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PSC 1003 Downes
Definitions for IDs
101
Political Studies
Undergraduate 1
12/08/2013

Additional Political Studies Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Anarchy
Definition
Society lacking government and law; Standard for Realism
Term
Realism
Definition
Anarchic system; States main actors; Black Box Theory; Survival main goal; States intentions unclear; States have goals; benefits
Term
Offensive Realism
Definition
Same as Realism + Security Dilemma unavoidable; Must compete; Incentives to being hegemon
Term
Defensive Realism
Definition
Same as Realism + Security Dilemma mitigated by geography/technology; Maintain status quo and security
Term
Realist World
Definition
Competition for power; Fearful; Distrusting (Temporary cooperation as a result); Self-help; Security Dilemma
Term
Security Dilemma
Definition
An increase in your security/defenses = decrease in others security
Term
Liberalism
Definition
Anarchy; State of nature not the same as the state of war; Interstate relations not zero-sum; Cooperation is possible; States differentiated
Term
Liberalist Ideals
Definition
Democratic Peace Theory; Neoliberal Institutionalism; Economic Interdependence
Term
Democratic Peace Theory
Definition
Democracies will not fight wars with other democracies; Considers costs (people bear them), norms (prefer peaceful conflicts), and institutions (add time to reach agreements w checks and balances)
Term
Neoliberal Institutionalism
Definition
Foster cooperation and peace among anarchic states; Accept Realist assumptions; = explicit/implicit principles, norms, rules, and decision-making models; Obstacles = cheating and free-riding
Term
Roles of Institutions
Definition
Establish mutual expectations; Reduce transaction costs; facilitate issue linkage and side payments; provide information; monitor compliance
Term
Economic Interdependence
Definition
Int'l trade/commerce->fewer incentives for war/conflict
Term
Constructivism (Idealism)
Definition
Power of ideas (Better than material gains); Identities; Norms of appropriate behavior
Term
Three Images
Definition
1st image = individuals; 2nd image = states; 3rd image = int'l system
Term
1st Image Individual
Definition
Human nature; Passions; Misperceptions, biased; Risk propensity
Term
2nd Image States
Definition
Democratic Peace Theory; Democratization->war; Capitalism->war; Military organizations->war
Term
3rd Image International Systems
Definition
Distribution of power; Power transitions; International institutions; Economic interdependence; Global norms
Term
Polarity
Definition
Distribution of power/balance of power; Unipolar system vs. Bipolar system vs. Multipolar system
Term
Commitment Problem
Definition
Cannot follow through threats (Cuban Missile Crisis); Cannot credibly agree to one idea; Cannot credibly agree to not fight (China and America)
Term
Private Information
Definition
Facts about one nation that are withheld from other nations; Can lead to misperceptions or false information; Benefits to misrepresent information (Egypt and Israel)
Term
Issue Indivisibility
Definition
States cannot reach a bargain because the problem cannot be divided (Solomon's Judgment on the Child)
Term
Hegemonic War
Definition
Occurs during a power transition; Rising hegemon attacks current hegemon OR Declining hegemon attacks rising hegemon
Term
Bargaining Model
Definition
Always wager war; If nations know what each other wants, would be better to just give wants instead of enter a costly war
Term
Spiral Model
Definition
Occur from SD; War occurs when states fear an attack; Insecurity is root cause
Term
Deterrence Model
Definition
War occurs when cost of attacking decreases
Term
Nationalism
Definition
Sense of pride in one's homeland
Term
Absolute War
Definition
Only goal of war is to win; Use all available resources, including people; Costs not considered
Term
Real War
Definition
Serious consideration of costs; War we see today
Term
Levee en Masse
Definition
Using commoners as fodder for combatants; "Vacuum" idea
Term
Balancing
Definition
Creating a system in which responsibility lies on all nations equally
Term
Buckpassing
Definition
Letting another nation deal with the problem; Ignoring the issue at hand
Term
Congress of Vienna
Definition
Instituted Concert of Europe; Created peace throughout Europe from 1815-1854
Term
Concert of Europe
Definition
Austria, Russia (Polyglot nations); Prussia; England, France (Liberal, constitutional monarchy); Cooperation achieved through a flexible balance of power and a shared commitment to monarchy; Abstained from aggressive land grabs; Preserved status quo; Resisted bids for hegemony; Opposed revolution
Term
Bismarkian Realpolitik
Definition
Comes in after CoE fails; Rejects shared norms of CoE and Liberalism; Raison d'├ętat (reason of the state) (powers and interests of states priority based on power); Complex alliances
Term
Mercantilism
Definition
Trade is a zero-sum contest; Places tarrifs and regulations on trade; A hoarding of gold to fund they state to fund its army
Term
Globalization
Definition
Spread of wealth, goods, ideas, and information via trade; Promotes global interdependence
Term
Specialization
Definition
Focusing on creating only one or a few items that you are good at creating (China with silk and gunpowder, Colombia with coffee); Do not produce what you cannot easily make, causes higher creation costs meaning higher price meaning people will not buy it if something else is cheaper
Term
Gold Standard
Definition
