# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

PSC 151 - Comparative Analysis
UMASS Dartmouth, Political Science 151, Midterm Review, Fall 2012
57
Political Studies
10/15/2012

## Additional Political Studies Flashcards

Term
 Independent Variable
Definition
 A variable that is manipulated in an experiment to measure any effect it has on other (dependent) variables.
Term
 Dependent Variable
Definition
 A variable whose value changes based on the manipulation of the independent variable.
Term
 Inductive Reasoning
Definition
 Coming a general conclusion from particular stripes. (Example: All sampled elements of the set Dumplings have been tasty, therefore, all elements of the set are tasty.)
Term
 Deductive Reasoning
Definition
 Coming to a particular conclusion from general facts. (Example: This is a dumpling, therefore, it is tasty.)
Term
 Points about the Experimental Methods
Definition
 It is the ideal analytical method, entails experimental and control groups, difficult to use in political science due to ethics/feasibility, and has seen increased use in recent decades.
Term
 Statistical Method
Definition
 Used in substitution for experimental method, an "approximation" thereof. It entails mathematical manipulation of data to provide insight into partial correlations, necessitating large amounts of data.
Term
 Comparative Method
Definition
 Used to find relations among variables where due to constraints (e.g. few cases) the statistical method is not viable. Aimed at probabilistic generalizations, not universal.
Term
 Case Study
Definition
 A detailed examination and analysis of a single entity in an effort to describe and explain its characteristics. According to Lijphart, there are six types dividable according to Theory Non-Theory.
Term
 Four ways to increase strength of comparative method
Definition
 1) Use more cases and fewer variables.2) If cases cannot be increased, try unifying variables which are similar.3) Focus on comparable cases (Mill's Methods of Difference and Concomittant Variables)4) Focus on the analysis of key variables
Term
 Characterize the Comparative Method
Definition
 It is a research design which seeks to understand the effects of a particular dependent variable by examining a small number of cases. The small number of carefully selected cases improves generalizability and control over single case studies,but also allows one to look more in depth at each case than one can in "large N" statistical studies.
Term
 Most Similar Approach
Definition
 An approach which entails attempting to isolate case variation to only the dependent variable. (Example: Comparing the proportion of national budget spent on national defense and its effects between the US and UK, which are very similar in many regards.)
Term
 Most Different Approach
Definition
 An approach which entails attempting to isolate case similarity to only the dependent variable.
Term
 Cross-Regional Approach
Definition
 Comparing the findings of regional sets of cases. This approach is useful in finding whether theories are consistent across regions or localized. (Many old theories grounded in a European context were erroneously generalized to any human population)
Term
 Society
Definition
 A large group of people connected through interactions and common traits. One key trait is often physical proximity, allowing the group to function as a relatively closed and interdependent system of relations among its members.
Term
 Norms
Definition
 Unwritten rules or expectations of behavior that gelp govern the activity of individuals in a society.
Term
 National Identity
Definition
 A nation's self-awareness and sense of unity. (Example: Korean national identity, a shared sense of "Korean-ness" between North and South Korea. This national self-identification is distinct from self-identification with either state.)
Term
 Nation
Definition
 A large, self-aware segment of society, united by shared cultural features and possessing a belief in the right to political control over a particular territory.
Term
 Nationalism
Definition
 The pursuit of a set of rights for a nation, including the right of political control over a certain territory.
Term
 Nationalists
Definition
 Leaders of national movement who define both the membership boundary and the territorial boundary for the nation
Term
 Nation-State
Definition
 An independent state that exists for a single nation.
Term
 Civic Nation
Definition
 members of the nation are united by multiethnic cultural features and citizenship in the state rather than by shared ethnicity.
Term
 Ethnic Nation
Definition
 When national identity is based largely on ethnicity.
Term
 Ideal Type
Definition
 A pure form of a concept that may not exist in the real world but is useful in investigations of the concept in practice.
Term
 Territorial Autonomy
Definition
 When a group is allowed to control much of what happens in a particular region but the region is not officially independent. A group accepting such autonomy surrenders authority over such matters as national security to the central government.
Term
 State
Definition
 The basic unit of political organization in the world. It is distinguished from other rule-making bodies by its combination of a permanent population, a defined territory, governing institutions, sovereignty over its territory, and international recognition.
Term
 Citizenship
Definition
 Designation of official membership that a state confers to most of its permanent population. Carries rights and responsibilities not afforded to noncitizens, even if those noncitizens have lived in the state for a long enough time.
Term
 Dual Citizenship
Definition
 A person who holds more than one official citizenship
Term
 Stateless
Definition
 Being without any citizenship
Term
 Overlapping Homelands
Definition
 When two or more nations lay claim to the same territory as part or all of their homelands
Term
 Shebaa Farms
Definition
