Explain the difference between an acute injury and a chronic injury
An acute injury has a sudden onset due to a specific trauma such as twisting the your ankle. A chronic injury is when excessive repeated stress is placed on one area of the body over an extended period of time.
Rest Ice Compression and Elevation
lying face up
Where does this chronic injury occurs most often Chondromalacia Patella
Knee Cap
Shin splints
pain occurring in the anterior or lateral lower leg
Anterior compartment syndrome
very common injury in running it is a condition involving the three muscles in the anterior of the leg
Which are the three muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg
Tibialis anterior, extensor hallucus longus and extensor digitorium longus
is a term used for generalizing pain and or tenderness in the metatarsals, the heads of the long bone in the foot
List the part of the body in which plantar fasciitis occurs
bottom surface of the arch of the foot, pain commonly generates near the heel and progresses towards the ball of the foot.
is inflammation of the connectivity tissues that joins a muscle to a bone
A Sprain
is a tearing or overstretching of a ligament.
is a connective tissue that connects bone to bone and reinforces joints from dislocating
is a over stretching or tearing of a muscle tendon
Where does this chronic injury occurs most often: Achilles Tendonitis
In the calf muscles
What is the difference between a muscle sprain and a muscle strain

A sprain is a tearing or over stretching of a ligament


A muscle strain is a over stretching or a tearing of a muscle tendon

what is the First aid action for a Musculoskeletal injury
Rest Ice Compression and Elevation (RICE)
Coronary Artery Disease
Advance stages of heat exhaustion may lead to
in order to avoid dehydration during exercise and prevent heat exhaustion, an individual should
monitor hydration levels
to ensure proper hydration during exercise how many ounces of fluid should you consume shortly before exercise
8 - 12 onces
Name an activity that utilizes the aerobic energy system
Indoor cycling
To promote and maintain health, an individual should perform how many minutes and days per week of moderate intensity physical activities
30 minutes 5 days per week
One way to determine an individual's estimated maximal heart rate is
to subtract his / her age from 220
Name two atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseas risk factors that will improve by regular participation of physical activity
Blood pressure and total serum cholesterol
The system that allows the blood to flow through the heart, lungs and body is called
The circulatory system
A basic function of of the bone that make up the skeletal system is to
Provide a site for the production of red blood cells
what method is known as variable intensity or spontaneous training
intermittent training
The primary muscles performing work are called ______________ and may be identified by a specific ____________
Agonist , joint action
Movement of the hip include ___________ and _________joint action
abduction , adduction
Advance stages of heat exhaustion can lead to
List 4 steps in recognizing an emergency
Survey, assessment, prioritization,implementation (SAPI)
Indoor cycling utilizes which energy system
aerobic energy system
What is the Cardiovascular system
The system that allows the blood to flow through the heart, lungs, and body
The ____________ method is known as variable intensity or spontaneous training
List 8 health benefits associated with regular participation in physical activities
Lower risk of early death, stroke,Breast cancer, high blood pressure,colon cancer,prevention of Weight gain, muscular fitness, improved cardio respiratory
How can interval training improve aerobic performance
it increases aerobic endurance and anaerobic power It maximizes aerobic power especially for athletes training to compete
Define energy and its food source

Energy is the ability to work

Food source is plants and animals

Define ATP

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Intracellular carrier of chemical energy produced by the body for muscular work

List the 3 physiological adaptions that occur to improve exercise performance and state how or why improvement occurs

1. Increased maximal blood flow - The hart pumps more blood with each beat and increases stroke volume


2. Increased oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal this allows athletes to posses high pulmonary ventilation during maximal aerobic exercise


3.Increased maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic power


4.Increased blood flow and increased capacity and power of the aerobic system


Anaerobic path way ATP - CP / Phosphagen system:

Fuel source,Intensity, Duration


creatine phosphate

intensity- very high

very short 15-20 sec





Lactic acid system

1- fuel source-


3- duration-

4- list 3 examples of activities that utilize this system-

 carbohydrates only


3- duration- short/medium


 prolonged sprints, swimming, cycling Weight training

List 3 examples that utilizes the anaerobic - lactic acid system
Sprinting, jumping, kicking
Name the energy pathways
Anaerobic pathway, Lactic Acid system, Aerobic pathway
Name the Aerobic pathway
Aerobic system

name the Aerobic systems: Fuel Source, Intensity, Duration



Carbohydrates, fats , proteins

Low to moderate 40 to 60 minutes low intensity long duration



List 3 activities that utilizes the Aerobic system
Sitting, Sleeping , resting, walking
Literally with oxygen or in the presence of oxygen
Requiring no oxygen usually short spurt high energy activities
Steady State
after the first 3 - 4 minutes of exercise oxygen uptake has reached an adequate level to meet the oxygen demand of the tissues
List the 4 steps in recognizing an emergency
(SAPI) Survey, Assessment, Prioritization, Implementation
FITT Principle: training variables

Frequency: number of exercise sessions per week


Intensity: difficulty of an exercise or exercise session


Time:duration or length of each exercise session


Type: the mode of activity performed

Describe the principal of overload

To achieve desired training improvements or effects the relevant body system must be overloaded beyond its normal level of capacity.


