Shared Flashcard Set


PSY 105 (Ryerson)
Perspectives in Psychology Midterm 2, Prep.
Undergraduate 2

Additional Psychology Flashcards




Types of Learning (2)

1) Non-associative

2) Associative

What is Learning?
A change in an organism's behaviour due to their study, practice or experience.
What are the elements associated with Non-Associative Learning? (3)

1) Habituation - less response after seeing something multiple times

2) Sensitization - one strong events make lesser events exaggerated

3) Dishabituation - recovery of interest


What did Ivan Pavlov create?

What were the components? (5)


Created Classical Conditioning - condition a stimulus to to result in a response


1) Neutral stimulus (NS) - changes to (CS)

2) Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

3) Unconditioned response (UCR)

4) Conditioned stimulus (CS) 

5) Conditioned response (CR)

What are the steps in Classical Conditioning? (3)

1) NS = neutral response, UCS = UCR

2) Pair NS + UCS = UCR

3) NS = CS, gains CR, similar to UCS = UCR.

NS = UCR basically.

What are some elements of Classical Conditioning? (4)

1) Acquisition - the learning phase where we make CR. It gets more effective the quicker and more practice you put.


2) Extinction - Getting rid of CR (CS = 0)


3) Spontaneous recovery - reappearance of behaviour after extinction


4) Higher-order Conditioning - Develop CRs to different CS that are related to original CS

What are some elements of Stimiulus relating to Classical Conditioning? (2)

1) Stimulus Generalization - Similar CS gives same CR

(ex// Different people, same response to them)


2) Stimulus Discrimination - Only have a CR to certain CS (ex// Scared of a certain type of dog)

What is Operant Conditioning?

It is learning when an individual behaviour is influenced by consequences. "Learn to operate"


They get something for doing something.

What law did E. L. Thorndlike make?
The law of effect - likely to repeat a response to a stimulus if there is a reward being given
What is a reinforcer and what are the types? (2)

A reinforcer is something that strengthens outcomes of responses.


1) Primary (Positive) - has rewards

(ex// Job -> happy)


2) Secondary (Negative) - when associated with primary, gives rewards

(ex// Job -> money -> happy)


What is a punisher and what are the types? (2)


What is something to consider when looking at the types?


It is any outcome that weakens a response.


1) Primary (Positive) - aversive to organism

(ex// hurting ppl)


2) Secondary (Negative) - average with primary

(ex// hurting b/c they did something bad)


Positive and negative doesn't mean good or bad here, they are both sort of bad.

What is Shaping?

It is modifying behaviour through series of successive approximations of behaviour.

(Reinforce the behaviour, giving reward if they do something close to it, eventually making them do the behaviour you want them to do)


What are some schedules or patterns of delivering reinforcers? (2)


What are the dimensions related to these patterns? (2)


What two dimensions give the most reinforcement?


1) Continuous - simplest, always gives reinforcement

2) Partial - sometimes gives reinforcement


1) Consistency - fixed or variable amount

2) Basis of the reinforcement - ratio or interval


(ex// fixed ratio, variable interval, fixed interval, etc.)


Variable ratio gives the most reinforcement.


What is Latent learning? Why is it good?


What is Observational learning?


It is a type of learning that is not observable, don't need to reinforce it. Revolves around thinking.


However if the person learns before and then gets reinforced they will be much better then anyone else.


It is learning by watching.

What is a Phobia?
A persistent, irrational fear or something due to conditioning
What is learned helplessness?
Repeated exposure to inescapable punishment situation makes the person not even want to make an attempt to leave.

What is vicarious learning?


What are mirror neurons?


Learning through another person taking consequences for his actions. (repeat or refrain from mimcing)


They are neurons fired when animal/human performs an action or when they see another person perform the action. They result in observational learning.

What are some factors that can help learning? (5)

1) Timing (manage it)

2) Context (study in certain areas)

3) Awareness/attention

4) Social networks/multi-tasking (avoid it)

5) Sleep (get enough)

What are some types of learning disorders? (3)

1) Reading disorder

2) Mathematics disorder

3) Written expression disorder

Can infants learn when they are just born or before they are born?

