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ps 109 final
Political Studies
Undergraduate 4

Additional Political Studies Flashcards




Men of Words
-people oriented
-clear ideology-commited to new system
-often intellecturals
-Brittons gentlemen revos
-articulate-charismatic leader
-inspire ppl, give them sense of identity/power
men of action
i. Task oriented
ii. Like to plot strategy-rational thinkers
iii. Adapt to surroundings-essential b/c some can only adapt at certain stages
iv. Clear on resources- realist-manage money well
v. Realistic enough to know when failure is imminent and reverse strategy
bridge leader
i. Local leadership-hierarchy-decentralize
ii. Control and mobilize on local level
examples of words/action
i. For a revo to work need both or a person who possesses both qualities, need to work cooperatively
ii. Example- Lenin words Trotsky action
1. Castro words(later action) che action,
common characteristics of revo leaders
a. Family tradegy- no fathers
i. Assassination for lenin and Khomeini
b. Well educated except via
c. Closed political system
d. Many are exiled at some point( che and castro wok together and raise money for revo)
e. MEN
f. Not young 40 plus but well established with governance experience
how characteristics of revo impact revo potential
i. Family tragedy- They have had family tragedy due to the government so they will have the reason to oppose govt
ii. Well educated-so opinion will be listened to, usually well connected any way so easy to get opinions out
iii. Close poli system-With a closed poli system don’t have to worry about outside influences, can work and rule as you please without revolt(usually until the citizens (lower) get wise or the upper get fed up with the government inconsistencies
iv. Exiled-While exiled can plot without fear of the country coming for them, then able to come back and stay underground till they can act of their plot
a. Farmers who use most of what they produce for themselves
b. Work the land for themselves, farm to live
c. Can engage in some sort form of commercial agriculture, small markets
d. Millions globally-3rd world countries live on meager holdings
wolfs peasants basis
when they fight they fight for traditional conservative reasons, want to keep the traditional way of life
wolf peasants why fight?
i. Mounting strain-
1. Population growth
2. Commercialization fo agri- comp from international trade( comp for land, rent/taxes raised)
3. Dislocation of elites, mediating btw state, connection is taken away-isolation increases to anger
wolf-why peasants arent usually revos
1. Not able to easy associate
2. Manual/back breaking labor
3. In comp with one another
4. Consequences of not working-starvation/death
5. Don’t fit traditional class structure
6. Lack prior political and decision making experience
wolf-revo potential in classes
1. Rich only rebel when state falls
2. Poor are too poor
3. Usually middle class- they own land they can take a break from work, don’t have to fear death/starvation, some education, ties to city(send children to city, info from news/books, links with merchants)
wickham-crowly peasants theory
peasant support plus a strong guerilla movement that is strong enough to confront military- guerilla must strip government of moral authority
wickham-crowley-peasant in latin america
c. Role of peasant in latin americ/guerilla movements
d. Support from urban workers and peasants-what made Nicaragua and cuba successful
e. Necessary but insufficient condition for success
wickham crowley- 4 conditions
i. Need to be mostly agrarian social structure-10% lack secure control over land they farm( these are the 10% that rebel)
ii. Must be changes that lead to peasant dislocation
iii. must have a historical rebelliousness of peasants
iv. access to peasant resources
h. linkagaes to peasants-develop trust-takes time
i. fulfill 4 conditiosn, latin America didn’t realize this and that’s why it failed
Russia 2oth cent- Roles of peasants
1861-squash discontent in countryside and emancipates serfs-peasant commune established
ii. Communes develop really strong ties and usually the landlord does not over look carefully
iii. Peasants revolt, small land plot rebellions
iv. 1905-mass wave of peasant rebellion-movemenst with not clear articulated policy
v. First revo to drive out czar used peasants a lot, second was more urban proletariat based
China-role of peasants- 20th cent
i. Mao sent to country side-must use the country side now
ii. Peasants different from Russia, very strong communities-rural communities based on kinship and communal ties
iii. Commercial linkages-btw merchants, artisans etc-patron client relations
iv. When econ times got hard b/c of war with japan issues btw patrons and clients
v. Concepts of fam/fam honor threatened- tension btw peasants and feudal landlords
Mexico-role of peasants-20th cent
i. More diverse countryside-commercial exports of crops-miners ranchers farmers etc
ii. Pockets of indigenous groups with unique culture/language
iii. More akin to serfs in certain areas, while other middle class peasants
iv. While modernizing to produce commercial agri, fight for land
v. Two conditions must be met