Fitness programs that lack overload or variation will serve to maintain and not improve one's existing level of fitness.

Instructors should evaluate an exercise from which two view points

Effectiveness (benefits)


potential risk (injury quotient)

AFAA 5 questions

1.What is the purpose of this exercise


2.Are you doing that effectively


3.Does the exercise create any safety concerns


4.Can you maintain proper alignment and form for the duration of the exercise


5.For whom is the exercise appropriate or inappropriate

According to Afaa , a group exercise instructor should teach at what level

At a intermediate level


explain and/ or demonstrate modifications


to achieve more or less intensity variations


List the definition, purpose,and duration of a FINAL CLASS SEGMENT

Definition: the final class segment is the closure of a workout in which stretching and or relaxation and stress reducing techniques can be included.


Purpose: is to decrease heart rate and blood pressure, relax the muscles and physiological stress.


Duration:depending on the instructors class design typically it is 5 - 10 min

List and describe 3 common relaxation methods

Physical focus: method focuses on the bodily system and sensations in attempt to increase relaxation Mentally


Abstract focus: uses imagination to create a sense of relaxation.


Combination focus: combines booth Physical focus and Mental focus to  achieve a greater relaxation response.

list special considerations for a final class segment.

Heart rate monitoring


Saunas and hot tubs Method selection

A training variable that should be considered when designing an exercise program:
The Karvonen formula incorporates the ------------ in determining the training heart rate range (THRR)
resting heart rate
A warm - up is the _________ period for a specific workout
Movements of the hip include _____ and ____joints action
abduction and adduction
The definition of _________ is when oxygen uptake has reached an adequate level to meet the oxygen demand of the body
steady state
A skill - related component of physical fitness is:
In order to safely perform full range of motion during cardio hi/low-impact class, beats per minute (bpm) should range between --- and ---
130 and 155 bpm
In a push - up, the ____ muscles extend the elbow and the ______ adducts the humerus to lift the body up against gravity





Pectoralis major

Which type of muscle contractions (also referred to as muscle action) does not require the muscle to change length when exerted against a fixed resistance
A multi - joint exercise that utilizes the gluteus maximus and hamstrings
Which type of connective tissue connects bone to bone
The function of ______ is to sense the degree of tension and the length of the muscle
To enhance flexibility during the end of class cool down segment , the AFAA recommends performing______ stretches for _______ seconds
Static , 15-60
Besides heart rate monitoring, another method of measuring exercise intensity is
Perceived exertion
In order to teach a quality group exercise class and instructor should be able to
apply the AFAA 5 questions
A variable that acts as a determinant of exercise behavior is
cultural values


To maintain proper alignment , particular attention should be given to ___ in the standing position