Yes, they can.

Before they are born they may use non-associative learning and once they are born they can imitate others.


What is Memory?


What forms does it have? (3)


It is a process of observing, storing and recalling information. It is very malleable, it can be good or bad.


It can take on the form of visual, auditory and sensory.

What are the processes of Memory? (3)

1) Encoding - putting info into memory

2) Storage - keeping info in memory

3) Retrieval - Reactivating info from memory


How do you Encode?


What are the types of Rehearsal? (2)


Encode by paying attention and perceiving the situation in your way. You usually don't encode 1st time so keep at it.


1) Maintenance - repeat again and again

2) Elaborative - Link stimuli in different ways

What are the levels of processing? (3)

1) Shallow - visual (Structural encode)

2) Intermediate - sounds (Phonemic encode)

3) Deep process - symbolism/meaning (Semantic encode)


What is Visual Imagery?


What are some Verbal Mnemonics? (3)


An image that is imagined which relates to info.

(can be encoded visually or auditory)


1) Verbal aid - rhymes, acronyms

2) Visual aid - link methods and use keywords

(method of Loci - place imagery)

3) SQ3R - 5 steps : Survey/skim textbook, create Questions, actively Read, Recite/recall answers, Review periodically


What are the types of Storage? (3)

1) Sensory registers (SM) - high capacity and brief, impacts our senses, NEEDS attention

- Iconic (visual)

-Echoic (auditory)


2) Short-term memory (STM) - limited, lasts 20-30 seconds and has capacity of (7 +/- 2)


3) Long-term memory (LTM) - Enduring, includes all facts, experiences and skills. Has infinite capacity.




What are the ways in which you can lose memory? (3)


What are the types of Long-term memory? (2)


1) Distractions

2) Decay (over time)

3) Interference (new things are more important) (proactive or retroactive)


1) Explicit/Declaritive - semantic (generic) and

episodic (specific)


2) Implicit - diff. types

(procedural, priming, conditioning, habituation)


What are some elements of Retrieval? (3)


What is Forgetting?


1) Recall - generate previous info

2) Recognition - select the previous info from the options

3) Relearning - reacquire something learned faster


It is failing to retrieve.


What is the Paradox of Memory?


What is a Serial Position Curve?


It is when you remember stuff that isn't part of your memory.

(Remember walking except you were actually running)


It is the forgetting curve.


What are the Primacy and Recency effects?


How do they function?


What is the Von Restorf Effect?


Primacy - remember the 1st stuff only

Recency - remember the last stuff only


Primacy goes to long term memory so you can remember

Recency goes to short term memory so you can remember


It is when you remember odd/unusual stimuli

(1 black dot in 100 white dots.)


What did Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve look into?


How long does it take for most information to get lost?


It looked at nonsense infomation


It takes 20-60 minutes to forget most of everything,

a half of your memory is lost within days.


What is Overlearning?


What is Encoding Specificity?

What are the types? (2)


It is practicing more then necessary (impervious to forget)


It is having the same conditions when encoding and retrieving.


1) Context dependant - external contexts

(at home)

2) State dependant - physiological/psychological states

(good mood, chewing gum, drink water)

What are the memory concepts that can influence your learning? (5)

1) Distributed vs. mass study - distributed is efficient

2) Testing effect - test frequently

3) Elaborative rehearsal - give meaning instead of memorizing

4) Levels of processing - understand ideas in your own words

5) Mnemonic devices - use reminders and cues

What are the sins of memory? (7)

1) Memories fade with time

2) Must pay attention

3) Memories may get blocked

4) May misattribute source of memory

5) May be suggestible in memories

6) Can have memory distortion (bias)

7) Fail to forget things (persistence of memory)


What is Health Psychology?


What is the Biopsychosocial model?


Concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to health and prevention of illness.


It is a model that explains that illnesses are caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychosocial and socio-cultural factors.


What % of death is preventable?