Value of gold = value of pound = value of every other currency; Simplified int'l transactions; Eliminated foreign exchange risk; Facilitated rapid growth in trade and investment
Term
Stolper-Samuelson Theory
Definition
Marriage of iron and rye; Agriculture and steel joined together to achieve protection from rising tariffs and dropping costs
Term
Heckscher-Ohlin Theory
Definition
You export what you specialize in: capital, labor, or land (Capital = US) (Labor = India/China) (Land = South America, Africa)
Term
Hegemonic Stability Theory
Definition
While there is a nation acting as most powerful nation, the world will operate more smoothly
Term
Hegemon
Definition
Most powerful state in world; Acts as police power; Acts as an example to other nations; Powerful army; Powerful and influential economy; Regulate trade
Term
Imperialism
Definition
Conquest of weaker nations to increase land, power, wealth, and control
Term
Hobson's Imperialism
Definition
Capitalism->monopolies->concentration of wealth; Underconsumption and overproduction->falling rate of profit and underused resources; Leads to competition among countries for control
Term
Lenin's Imperialism
Definition
Imperialism is the highest stage of capitalism; Capitalist monopolies replace free competition
Term
Splendid Isolation
Definition
Britain's desire to completely avoid all issues within continental Europe
Term
Welpolitik
Definition
Occurs after Realpolitik; Simplification of alliances (keep Austria cut Russia); Aggressive moves overseas; Heightened naval armaments; Increase in German industrialism; Politically powerful army; Exploit military technology; Hybrid political system
Term
Schlieffen Plan
Definition
Transition to offensive strategies in order to defeat France and Russia sequentially
Term
Cult of the Offensive
Definition
Belief in CotO->aggressive expansionism, incentives for preemptive and preventative war, risky diplomacy and brinksmanship->war; Comes from military world view; Provides what militaries want; Exacerbated by insufficient people controlling the system; In place to protect allies
Term
Preventative War
Definition
War initiated to prevent another nation from attacking at a later time; Preemptive war
Term
Treaty of Versailles
Definition
Surrender of German colonies; French get Alsace-Lorraine back Allied occupation of the Saar and Rhineland; Ban on Germany and Austria; Strict military limits; German reparations and guilt clause; No empire besides Britain, France, and Italy; Self-determination besides Germany; Equality besides Germany and USSR; Assured security except France
Term
Collective Security
Definition
No single state more powerful than another; All major powers accept the status quo; Willingness to defend anyone else
Term
League of Nations
Definition
Council and assembly; Article X--members protect other members; Article XVI--aggression = an attack on all members, members will talk then decide actions; Alliances with specific states; Collective security for all staes
Term
Fourteen Points
Definition
Under Wilson; Open diplomacy; Self-determination (nations find own destiny); Free trade; Arms reduction; Collective security; Impacted Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations
Term
Smoot-Hawley Tariff
Definition
Raised tariff on many things; other nations followed, including Britain
Term
Lebensraum
Definition
Additional territory deemed necessary to a nation for its continued growth and well-being; Not a new idea to Germany, though the approach (killing all the Jews) was
Term
Yalta
Definition
US gets USSR to join Pacific War; UK wants democracy in Eastern and Central Europe; USSR wants a sphere of influence in Eastern and Central Russia; Russia wins; Big 3 (US, UK, USSR) divide Germany and Berlin; Iron Curtain forms and divides Europe
Term
Sphere of Influence
Definition
Ability to maintain power and control in an area where you have no territory
Term
Iron Curtain
Definition
Metaphorical term for the division between the Liberal West Europe and USSR dominated East Europe based on opposing ideologies
Term
Novikov Telegram
Definition
US and UK seeking world domination; Internal contradictions of capitalism inevitable; Soviets must spread "democracy" (Communism), especially in Germany
Term
NATO
Definition
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; Served as European military power
Term
Truman Doctrine
Definition
Anti-Communist aid to Greece, Turkey; US replaces Britain; Sets broad standards for later policies
Term
Bretton Woods System
Definition
Conference to regulate post-WW2 economy and exchange rates, reconstruction and development, and trade
Term
International Monetary Fund
Definition
Adjustable peg exchange rate system; exchange rates set to fixed value; can be adjusted if "fundamental disequilibrium"; Has access to financing; can support currency without recession; Regulation of capital flows; Collective management; Frequent consultation; Voting power based on how much you pay
Term
World Bank
Definition
Loans for reconstruction and development; Default institution (failed) even after Marshall Plan
Term
World Trade Organization
Definition
Continuing challenge to free trade
Term
Marshall Plan
Definition
$13.5 billion to Europe; $500 million to Japan; 5% of US GDP in 1948
Term
Stability-Instability Paradox
Definition
Nuclear weapons make MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction) (a form of stability); Promote other methods of warfare (a form of instability)
Term
Mutually Assured Destruction
Definition
