# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Problem Solving and language
prnio
35
Psychology
Undergraduate 1
02/27/2012

## Cards Return to Set Details

Term
 What are the 3 Types of Problems
Definition
 Structure-Relations between numbers words or ideasArrangement- arrange parts of a problem ex String ProblemTransformation-sequences in order to reach a goal ex hobbits
Term
 What 4 things screw us up?
Definition
 Irrelevant InformationFunctional Fixedness- limited in the ways we think about thingsMental set-Better solution may be available)Unnecessary Constraints-9 square problems
Term
 What are the 6 Approaches to Problem Solving?
Definition
 Trial & error:Heuristics: Words are more likely to start with Forming subgroups:Working backward:Search for analogies: (Your own)Change the representation: Writing the question differently
Term
 3 Factors of Risky Decision Making?
Definition
 Objective valueSubjective utility-Pros/cons for you with different answersSubjective probabilities-possibilities of variation
Term
 Common Probability Bloopers
Definition
 Availability bias: (easier to think one way)Representativeness bias: Tend to estimate probability based on typical prototypeIgnoring base rates: (Doesn’t matter what occurred before)The conjunction fallacy:Tendency to think that two assumptions are more probable than one.The gambler’s fallacy:Think that what happened in the past affects what is going to happen- all independent from each otherIgnoring sample size: The more trials- the better prediction of probability
Term
 Availability bias
Definition
 (easier to think one way)
Term
 Representativeness bias
Definition
 Tend to estimate probability based on typical prototype
Term
 Ignoring base rates
Definition
 Doesn’t matter what occurred before)
Term
 The conjunction fallacy
Definition
 Tendency to think that two assumptions are more probable than one.
Term
 The gambler’s fallacy
Definition
 Think that what happened in the past affects what is going to happen- all independent from each other
Term
 Ignoring sample size
Definition
 The more trials- the better prediction of probability
Term
 What are the 3 criteria for language?
Definition
 1)symbolic-represent something2)structured 3)infinitely generative- can gerate in infinite amount of messages
Term
 What are the 3 structures of Language?
Definition
 Phonemes: smallest unit soundMorphemes:measuringSyntax: rules to combine
Term
 In the sentence "The Boys Cried." how many words, morphemes and Phonemes?
Definition
 Sentence: The boys cried.Words?3Morphemes? 5Phonemes?9
Term
 What is Vocabulary Spurt and when does it occur in development?
Definition
 Childeren finally grasp the concepts of language and begin fast mapping(When children understand concept after only one exposure) occurs at 18 months.
Term
 What are the Stages of Language Acquisition and what do they mean?
Definition
 Babbling:Verbalizes in response to speech by othersHolophrases:Telegraphic speech: Whole sentences:Metalinguistic awareness:
Term
 What are the 3 Theories of Language Acquisition?
Definition
 Behaviorists (Skinner):ImitationNativists (Chomski):Innate language acquisition deviceInteractionists-combo of both
Term
 What Is the Behaviorist Theory of Language acqusition and who supported it?
Definition
 (Skinner) Parents encourage their children to pronounce the word the right way. Children also learn by imitation of the grown ups around them.
Term
 What Is the Nativist Theory of Language acqusition and who supported it?
Definition
 (Chomski) Believed that because there are an infinite number of sentances you cant expect that children learn language by imitation. He believed that humans are born with a natural ability to develop language, and are equipped with a Language acquisition device device that facilitates this.
Term
 Language acquisition device
Definition
 part of human instinct that facilitates the learning of language. Humans learn language for the same reasons birds learn to fly
Term
 3 Examples of how language shapes thought
Definition
 Linguistic RelativityFraming- Semantic Slanting-
Term
 Who is Whorf and why is he important?
Definition
 advocate of linguistic relativity- the idea that ones language determines the nature of one's thought. Example: English vs Eskimos view of the word snow.
Term
 Do animals display observational learning?
Definition
 Yes, Ex: One dog taught other dog to dig through trash
Term
 How many phonemes are in the word “Time”?
Definition
 (3) He flies Kites: • Phonemes- He flies Kites• Morphemes- HE Fly s Kite s
Term
 Do animals display classical conditioning?
Definition
 Yes ex: Pavlov’s Dogs)
Term
 What is babbling?
Definition
 Wide variety of baby sounds ex: lalala
Term
 What are holophrases?
Definition
 A single word (such as Thanks) that is used to express a complete, meaningful thought. More specifically, a term used in language acquisition
Term
 What is Telegraphic speech?
Definition
 Only content words are used and UN-needed word are left out ex: "Give ball"
Term
 What does "Metalinguistic awareness" Refer to?
Definition
 The ability to reflect on the use of language
Term
 In The phrase "Talked to the Players" List the morphemes and phonemes
Definition
 Words: Talked to the players   Morpheme: talk-ed-To-the-play-er-s (7)   Phoneme:(t-e-k)(t) (t-u-w) (th-e) (pley)(er)(s)
Term
 Syntax
Definition
 System of rules that define of words are arranged in a sentance.
Term
 Number the sentances in the order in which they probably occur in language acquisition. 1. "Doggie" While pointing to a cow 2. "The dogs runned away" 3. "Doggie run 4."The dogs ran away 5.Doggie while pointing to a dog 6. Tommy thinks like his head is full of mashed potatoes
Definition
 1- 4- 3- 5- 2- 6- longer with metaphor
Term
 The relative ease in remembering the last things in  a list is due to what effect?
Definition
 recency effect
Term
 What is it called when someone uses their words to illicit or numb emotion?
Definition
 semantic slanting
Term
 Little Tommy said “she telled me that” What is the name of this grammatical error?
Definition
 over regulation
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