 Example of overlapping homelands. Small area claimed by Israel, Lebanon, Syria. Taken by Israel during Six Day War (Israel claims it was part of Syrian Golan Heights, Lebanon claims it was theirs). Israel invaded Southern Lebanon in the First Lebanon War ('82) in response to ANO attempting assassination of Israeli ambassador to the UK. In 2000, Israel withdrew from Southern Lebanon on order from UN. Lebanon claims Shebaa Farms as theirs and that Israel did not fully withdraw. Syria did not recognize Lebanon as independent and notSyria until 2009.
Term
 Sovereignty
Definition
 The ability to conduct one's own affairs. It is a defining feature of states, though not all existing states have complete sovereignty at all times.
Term
 De Jure and De Facto Sovereignty
Definition
 De Jure - The right to hold sole power over a particular territoryDe Facto - Actually holding sole power over a particular territory
Term
 International Recognition
Definition
 Global community's acceptance of a state's right to sovereignty. Does not necessarily accompany actual sovereignty.
Term
 Examples of Int. Recognition absent de facto Sovereignty
Definition
 Swat in NWFP, FATA, Somalia (Transitional Federal Government), Yemen
Term
 Patriotism
Definition
 Loyalty to, pride in, and love of, an existing state. This is not interchangeable with nationalism, which is simplified as love of a nation whereas patriotism is love of a state. (Example: Balochistan, Basques and Hindu nationalists are primarily nationalists. Patriotism to the state is either secondary or non-existent.)
Term
 Regime
Definition
 The particular political system in a state under which the government operates (Example: Egypt from Mubarak to the military last year)
Term
 Government
Definition
 The set of individuals, the roles they play, and the institutions in which they function that produce policy decisions on behalf of the state.
Term
 Bureaucracy
Definition
 Part of the executive branch dedicated to the implementation of government policy. Note: Due to their autonomy, sometimes referred to as a fourth branch. Higher levels of bureaucracy have influence on implementation of policies
Term
 Public Policy
Definition
 The output of a political system designed to alter some aspect of the political, economic, or social condition
Term
 Two Ways Bureaucracies Can Influence Policy
Definition
 Agenda Setting - Setting policy prioritiesCherry-Pick - Filtering of documents being sent through the chain-of-command
Term
 Comment on Bureaucratic Influence and Laws
Definition
 Laws are often constraints rather than directives, and political favor vague laws because they are political expedient and they feel details are best left to bureaucracies
Term
 # of Cabinets in the US
Definition
 In the US, we have 15 cabinets, each headed by a Secretary. In many other countries these are Ministries with Ministers.
Term
 Civil Servants
Definition
 Middle and Lower Level bureaucrats who are hired for their political or technical expertise (NOT politically appointed)
Term
 Merit System
Definition
 Bureaucrats get their initial jobs and promotions on the basis of their qualifications and performance
Term
 Spoils System
Definition
 Bureaucrats get their initial jobs and promotions on the basis of their connections to top government positions or favors done for such officials
Term
 Specialist Approach
Definition
 Bureaucrats are hired to fill a specific role in a particular government department and typically stay in that department for most or all of their government careers
Term
 General Approach
Definition
 Bureaucrats are hried for their general knowledge or expertise, typically including advanced legal training (more likely bureaucrats in these situations will switch departments in their careers)
Term
 Advantages of Large Bureaucracy
Definition
 Stability - provides for greater continuity during changes of political administration - especially in parliamentary systemsExpertise - The stability across politicla administrations allows bureaucrats to gian high levels of proficiency in certain subjects - particularly in conjunction with specialist appraoch
Term
 Disadvantages of Large Bureaucracy
Definition
 Inefficiency - Expedient incentives to expand one's ministray/department to gain political power and further careerPower to the unelectedResistance to change - de facto challenges to those in power
Term
 Non-Democratic Regimes
Definition
 - Small group of individuals who exercise power over the state- Government is not constitutionally responsible to the public- Individual freedom is restricted- Public has minimal or no role in the selection of leaders- *May* be legitimate
Term
 Non-Democratic Regimes and Political Control
Definition
 Coercion - Violence and surveillance commonCo-option - Populace enter a beneficial relationship wtih the stateCult of Personality - Populace obeys the leader based on their charisma, quality, and ideas
Term
 Corporatism
Definition
 A method of co-option whereby authoritarian systems create or sanction a limited number of organizations to represent the interests of the public and restrict those not set up or approved by the state
Term
 Clientelism
Definition
 A process whereby the state co-opts memebrs of the public by providing specifics benefits or favors to a single person or a small group in return for public support
Term
Definition
 Supreme leader - Head of State, serves for life, senior religious cleric. Powers: Choose who can run for president, CIC of armed forces, appoints chief justices all the way down to television and radio directors, very similar to traditional monarchy
Term
 Iran: Leadership - The President
Definition
 Directly elected, can serve for two terms only, four years each; drafting the state budget, proposing legislation, selecting ministers; appointing ambassadors, signing treaties, forming diplomatic relations; secondary executive under the Supreme Leader.
Term
 Military Regimes
Definition
 Military rule: Rule by One or More military Officials, often brought to pwoer through a coup.Four motives: National Interest, Corporate Self-Interest, Social Self-Interest, Individual Self-Interest
Term
 Types of Coup
Definition
 Factional - A coup in whcih only part of the military participatesCorporate - A coup in which the military acts as a single body
Supporting users have an ad free experience!