1. New capitalist penetration cause competition over land- middle losing land and react to this
2. Rural laborers have regional autonomy-tactical mobility
Central america-Peasants-20th cent
i. Different times-during cold war
ii. Racial and ethinic issues, indigenous blood
iii. Social and political hierarchy mirror eachother
iv. Elites have emmense power and power of US investments etc
v. Extreme repression, silenced future generations
vi. When represson was moderate-there was rebellion
vii. Land of peasants became a safe haven, needed loyalty of peasants
viii. Demands diff- indigenous rights
21st cent potential of revos
a. Justification for revo still stands
i. Commercialization of agri
ii. Liberalized trade
iii. Threats to land and security/way of life continue
iv. Easier and cheaper to get access to modern communication tech
v. Rise of human rights groups
vi. Government has learned that repression is harder to do now
1. Ex- Bolivia/mexico
Russia-Role of Women
1917—limited involvement-
i. Leadership-lydia dan-educated, upper class-brothers in movement but exiled to zurich
ii. Bolsheviks don’t have an intential campaign to involve women
iii. Women active in sporadic protests/strikes in cities(1/3 labor force)
1. Location to organize, wanted better working conditions excluded the countryside
mexico-Soldaderas 1910
female solider
1. Thousands of women that followed the men during long revo scholars
a. Followed fam member, source of income, women believed in cause
2. Didn’t bare arms-support role
3. Drawn from indigenous
4. Did traditional domestic role-cook, water, nurse etc
mexico adeliitas-1910
more involved in combat
1. Calvary units-own horses
2. Middle to upper class-more educated-more European
3. Colonel’s in army
mexico-role of women 1910
i. Women as archetype for sacrifice of revo and later a sex symbol
iv. Political-educated upper classes-in poli and intellectual roles
1. Intial support for madaro
v. New papers, public speaking
vi. Role of female is a function of their class
philippines 1986-role of women
v. Mass movement of oragainzing of church by nuns- symbols of pure catholic women-activism linked to catholicism
1. Women become accustomed to organzing themselves
vi. Broadcasters on the news
i. First example of clear defined leadership-akino(needed support of others)
ii. Husband ex senator exiled to US, assassinated in 1983 in phillipines
iii. Became politicized after assassination
iv. Not a threat to US, US educated and peaceful
Nicaragua-role of women-1979
ii. Earliest were middle/upper class-lawyers journalists etc, by 79 had all classes
iii. Started out as support but moved into combat, from small to large battalions
iv. Women fought for family that’s why they were so deteremined
v. Also fought for womens rights, equality and women not being treated as commodities such as prostitution, a 1978 platform by AMPRONAC
-sadinista movement 30% of women were involved
i. AMPRONAC-forum for women whose fams were victimized by the Somoza cruelties, mainly protests and petitions and demonstrations but in 1978 openly admitted support for the sadinistas
vi. AMNLAE-formed after AMPRONAC’s 1979 victory-fougght for childcare, healthcare etc
vii. This case clearly demonstrates the possibility of women to work within the revolution, despite class and gender
viii. FSNL focused on society wide issues while also including repressive governments and right equalities.
nicaragua-1979-Dora Maria/ Amara Penara
Ex- general dora maria-upper class fam-well educated
At university joined FLMN-goes underground and eventually becomes apart of the strategy
Part of major attack
Ex 2- peaseant- amara penara
-ingidenous non educated
-husband in union action
-husband sent to soviet exiled and trained
-arrested-aiding and abetting revos
-repression of women made them fight harder
barriers of women in Revo
-Sexism, reproduction assumptions, class restraints,
-Don’t believe women are equals, less schooling etc,
-cultural norms
-constraints of reproductive activities and patriarchal nature of latin America,society reinforces this
-the guerilla movements have lack of issues that pertain to the women ut also sexit internal relations-women are weaker
-women have not had support systems like the men do from women, if women do revolt seen as neglecting family
-class issues- middle class more likely to join because they probably had a servant to watch the children, make dinner and clean for them also didn’t have the threat of no pay like working class would
-also middle class women had more schooling and higher education more freedom in society etc
roles/tasks of women
a. Always motherly, cooking etc or acting as a mother, because women go undetected more often, always support roles
b. Combat in Nicaragua
c. Intellectual roles-juournalist lawyers etc
d. Politcail issiues that pertain to t hem-They are more proned to join when the issues deal with womens rights, such as prostitution or schooling, depending on the movement go from small demonstrations to combat such as dora maria in the FLMN
Moghadams-women in fam model
1. Clearly defined gender roles from past
2. Patriachial order, nationalism and relgion all tie together
3. Women excluded from conceptions of independence and liberty