holding a neutral pelvic alignment
Lordosis is associated with an anterior tilt of the pelvis, and may be a result of
Weak abdominals
Kyphosis or excessive curvature of the thoracic spine may be the result of
a movement that performs shoulder horizontal abduction is
High Row
advance stages of heat exhaustion may lead to
In order to avoid dehydration during exercise and prevent heat exhaustion, an individual should
monitor hydration levels
A motivational technique called ___ is used to sustain a type b participant for life long exercise adherence
One purpose of the final cool - down phase of an aerobic exercise session is to
prevent blood pooling
Which condition is referred to as an overuse injury
The 1996 US surgeon general's report on Physical Activity and Health was a call to
encourage more Americans to become active
The AFAA recommends checking the pulse at the _____artery
Radial artery
One way to increase exercise intensity is to
add traveling
The AFAA recommends that a recovery heart rate be taken _____ of aerobic work
3 - 5 minutes upon conclusion
a food, such as ______ represents a complete source of protein
If an individual's training workload for muscular strength and / or endurance is discontinued, a reduction in muscular fitness may occur after _______ months
3 months
According to the AFAA FITT at a glance , participants should aim for a cardio respiratory exercise intensity that burns a minimum of ______ kilo calories per week
Improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness can be attained with a minimum intensity of _____% of heart rate reserve (HRR)
Flexibility can be achieved by stretching to the end range of motion or:
point of tightness
When performing a squat, during the concentric contraction _____ occurs
hip extension
Training in water encourages freedom of movement without the fear of falling due to
Because speed is used to increase resistance , water is also an effective modality for _________ training
In Mat Science, the principle of ___________ refers to exercise selection
When introducing varying road situations in an indoor cycling class, be sure that there are _______ transition movements and changing terrain
For individuals to receive an efficient and challenging form of conditioning that works well for developing muscular strength and endurance, cardiovascular endurance, stability, balance and coordination they should participate in ___________ training
The explosive aspect of strength defines muscle?
What form of exercise is designed to achieve maximum muscular involvement?
variable resistance
A push up works the pectoral muscles, anterior deltoids and the ________
Early recognition of a medical emergency can be summarized into the SAPI approach the S stands for
Response to an acute injury includes
The AFAA 5 questions:
Evaluate the risk of exercise
The purpose of torso stabilization training is to:
enhance ability to maintain proper spinal alignment
an example of a basic exercise position is
when considering correct alignment while moving, instructors should make sure participants
control the ROM with movement
an appropriate alignment cue for hands and knees position
Hands directly under the shoulders
The AFAA recommends that _______ be incorporated within the warm -up portion of the class
movement rehearsal
A danger sign of exercise is
Correct standing alignment includes the pelvis in a / an_________
Neutral position
Time bouts of increased intensity work followed by lower intensity recovery is known as _______ training
A method for improving the muscular strength and endurance would be ______ training
multi joint
Instructors should make sure that participants keep hands relaxed when gripping weights in order
avoid performing the Valsalva maneuver
When working with participants diagnosed with asthma, instructors should allow for _______ and ______
an extended warm up and cool down
To assist in the management of arthritis, participants should  be encouraged to ______ daily
a probable cause of common injuries associated with group exercise classes may be :
body mechanics
Music is commonly written in a standard ___ beat
4/4 beat
If a participant complains about pain that has been persistent over the past few weeks, an instructor should
recommend a physician's evaluation
In traditional dance choreography, movements should include ____ as of one of its basic elements
Based on research ____________ components have resulted in improved performance in daily activities for older adults.
Skill related
To ensure proper hydration during an exercise session, participants should monitor hydration levels and consume _____ ounces of fluid shortly before exercises
8 - 12 ounces
When working the deltoids, which joint action is performed at he shoulder
when flexing the hips in a standing position, the back should
maintain neutral alignment
Traditionally known as oxygen dept, refers to oxygen uptake remaining elevated above resting levels for several minutes during exercise recovery is called:
EPOC ( Excess post Oxygen Consumption)
a period in which the level of oxygen consumption is below what is necessary to supply appropriate ATP production required of any exercise is called___
Oxygen deficit
The point at which the body can no longer meet its demands for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism is accelerated is called _______
Anaerobic Threshold
The ability of the body to remove oxygen from the air and transfer it through the lungs and blood to the working muscles: related to cardio respiratory endurance: --------
Aerobic capacity
The by product of anaerobic metabolism of glucose or glycogen in muscle is called _____
Lactic acid
The volume of blood ejected by each ventricle of the heart during a single systole is called ______
Stroke volume
The volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute is called ______
Cardiac Output
The pumping action of the muscle in the extremities and respiratory system along with venoconstriction to move oxygen poor blood back to the heart is called ___
venous return
The pressure of the blood in the arteries is called
Blood pressure
a condition caused by ceasing vigorousley exercise too abruptly so that blood remains in the extremities and may not be delivered quickly enough to the hart and brain is called _____
Blood pooling
The greatest volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after the deepest inspiration is called_____
Vital capacity
a dangerous condition that occur if an individual hold his her breath, causing the glottis to close the stomach muscles to contract, forming an on equal pressure in the chest cavity, reduced blood flow to the hart and insufficient oxygen supply to the brain is called ___
Valsalva maneuver
_________ are the point at which two or ore bones meet articulate and where movement occurs
Bands of sheet like fibrous tissues that connect bone to bone and reinforce joints from dislocation they are nonelastic and have limited range of motion
Band of dense fibrous tissue forming the termination of a muscle and attaching muscle to bone with a minimum of elasticity is called___
A tendon
White semi opaque fibrous connective tissue cushions and prevents wear on articular surfaces is called ______
Anatomical term for Anterior
To the front
Anatomical term for Posterior
to the back
Anatomical term for Supine
lying face up
Anatomical term for Medial
Toward the midline of the body
Anatomical term for Lateral
side to side away from the midline
Anatomical term for prone
lying face down
Anatomical term for suprior
above or the upper half of the body
Anatomical term for Inferior
below or the lower half of the body
Anatomical term for unilateral
affects only one side of the body
Anatomical term for bilateral
affects booth side of the body equally
horizontal plane ( transverse)