If one nuclear nation attacks another nuclear nation with nukes, the defending nation will (in theory) attack with their nukes, thus ensuring the destruction of both nations; On a global level, fallout from destruction of defending nation will have an immediate and long-term negative impact on the entire world
Term
First Strike
Definition
Attack before the other nation can (Preemptive attack)
Term
Secure Second Strike Capability
Definition
If you suffer an attack, you have the ability to respond with your own
Term
Ho Chi Minh
Definition
Capital of North Vietnam after Vietnam divided at 17th Parallel
Term
Ngo Dinh Diem
Definition
Capital of South Vietnam after Vietnam divided at 17th Parallel
Term
Viet Minh/Viet Cong
Definition
Pockets of North Vietnamese support in South Vietnam that relied on guerilla warfare to defeat South Vietnamese and American troops
Term
Tet Offensive
Definition
Destroyed the image of America to the US citizens; Revealed US was losing the war as opposed to the advertised near-victory
Term
Credibility
Definition
Inaction in one area would destroy public opinion of US commitment and cause them to believe we would not help elsewhere
Term
Domino Theory
Definition
If one state falls in a region (especially to Communism) then all states fall in the region
Term
Camp David Accords
Definition
1979; President Carter helps Israel negotiate an historic peace treaty with Egypt; Egypt becomes key US ally
Term
Gulf of Tonkin
Definition
US battleship was supposedly targeted by North Vietnam; LBJ used this to escalate the war
Term
Operation Rolling Thunder
Definition
Series of air-strikes on North Vietnam; Not very effective at all
Term
Gamel Abdel Nassar
Definition
Head of Egypt during Suez Canal War and Six Day War; Wanted Israel dead
Term
Anwar Sadat
Definition
Head of Egypt during Yom Kippur War; Launched a successful attack on Israel due to private information, though Sadat only wanted to talk out negotiations; Okay with existence of Israel; More pragmatic and realistic than his predecessor
Term
Six Day War
Definition
Israel vs. Egypt, Jordan, Syria; Nasser closes Strait of Tiran; Israel preemptively attacks Egypt; Destroys 75% of its armed forces
Term
The Seven Sisters
Definition
Oil companies in the Middle East came together and made laws; Did not give as much money to Saudi Arabia as it had wanted; Incredibly abusive to other world powers
Term
OPEC
Definition
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; Put embargoes on the US and Dutch (as they supported the US)
Term
IEA
Definition
International Energy Agency; Created in response to OPEC; Showed oil transactions of nations; Provided an escape/safety plan if an embargo occurred again; Provided information on the spot-market and tried to prevent hoarding; Ultimately failed both times it had to be used
Term
Bipolarity
Definition
Two superpowers or hegemons exist; US and Russia during the Cold War; US and China now; Keep world in order through conflicts with each other
Term
Multipolarity
Definition
More than two nations exist as "hegemons"; "Hegemons" cannot exist in a multipolar system, referred to as superpowers; France, Austria, Britain, Russia, Prussia during the Late 18th Early 19th Centuries
Term
Unipolarity
Definition
One hegemon exists in the world; US between Cold War and the Rise of China
Term
NAFTA
Definition
North American Free Trade Agreement; Mexico, US, and Canada can cross borders and trade with each other without tariffs or taxes
Term
Mundell Dilemma
Definition
States can have two of these three: (1) fixed exchange rates (2) international capital mobility (3)monetary independence
Term
Tragedy of the Commons
Definition
If something is owned by everyone (the atmosphere, the oceans), no one feels responsible to take on problems as someone else will do it
Term
Collective Action Problem
Definition
Cooperation can reap benefits; State will not cooperate because: (1) individual participation is costly (2) benefits are non-excludable
Term
Free-Rider Problem
Definition
Certain states will not participate in fixing a global problem; They will get to ride out the benefits provided by other states getting involved
Term
Kyoto Protocol
Definition
Not successful; Developed nations must decrease CO2 emissions by 5.2% by 2010; Can sell surplus rights ( if you drop by more than that, you can sell leftover amounts of CO2 to other nations); Was never enforced, no one spearheaded this effort
Term
Copenhagen Conference
Definition
Total disaster; Lack of strong leadership, i.e. US; Too many adjustment costs and geographical struggles; Too many countries and issues created a gridlock
Term
Terrorism
Definition
Political and violent in nature; Victims do not equal targets; Targets = civilians; Carried out by an organization, not a state; Cannot be militaristic in nature, i.e. guerilla warfare; Tactic or strategy
Term
Suicide Terrorism
Definition
Most destructive; Most mobile; Inflicts most damage/death; Communicates resolve - they do not care about dying, only getting it done
Term
V = B*P(B) - C*P(C)
Definition
V = value of attack or resistance (government); B = benefits (assumed to be stagnant); P(B) = probability of achieving benefits; C = costs (variable, changed by terrorists; harm civilians, destroy property, trauma, resolve of terrorist group); P(C) = probability of costs
Term
Salafi Jihad
Definition
Overthrow secular rule in own or another state, or establish the rule of a particular religion; Al Qaeda
Term
Tamil Tigers
Definition
Ethnonationalists; Look for national self-determination and control over territory; Located in Sri Lanka; Want to return Sri Lanka to an individual state and remove the "foreigners"
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