# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Psy 1600 Final Exam
Psychology of Thinking
48
Psychology
12/07/2009

Term
 Expertise (141)
Definition
 An individual who demonstrates consistently exceptional performance on representative tasks for a particular area
Term
 Parallel Processing  (376)
Definition
 Handles two or more items at the same time
Term
 Serial Processing  (376)
Definition
 Handles only one item at a time
Term
 Thinking (395)
Definition
 Process that requires you to go beyond the information given; also has a goal, such as a solution, a decision, or a belief
Term
 Deductive Reasoning  (395)
Definition
 Process in which you are given some specific premises, and you are asked whether those premises allow you to draw a particular conclusion, based on the principles of logic. Provides you with all the information you need to draw a conclusion.
Term
 Decision Making (395)
Definition
 Process of assessing and choosing among several alternatives; unlike deductive reasoning, decision making is more ambiguous and may have missing or contradictory information
Term
 Conditional Reasoning (aka Propositional Reasoning)  (395)
Definition
 Type of deductive reasoning task that tell us about the relationship between conditions (if...then...). Subjects must determine whether valid or invalid.
Term
 Syllogism  (396)
Definition
 Type of deductive reasoning problem that consists of two statements that we must assume to be true, plus a conclusion. Refer to quantities, so they use all, none, some, etc. Subjects must determine if valid, invalid, or indeterminate.
Term
 Propositional Calculus  (397)
Definition
 A system for categorizing the kinds of reasoning used in analyzing propositions or statements.   [Affirm antecedent: valid Affirm consequent: invalid Deny antecedent: invalid Deny consequent: valid]
Term
 Antecedent (397)
Definition
 Refers to the first proposition or statement; "if" part of the statement
Term
 Consequent (397)
Definition
 Refers to the proposition that comes second; consequence ("then..." part)
Term
 Affirming the Antecedent (397)
Definition
 You say the "if..." part of the sentence is true (valid)
Term
 Affirming the Consequent  (397)
Definition
 Say the "then..." part of the sentence is true (invalid)
Term
 Denying the Antecedent (398)
Definition
 You say the "if..." part of the sentence is false (invalid)
Term
 Denying the Consequent  (398)
Definition
 You say the "then..." part of the sentence is false (valid)
Term
 Heuristic-Analytic Theory (398)
Definition
 Jonathan Evans's theory that people may initially use a heuristic that is quick and generally correct, but may pause and switch to a more effortful analytic approach that requires working memory and serial processing in order to realize that their initial conclusion would not necessarily be correct.
Term
 Belief-Bias Effect (401)
Definition
 Occurs in reasoning when people make judgments based on prior beliefs and general knowledge, rather than on the rules of logic; in general, people make errors when the logic reasoning problem conflicts with their background knowledge.
Term
 Confirmation Bias (402)
Definition
 Preferring to try and confirm a hypothesis, rather than disproving it.
Term
 Heuristics (406)
Definition
 General strategies that typically produce a correct solution
Term
 Representativeness Heuristic  (407)
Definition
 When we judge that a sample is likely f it is similar to the population from which the sample was selected
Term
 Representative (407)
Definition
 When a sample is similar in important characteristics to the population from which it was selected.
Term
 Small-sample fallacy  (409)
Definition
 When people assume that small samples will be representative of the population from which they are selected (small samples often reveal an extreme proportion, rather than a true one; therefore, the small-sample fallacy often leads us to incorrect decisions).
Term
 Base rate (409)
Definition
 How often an item occurs in the population
Term
 Base-rate fallacy (409)
Definition
 Underemphasizing important information about base rate (i.e. Jack, engineers, lawyers problem from book)
Term
 Bayes' Theorem  (410)
Definition
 States that judgments should be influenced by two factors: the base rate and the likelihood ratio.
Term
 Likelihood ratio (410)
Definition
 Assesses whether the description is more likely to apply to Population A or Population
Term
 Conjunction rule (411)
Definition
 The probability of the conjunction of two events cannot be larger than the probability of either of its constituent events.
Term
 Conjunction fallacy  (411)
Definition
 When people jude the probability of the conjunction of two events to be greater than the probability of a constituent event (i.e. Linda problem from the book)
Term
 Availability heuristic (413)
Definition
 When you estimate the frequency or probability in terms of how easy it is to think of relevant examples of something.
Term
 Recognition heuristic (417)
Definition
 Typically operates when you must compare the relative frequency of two categories; if you categorize one category, but not the other, you conclude that the recognized category has the higher frequency
Term
 Illusory correlation (417)
Definition
 Occurs when people believe that two variables are statistically related, even though there is no real evidence for this relationship
Term
 Social cognition approach  (417)
Definition
 People form stereotypes by means of our normal cognitive processes; motivational factors are less relevant.
Term
 Anchoring and adjustment heuristic (anchoring effect) (419)
Definition
 Says that we begin with a first approximation (anchor) and then make adjustments to that number on the basis of additional information; typically, people rely too heavily on the anchor and their adjustments are too small.
Term
 Confidence intervals  (422)
Definition
 Ranges within which we expect a number to fall a certain percentage of the time
Term
 Framing Effect (424)
Definition
 Demonstrates that the outcome of a decision can be influenced by two factors: 1. The background context of the choice and 2. The way in which a question is worded (or framed).
Term
 Prospect Theory (425-426)
Definition
 People's tendencies to think about possible gains asbeing different from possible losses. Specifically: 1. When dealing with possible gains, people tend to avoid risk 2. When dealing with possible losses, people tend to seek risk
Term
 Overconfidence  (427)
Definition
 Means that people's confidence judgments are higher than they should be, based on their actual performance on the task.
Term
 Crystal-ball technique (428)
Definition
 Asks decision makers to imagine that a completely accurate crystal ball has determined that their favored hypothesis is actually incorrect; the decision makers must therefore search for alternative explanations for the outcome and reasonable evidence to support the alternative explanations.
Term
 My-side bias (430)
Definition
 Describes the overconfidence that one's own view is correct in a confrontational situation.
Term
 Planning fallacy (429)
Definition
 Says that people typically underestimate the amount of time or money required to complete a project; they also estimate the task will be relatively easy to complete.
Term
 Groupthink (430)
Definition
 Occurs when a cohesive group is so concerned about reaching a unanimous decision that members ignore potential problems and they are overconfident that their decision will have a favorable outcome (a reason for overconfidence)
Term
 Hindsight (430)
Definition
Term
 Hindsight bias (430)
Definition
 Occurs when an event has happened already, and we say that the event had been available and that we "knew it all along."
Term
 Maximizing decision-making style (433)
Definition
 When people (maximizers) have a tendency to examine as many options as possible; more challenging when the number of options increases.
Term
 Satisficing decision-making style (433)
Definition
 When people (satisficers) have a tendency to settle for something that is satisfactory; not concerned about other potential options elsewhere that could be better.
Term
 Ecological rationality (434)
Definition
 Describes how people create a wide variety of heuristics to help them make useful, adaptive decisions in the real world.
Term
 Default heuristic (434)
Definition
 If there is a default option, people will choose it.
Term
 Attribute substitution (434)
Definition
 Operates when someone asks you to make a judgment and you don't know the answer; would substitute an answer to an earlier but similar question.
Supporting users have an ad free experience!