Plane that devides the body into upper and lower halves 

sigittal plane
Plane that divides the body into right and left is 
frontal plane
a plane vertical to the median line that divides the body into anterior and posterior 


Bending of a joint between two bones that decreases the angle between the two bones







 A motion of increasing the angle between two bones straightening of a muscle previously bent in flexion






Movement away from the midline





movement toward the midline




movement around the axis


movement in which the extremity describes a 360 degree circle





A muscle that is a prime mover, directly responsible for a particular action




A muscle that acts in opposition to the action produced by a prime mover

primary movers




a muscle directly responsible for a particular agonist action





A muscle that helps perform the same task




muscle that helps prevent undesired or unnecessary motion

isometric contraction






A muscle contraction in which the tension increases but muscle length remains the same 

Concentric Contraction




Muscle shortens as positive work is done against gravity  

Eccentric contraction




Muscle Lengthens while contracting,developing tension as when the muscle oppose the force of gravity is 

Isotonic contraction



A muscle contraction in which the tension remains constant as the muscle shortens or lengthens is called 
Fast twitch muscle fibers are ___
able to generate quick, high -intensity contractions
Name three postural deviations of the back
Cervical , Thoracic, Lumbar
List six classes of nutrients
Water Fat Carbohydrates Vitamins Protein Minerals
What are vitamins?
Vitamins are non - caloric, organic compounds needed in small quantities to assist in such functions as growth maintenance and repair.
which body part does this chronic injury occurs most often Plantar Fascist
Bottom surface of the arch of the foot
Which body part does this chronic injury occurs most often chondromalacia
Knee Cap (Patella)
which body part does this chronic injury occurs most often Achilles tendonitis
Calf muscles
Specificity of training principal (SAID) stands for
Specific Adaption To Imposed Demand
Describe SAID
training must be relative to the activity for physiological change to take place.
Describe reversibility principal
If one's training workload is decreased, physical fitness will also decrease
Growths that develop on the vocal cords due to overuse injury, resulting in severe chronic hoarseness.
Vocal Nodules
Describe Principal of over training
The body needs to recover and musculoskeletal system needs time to rebuild from the stress of vigorous exercise.
List the health related components of physical fitness

Cardio respiratory fitness

Muscular Strength and endurance Flexibility Body Composition

List the skill related components of physical fitness














Which other organization's training recommendations does AFAA support
The ACSM American College of Sports Medecine
define Par - Q

Physical Activity Readiness Questionaire


a written procedure used by fitness facilities regarding participating screening



Name the 6 classes of nutrients













The recommended dietary allowance






Dietary reference intake




Name the functions of water consumption in our bodies


Water acts as a transport medium for nutrients


Aids in digestion and elimination


Directly maintains body temperature


Adequate functioning of immune system and brain





Lack of water can cause disorders such as


Difficulty  concentrating




Muscle spasms


Failing kidney function




List the diffrent types of carbohydrates

Fiber rich foods, vegetables and whole grains



What are vitamins


 non caloric , organic compounds needed in small quantities to assist in such functions as growth maintenance and repair.



Describe the difference between fat soluble vitamins and water soluble vitamins


Fat soluble  A,D,E and K can be stored by the liver overdosing may lead to toxic levels in the body


Water soluble  C and B6 is excreted by the kidney when taken in excess



What are minerals


 are inorganic compounds that assist processes, such as regulating activity of many enzymes an maintaining acid—base balance and are structural constituents of body tissues

Iron - red bood cells

Calcium- bone and teeth 


List 8 dietary guidelines for Americans outlined by the US

department of health and human services and U.S department of agriculture


Adequate nutrition 

 Weight management 

Physical activities

Food groups to encourage



 Alcoholic beverages

Food safety


Describe my pyramid and how participants benefit from this



offers personalized eating plans and interactive tools to help you plan/access food choices based on dietary guidelines for

Americans. it will help give participants better understanding of what to eat and how much exercise to maintain a healthy




What is

AFAA's nutritional supplement policy and discuss what the role and responsibilities of a fitness professional are when it comes to the sale and distribution of nutritional supplements


only can be sold under MY name, where item is sold in good faith to only good candidates



Explain the difference between an acute injury and a chronic



Acute injury  sudden onset due to a specific trauma

Chronic injury most common, long term




Plantar fasciitis


inflammation of fascia/connective tissue of the plantar or bottom surface of the arch of he foot 





overuse injury affecting  a articular cartilage of  the posterior

surface of the patella  or knee cap


Common symptoms: Generalizing pain that tends to increase with weight bearing knee flexion activities such as squats , walking up and down stairs or sitting for a long period with bent knees.