4. Supposed to stay at home and run the hosue, where they are needed
5. Improve family always
a. Ex-Iran-Hijah- mask at first wore it to prove a point then forced when khomieni took over
moghadams-women emancipation model
1. More women in work force, ask for better hours, pay, child care, health care etc
2. Have an enlightened/social thought process
3. Womanly closely aligned with social transformations
4. Gender interests/issues addressed
5. Women seen as a working part of society, not just in the private sector
i. Ex- Russia, marriage rights
ii. Two step process- entry of women in national labor force and socialization of domestic labor
iii. Nicaraguan case- set standards of family cohesion and responsibility of whole family, reproductive rights etc
french revo-religion
christian-catholic church in revo
i. Fighting against catholic church during French revo
ii. Tocqueville
Saffrom revo movement-religion
i. Buddhist monks claimed the junta was evil
ii. b/c 90% population was Buddhist monks are highly respected
iii. monks excommunicated the junta-the regime was highly repressive
1. government lost legitimacy
iv. boldness of monk gave other people justification for poli revo
mexico revo- religion
catholic seen as old regime
i. Liberal party anti-clerical-take away land and wealth
ii. Allow church services etc
iii. With 1917 constits. The clergy starts to form sort of rebellion-they are involved in politics
Nicaraguan revo-religion
i. Transform role of church in south America
ii. Christ turns into solider and liberate poor/powerless
iii. Social justice is a moral obligation
iv. The church overtime begins to oppose regime-letter of public condemnation
-split in support conservatives vs. popular church
-pop church moral duty to fight against regime-culture of opposition
v. once Sandinistas in power priest become ministries
Iranian revo- religion
i. Shah manipulative-oil sales in favor of rich-disrupted traditional patterns
ii. Saw the shah as international imperialism and moral corruption-over threw in 1979-was the US puppet trying to rapidly westernize iran
iii. Khomeini-white revo- womens suffrage and land redistribution
1. w/I two years of white revo- revos against shah emerge
iv. represses as response to oppression-exile Khomeini, increases popularity
v. Buddhist Islamic revival opposed/undermined westernization
vi. Oil boom created inflation and increased inequality rapidly
vii. Islam created a tie across class lines-everyone could relate to revo because of their morals and values and not wantingto westernize-they wanted the 1906 constitution from the shah
islamic fundalmentalism-18th cent
i. Wahhab- no doctrin after 3rd islamic cent acceptable
ii. There is misinterpretation/corruption return to original
iii. Twelve shias-12 imams- supposed to reappear-potential revo there
iv. Napoleon- many European invasions-shows that people have a relaxed adhereance to the Koran
Islamic fundalmentalism 19th cent
i. Jamal al-Din afghani& salafist-must go back
1. Islamic moral/poli concepts help Islamic societies modernize
2. Has deviated from original so lost position
islamic fundalmentalism- 20th-muslim brotherhood
i. Euopeans in middle east-see them as bad and US as good
ii. Lots of European imperialism b/c muslim community fallen short( not doing well)
iii. Muslim brother hood etc.
1. Wanted non violent change of Islamic societies to fundamentals
2. Best way to strengthen society is to go back to earlier form
3. Self sacrifice
4. See poli elites as threats b/c of want to modernize
islamic fund- sayyid Qutb
makes Islamic fundamentalism a distinctly revolutionary ideology
1. Morally just and necessary to remove corrupt muslim leadership
2. Muslim version of US social contract theory
3. Jihad become imperative
4. After Qutb some member form al Qaeda
learned about religion as a revo material
i. Religion as a belief system is an extremely effective way to mobilize people together
1. it often can cut across class, gender, occupational, and geographic lines
ii. Religious symbols are powerful ‘tools’ to employ to justify, protect and express the beliefs of revolutionary movements
iii. Religious membership (believers) can often be quickly and easily mobilized via religious institutional networks & organizations
iv. Religious leaders serve as popular and strong figures of resistance whereupon government repression against them usually is deemed so appalling it undermines the legitimacy of the state
students revo-china
i. Wanted more demo and end of commi rule in china
ii. Wanted freedom of speech etc
iii. Had peaceful protests- attacked and over 7000 wounded
students-weather underground
i. Subdivision of SDS after they decided SDS was too peaceful and extreme measures needed to be taken
ii. Wanted to overcome capitalism, racism, discrimination, bombs, nuclear war
iii. Wanted social change for more acceptance of all people, form the new left
iv. Used bombs, very agressive
liberation theology
aims to oppress sin and help the poor with religion
religion both oppose revo and support
a. Before the church was seen as old regime and wanted to stick traditional
i. Now it is used as revolutionary agent
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