomousDisadv: Harder to write, need good distractors for reliability
Term
 What types of questions are "selected-response format"?
Definition
 DichotomousPolytomous
Term
 Which three types of questions would be considered "constructed-response format?"
Definition
Term
 What are the 2 major formats of summative scales?
Definition
 Cumulative scoringSubscale scoring
Term
 What scales most frequently use the Likert format?
Definition
 Multiple-point scalesPersonality and attitude
Term
 What are the primary differences between the Likert and Category formats?
Definition
 - Likert uses 5, 6, or 7 point scales; Category uses many-point scales- Category is used to make more fine-grained discrimination
Term
 In creating a category format, the use of what will reduce error variance?
Definition
 Clearly defined anchor intervals (endpoints and midpoints)
Term
 When does the category format begin to reduce reliability?
Definition
 After using more than the 9 or 10 point maximum.
Term
 What are four questions that should be asked when generating a pool of candidate test items?
Definition
 - What construct is the test designed to measure?- What are the test's objectives?- Who will use this test?- Who will take this test?
Supporting users have an ad free experience!