Archilles tendonitis


inflammation of connective tissue that joins muscle to bone

most often-- achilles tendon (back of the heel bone)




What is the difference between a muscle strain and muscle sprain


strain- overstretching or tearing of a muscle or tendon
sprain- tearing or overstretching of LIGAMENT



list 3 ways to prevent voice nodules



Correct posture
project- speak out not up or down
use microphone
visual cues


list 3 ways to prevent low back pain


proper positioning of hip flextors
exercise selection

Proper positioning of  knees and spine


list 3 ways to prevent shin splints

proper footwear

Proper flooring

Warm up properly



4 things that may contribute to heat injuries, cardiovascular

conditions, or exercise induced conditions as they relate to

 participation in physical activity




no warm up
inappropriate clothing
no sunscreen
saunas/hottub after exercise
family history



FITT principal


Frequency : refers to the number of exercise sessions

Intensity: refers to the difficulty of an exercise


Time: refers to the duration or length of each exercise session

Type : refers to the mode or activity performed



Will one FITT variable effect the other ?


Give an example?


Exercise intensity will decrease duration of the exercise session

Different exercises apply different stress on the body so all can not be done at the same intensity



Principle of overload


to achieve desired training improvement /effect the body must be overloaded beyond its normal level or present capacities



principal of progression 

exercise program should provide gradual increases or

(a systemic change)



conditioning phase 4-6 weeks

Improvement phase 4-5  months

And maintenance there after



Specificity of training principal (SAID)






Reversibility principle


If workload is discontinued or decreased, detraining in

 performance will occur


Cardiovascular fitness decreases after

2 or 3 weeks without training


Muscular fitness ( strength endurance )deceases after

2-3 months without training



Principle of overtraining


The body needs time to recover & musculoskeletal system needs time to rebuild from the stress of vigorous exercise.


Without sufficient rest, overtraining occurs


Overtraining can also occur when training volume

and / or

intensity are too high or too rapidly increased



List health related components of physical fitness


Cardio respiratory fitness

Muscular strength and endurance


body composition



List skill related components of physical fitness 


Agility - ability to change the body’s position direction with quickness and accuracy

Balance - ability to maintain equilibrium (or posture) while moving stationary

Coordination - Ability of the body to utilize the sense and body parts in a harmonious relationship to perform a task smoothly and with accuracy

Power - ability or rate at which one can exert strength  to perform work quickly

Reaction time - the time required to initiate a response to a given stimulus

Speed - ability to move the entire body quickly



Outline the 2008 physical activity guidelines for Americans which reinforced the 1996 US Surgeon General's report


physical activity and health


· should avoid inactivity - some  activity is better than none

- should perform 2 1/2 hours per week moderate aerobic or 1 hr 15 minutes  a week of vigorous intensity

- should perform 300 minutes (5 hours) a week of moderate

intensity aerobic activity or 150 minutes a week  of vigorous


- should perform moderate to high intensity muscle

strengthening activities including all major muscle groups 2 or more days a week these activities provided additional health benefits are gained



Which other organization's training recommendations does AFAA support?


American College of sports medicine (ACSM)



What does BMI stand for and what measurement constitutes an individual to be defined as obese?


Body Max Index

>25 % is considered overweight t

> 30 % is considered Obese



Professional responsibilities may include what 7 items


Personal liability coverage

Training &certification

CPR/AED & first aid training

Facility pre-exercise participation screening (PAR Q)

Medical clearance & pre-exercise testing

Environment monitoring

Emergency response plan









Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire



Medical clearance recommendation for high-risk participants


men & women of any age, with 1 major cardiovascular ,pulmonary or metabolic

disease signs or symptoms


Requirements :Medical exam

medical clearance & exercise testing before participating

In moderate- vigorous exercise




Medical clearance recommendation for moderate risk



 Men & women, ≥ 2 atherosclerotic cardiovascular  disease (CVD) risk factors


without symptoms

Requirements :Medical exam and  clearance before participating in vigorous exercise