Explain how we can prevent, identify how? (5)




50% is avoidable.


It is avoidable if we reduce risks, the main risks are:


1) Smoking

2) Excessive alcohol use

3) Nutrition

4) Inactivity

5) Obesity 

What can happen if you are exposed to stress for a prolonged period of time? (6)

1) Suppress cellular immune functions

2) Produces hemodynamic changes

3) Produces irregular heart rhythms

4) Produce chemical imbalances

5) Atherosclerosis (artery getting filled with plaque)

6) Destruction of neurons in the Hippocampus


What is Stress?


What is important to consider when comparing one person's stress to another?


It is the constellation of cognitive, emotional, physiological and behavioural reactions to perceived threats and challenges. (Stressor)


We all perceive things differently, one person may be stressed while another may not be.


What are the types of Stress? (2)


What are the forms that stress can take? (2)


1) Acute - short duration with a clear endpoint.

(Jump scare, midterm)

2) Chronic - events with long duration, no time limit

(money problems, loved one with cancer)


1) Negative (distress)

2) Positive (eustress)  

(promotion = more responsibilities = good thing but more stress)


What is a Stimulus in regards to Stress?


What is a Process in regards to Stress?


What is a Response in regards to Stress?


It is a circumstance perceived to threaten yourself that will tax coping abilities. (can be everyday activities)


It is the transaction that takes place when there is a relationship formed between a person and environment.


It is a state ("I'm so stressed atm") that impairs the ability to respond to external and internal demands.

When processing stress, what are the types of appraisals? (3)

1) Primary - evaluate present and potential harm

(kind of irrelevant as it may not happen)

2) Secondary - evaluate coping resource, if there are none = threats are present (somewhat relevant)

3) Reappraisal - change the meaning of an event to minimize reaction (not the end of the world b/c I failed)

What are the types of processes when under Stress? (2)

1) Problem-focused - optimistic, think we can achieve our goals, go head on to tackle problems


2) Emotion-focused - put a positive spin on things we can't control to reduce pain

(can't get a good mark, watch netflix?)

What are the categories that Lazarus splits Stress into? (3)

1) Losses - losing loved ones or possessions

2) Threats - anticipating harm

3) Challenges - oppourtunity for growth


What are the major pathways when taking a Fight or Flight response? (2)


What is the primary command centre for stress?


What is the primary target organ for stress?


1) Sympathetic adrenal medullary system (SAM)

2) Hypothalmic pituitary adrenocorticol system (HPA)


The hypothalmus


The adrenal gland - made up of the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex


What are the types of Stress that you may Feel?

Explain them. (4)


1) Frustration - pursuit of goals prevented

(most stress inducing would be failures and losses)


2) Conflict - have to make a choice b/w 2 competing motivations or impulses (3 types)


3) Change - noticeable alterations in living circumstances (need to readjust), (social readj. scale - higher score means more chance of illness from stress)


4) Pressure - expectations/demands that force you to behave in a certain way (mismatch of what we want to do and the amount of time we have)

What are the types of Conflict? (3)

1) Approach-approach (two good outcomes - least stress)


2) Avoid-avoid (two bad outcomes - most stress)


3) Approach-avoid (a double edged sword, has a good thing with rewards but bad consequences if fail)


What are the impacts of stress on us? (2)


How can we be balanced with our stress?

What curve explain this balance?


1) Can have physical and psychological changes

(worry, anxiety, depression, indecision, etc.)

2) Can have physiological reactions to stress

(increased heart rate, head ache, frequent illnesses)


We can balance it by being in the optimal zone, which is not too little stress and not too much stress. The optimal zone is shown in the Yerkes-Dawson Curve.


What is the General Adaption Syndrome (GAS)?

What are the parts? (3)


It is the stages of stress.