Medical clearance recommendation for low risk participants


 Men & women who are without

 symptoms and have ≥ 1 CVD risk factor


-Most instances do not require medical  clearance before

participating in vigorous exercise



List 10 exercise danger signs (participants should STOP exercise and instructor should assess the need for emergency response procedures)




dizziness/unusual fatigue


Tightness or pain in the chest


-loss of muscle control/ staggering


-severe breathlessness/ gasping

-allergic reaction / rash , hives

-blurred vision

-acute illness

-mental confusion


- Acute muscloskeletal injury



list 5 signs or participant complaints that would require exercise modification or cessation of exercise until signs disappear



Labored breathing

Excessive heart rate elevation

Evidence of strain/holding breath or unusual redness

Muscloskeletal pain

Lack of proper body control



what should an instructor know about the effects of drugs and/or medications on exercise response


certain prescriptions/nonprescribed medications may elicit side effects during exercise 


Individuals should consult their doctor before beginning an

 exercise program



list 6 symptoms of overtraining





Over-use stress related injuries

Increased resting heart rate /  slow recovery heart rate

Decrease in strength performance


Constant muscle or joint soreness on effort or motion, leaning toward pain



list 6 AFAA recommendations to avoid overtraining



1. vary class type/intensity
2.limit high impact / advance classes no more than 8-12 per week or 2 per day
 3. perform adequate  warm-up /cool down
4. limit active demonstration  by verbal cueing and use of instructor assistant
5. decrease schedule when needed , when medical/burnout

6. Ingest a nutritious diet adequate calories, carbs, protein and water



In terns of hydration and rehydration .AFAA recommends : 

Hydrate before 8-12 oz of fluids shortly before class

Hydrate during, and after exercise



Describe appropriate exercise attire the AFAA recommends


Fabrics that breath, comfortable clothing, shoes with proper

design, support and cushioning 



According to AFAA a group exercise instructor should generally teach at what class level?


Intermediate with explanation how to modify



Instructors should evaluate exercise from which two viewpoints

 _____________________ and ____________________



effectiveness and potential risk


Exact wording of AFAA 5 questions

What is the purpose of this exercise


Are you doing that effectively?  

Does the exercise create any safety concerns?

Can you maintain proper alignment & form for the duration of the exercise? 

For whom is the exercise appropriate or inappropriate? 



AFAA recommends that every group exercise class include:


Pre-class announcements

A warm-up activity preparation period

Body of workout (e.g cardio, strength , flexability training)

Post exercise relaxation, stretching, and or cool down



List definition, purpose, and duration of a proper warm-up


Defenition :   is the preparation period for a specific workout

Purpose: to increase core temp & prepare muscles/joints for movements that follow

Duration -typically 8-12 minutes but can vary from 5 to 10 minutes depending on the type of  class



List and describe  the 2 common warm-up methods and discuss when the addition of preparatory stretches may be appropriate


Movement rehearsal- lighter or less intense versions

of movement ( low kicks , marching, ) goal is to increase

 Blood flow

limbering movements- smooth, moderately paced non weighted full range movements that increase mobility/core temperature ( sometimes referred to as dynamic stretching)

preparatory stretching– are gentle stretches (held for less than 15 seconds typical 8-16 beats of music) these stretches are designed to ease muscles through ROM



list several special considerations for a warm up


intensity/impact, speed/control, ROM, sequence, spinal issues



List the definition, purpose, and duration of proper

cardio respiratory training


Definition: to utilize continuous, rhythmical aerobic activities that target the large muscles to create increased demand for

Purpose : to improve the heart, circulatory, and pulmonary

Duration: will vary depending on the class format and level, will typically last about 20-45 minutes in a 60 min class or short 10 min bouts in each circuit format



list and describe 4 common cardio respiratory training methods


-continuous or stead training: gradually increasing

intensity then gradually decrease

- interval training : time bouts of higher intensity followed by lower intensity recovery 

-intermittent training: less structured, randomly interspersed peak movement followed by lower intensity

- circuit training : time bouts of activities done in station to

station or sequential manner



list several special considerations for cardio respiratory training


monitoring intensity
cross training
intensity issues
music speed
repetitive stress issues
cardio cool down



list the definition, purpose, and duration of proper muscular strength and endurance training


Definition: involves working individual or groups of muscles against a resistance to the point of muscle fatigue


Purpose: to improve the ability to perform everyday

activities ,increase muscle mass, increase metabolism, stronger bones, decreased risk of injury, improved posture/symmetry, and improved athletic performance

Duration: the time required varies depending on the type of class and format typical strength workout last about 45and 60 minutes



list and describe 4 common muscular strength and endurance training methods


Concentric– occurs when muscle tension is sufficient to overcome resistance and moves a body segment of one attachment toward the segment of its other attachtment

Eccentric– occurs when muscle slowly lowers a resistance as it returns from short to normal resting  length

Isometric– a static held position where tension is developed in a muscle but the muscle length and angle do not change



List special considerations for muscular strength and endurance training


Muscle balance


Speed and control


Torso stabilization exercise

Resistance equipment techniques

Muscle conditioning exercise in the water



list the definition purpose and duration of proper flexibility training


Defenition: focuses on joint mobility and muscle suppleness/flexibility, and trhe reduction of muscular tension

Purpose: improves joint mobility. Having adequate balance and flexibility may decrease the  risk of potential injury and may enhance physical performance

Duration: varies 5-10 minutes to full 60 minute class



list and describe three common flexibility training methods


Static stretches: involves placing targeted muscles in a elongated position and holding that position recommended 1-4 repetitions for each stretch hold for 15-60 seconds

Dynamic stretching involves stretching with full ROM

These stretches can range from in intensity from a controlled , limbering movement to a ballistic force full one

Proprioceptive Neuro muscular Facilitation PNF Stretches

involve an active contraction of muscle prior to stretch (often referred to as contract and release method)



list several special considerations for flexibility training




Speed & control,


Body temperatures



List the definition, purpose, and duration of a proper final class segment


Definition : closure of workout, which includes stretching, relaxation and stress reducing techniques

Purpose: to promote mind, body awareness, facilitate relaxation response , a state in which the heart rate and blood pressure can are decreases, muscle relaxed and physiological stress reduced 

Duration typically 5-10 minutes



list and describe three common relaxation methods


physical- focuses on bodily systems and sensations as effort to

increase relaxation

Mental focus- uses imagination to create a greater sense of


Combination Focus- combination of  mental and physical focus in order to see greater relaxation response than either method might produce on it’s own



list several special considerations for a final class segment


Heart rate monitoring


 Saunas and hot tubs


Method selection


Breathing (physical focus or combined focus)


The contract and relax method ( Physical focus)


Visualization (Mental Focus)




Explain resting heart rate (RHR)



Resting heart rate (RHR) refers to the number of times your heart beats in one minute while at rest.




How does increase cardio respiratory fitness affect RHR


The more conditioned your body is, the less effort is needed to pump blood through the body



How do THRR and HRR differ


THRR- maximum heart rate
HRR_ factors in resting heart rate from rest to maximum



explain recovery heart rate


Speed at which heart rate returns to pre-exercise level, indicator of sufficient cool down period



The preferred anatomical site for pulse checking is _______

secondary is _______


radial and Carotid




The AFAA recommended counting time for heart rate is ____ seconds


Once cued to begin , start counting beats with the number 

10 seconds





Rating of perceived exertion (RPE)


 how hard individual feels they are  working (1-10)




Talk Test


engaging in conversation during exercise represents work at near a steady state



Abruptly stopping cardio respiratory exercise affects exercise response how?


Can cause blood pooling



Working above target heart rate affects exercise response how?



 you’re working

anaerobically (without oxygen) and inefficiently, which is also too intense for many people, especially beginners






Gives you energy



Cardiac medications ( Beta blockers etc)


Will blunt the increase in heart rate and blood pressure ,

protecting the client from risk for exercise induced ischemia



Pressor response ( can result from many arm movements above the head)


The heart rate and blood pressure are elevated

disproportionately to the oxygen cost of the activity



How would you define 'rhythm'


measuring motion w/ regular recurrence of elements or features- such as the beat of the music



What is meant by musical phrase


music grouped into 32 beats, keeps movements corresponding

to beats




what are legal considerations when purchasing or creating music for group exercise


Music  must be legally approved by performing rights
music companies such as ASCAP, BMI and SESAC



Define LIA, MIA, and HIA- explain how they differ


LIA- low impact aerobics, keep 1 foot on/close to floor

MIA- Moderate impact aerobics, both feet on floor, feet roll with toe ball heel action

HIA- high impact aerobics, both feet leaving floor at same time/alternately



To lessen injury risk and maintain motivation in type A

participants list 3 types of workouts that can provide different

mechanical stresses to the body while allowing high intensity options for advanced training.


Step training, Kickboxing,Cycling



List 4 motivation techniques to sustain a type B participant for lifelong adherence.