1) Alarm stage 


2) Resistance - adapt, find way to cope with the stressor


3) Exhaustion - prologed duration means resistance may break down and cause damages


What is the timeline for SAM? (3)


What is the timeline for HPA? (3)


1) Stress perceived

2) Hypothalmus activates sypmathetic nervous system

3) Stimulates adrenal medulla glands    (secretes catecholomines = adrenaline and norepinephrine)


1) Turn on pituitary gland due to hypothalmus

2) Turn on adrenocorticotropic hormones

3) Turn on adrenal cortex (secrete corticosteroids)


What are Catecholimines? (2)

What do they do?



1) Adrenaline (epinephrine)

2) Norepinephrine (noreadrenaline)

They are hormones that make your heart rate go faster, turns off digestive track, they get you ready and alert



What do hormones like Cortisol do? (3)


What does the HPA Axis do? (2)


1) Reduces inflammation (injury)

2) Increases energy

3) Helps to return to normal state


1) Temporarily inhibit pain to escape danger

2) Releases cortisols which can ready stress responses


What is a coping strategy?


What are some not so good coping strategies? (4)


It is the process of managing (master, reduce, tolerate) perceived demands in a stressful situation


1) Give up and blame yourself

2) Strike out at others

3) Self-indulgence

4) Defensive coping (deny reality, fantasys)


What are healthy ways of coping in a constructive manner? (3)


How can you be reasonable in this process? (2)


1) Coping must be task relevant

2) Make sure it is action oriented

3) Concious effort to rationally solve problems


1) Realistic appraisal of stress/coping

2) Self-deception only helps in short term, not long term

What are some key signs to when you are being Maladaptive? (3)

1) Ignoring problem

2) Distracting or making yourself feel better without solving problem

3) Not learning to recognize and regulate disruptive emotional reactions to stress

(focus on constructive coping)

What are some key features of being Resilient? (3)

1) Will transform after negative experiences (learn)

2) Show positive responses and thrive in it

3) Resilience trajectory is best way to fight adversity

What are some traits of happy people? (4)

1) Likes being around people

2) Agreeableness

3) Conscientious (doing whats right)

4) High self-esteem


What are Traumatic Events?


What is Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?

What factors determine if you may develop it? (4)


They are unexpected events that create severe disruptions


It is an anxiety disorder that is in response to a traumatic event resulting in having frightening and lingering memories and thoughts


1) Biological factors

2) Personality

3) Childhood experience

4) Social support

What are some common ways stress can take place in everyday life? (3)

1) Life changes and illness (people moving out of your life)

2) Chronic negative situations

3) Socio-cultural conditions (prejudice against races)

What are the categories of Individuality that can determine relationships to stress? (4)

1) Autonomic reactivity - physical arousal


2) Explanatory style - explaining method

(optimistic or pessimistic)


3) Personality - (timid ppl show more alarm, not bold ppl)


4) Social support - (friends, family)

What is a type of serious disease that usually results from stress? How does it come to fruition?
Coronary heart disease. It affects our arteries from being blocked constantly.

What is Psychoneuroimmunology?


What is Lymphocytes?


Area of study focusing on links between stress, immune system and health


White blood cells that destroy foreign invaders and cancer cells.


What are some characteristics of a person that may indicate how stress affects that person's immune system? (3)


What is the best amount of stress to have in easy-hard tasks? (3)


1) Behaviour

2) Personality

3) Social support


1) High stress in easy tasks make it better

2) Moderate tasks need moderate amounts of stress

3) Complex and hard tasks need low levels of stress


What is Learned optimism?


What is Realistic optimism?


It is the belief that ones efforts lead to improvement/hope


It is optimism without deception

What are the steps to a more satisfying life? (8)

1) Count blessings (give thanks)

2) Practice acts of kindness (random and systematic)

3) Savour life's joy (go outside, take pictures)

4) Thank a mentor (makes them feel good)

5) Learn to forgive (get rid of anger and grudges)

6) Invest time in friends/family (strong relationships)

7) Take care of body (daily sleep, excercise)

8) Develop coping strategies (believe in them)




What is Mindfulness?

What does this help you with?


What is Savouring?

What positives does this give you?


It is a heightened state of awareness.

Gives you a better psychological well-being.


It is having mindful awareness to enjoyment

Gives more frequent and intense feelings of happiness.

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