Feedback, Support, Recognition, Encouragement



list a minimum of 8 action steps an instructor should take to enhance exercise adherence for a novice participant






Discuss how exercises performed in water can help improve body weight, enhance cardiovascular system and prevent



In water cost of energy is higher causing positive training results for cardio and weight management without fear or rough impact



What is the difference between land and water when it comes to exercise design


Running or walking in water provides a  non impact cardio & strength training exercise in short time frame (quick)

Aqua work outs work  on strengthening and endurance, 3 energy systems



State the difference between circuit and interval training



Circuit training- cardio & strengthening in short time frame aerobic training

Interval training-  High intensity work outs with low intensity recovery periods.

strengthening and endurance, it works the aerobic and anaerobic systems ( 3 energy systems)



list and summarize the two circuit training formats


Super circuit: cardio-type station within the circuit of weight training exercises

Peripheral heart action system: training session divided in to several sequences of exercises each for different muscle groups (all exercises in sequence repeated 3x each b4 moving on to next sequence)



What is  work/active recovery ratio interval training


how much time is spent pushing hard then how much time

recovering before repeating


Work ratio = high intensity portion of workout and

Active recovery ratio = low intensity movement

Both combined is a cycle



What is work to recovery ratio when teaching interval training?


Work-to-recovery ratio: how long participants work and recover is dependent on their goals, fitness level and energy systems (aerobic vs anaerobic)



list a minimum of four things one should do to ensure they are riding properly (cycling)



-hands remain light on handlebars
-too much gripping/body weight will tire upper body
-ability to control speed
-ability to control resistance



list 3 things an instructor should consider when designing an

 indoor cycling class


- teaching off bike
-positive affirmations
- goal setting



For group exercises AFAA recommends a range between ____to ____ repetitions depending on whether the focus is muscular 


8 - 12



list 4 muscles that tend to be weaker than their opposing groups


External shoulder rotators
Rear deltoid
Mid trapezius and Rhomboids

Lower trapezius
spinal erectors
vastus medialis (inner quadriceps group)
Tibialis anterior



list 4 muscles that tend to be tight


Internal should
Front deltoid
Upper trapezius
Spinal erectors (can be tight or weak)



Discuss constant vs variable resistance and what form of

 equipment used in group exercise class would resemble

variable resistance


Constant- dynamic resistance where its directed against target muscle (muscle group) (free weights) Dumb bells , medicine balls

variable- achieve max muscular involvement, normally carried out w/ machines  in group exercise =( elastic tubing )



list 7 action steps for designing a resistance tubing class


1-check tubes for holes

2- avoid pulling towards face

3- select appropriate tube/resistance to maintain form

4-avoid gripping too tightly (this will elevate blood pressure)

5-maintain wrist alignment ( hand is inline with forearm)

6- maintain continuous tension ( to control movement)

7-maintain smooth/controlled pace


list a minimum of 3 strength training sequences appropriate within the group exercise setting

-arm combinations (bicep curl to overhead press)

-leg combinations (front lunge, side squat)

-arm and leg combo (performing squat while bicep curl)



list 7 principals of mat science








The breath



list 4 class format guidelines for MAT science


-always begin w warm up and breathing

-include progressive series of exercise that build heat increase strength and flexibility

-vary activities, progression, intensity levels with each session


-always finish w/ cool down relaxation period



what are guidelines for various participant step levels


Pre class instructions


Warm - up

Cardiorespiratory training

Muscular strength and endurance training


Flexibility and Final Class



List the appropriate BPM for: 

Warm up

Cardio respiratory training

muscular strength and endurance trainin

Warm up: 120-134  duration(8-12min)

Cardio respiratory training: 118-128,

(advanced) 128-135

duration (20-60min)

Muscular strength and endurance training 120-130

 duration 15-20 min



List  techniques for body alignment


Shoulders back, relaxed

Chest lifted, body erect

Abs contracted

Neutral spine

Knees relaxed

Avoid hyperextension of joints

Avoid twisting (torque) in the  joints



List stepping techniques


use full body lean (do not bend)
knee flexion should not be <90 degrees
-watch platform periodically
-focus on feet first, then add arms
- step in center
-don't step w/back to platform
-step lightly
-allow whole foot to contact floor
-use proper lifting techniques



How to prevent knee injury while stepping


-ROM of knee should be kept under 90 degree angle

-Pivoting movements should only be performed when leg is non-weight bearing or unloaded



What does EIA stand for and how can it be prevented


-exercise induced asthma or broncho spasm

-consult physician for treatment/prevention

 have inhaler at all times,

 exercise intensity should start low to high,

 avoid exercising outside (cold/highpollen)

exercise in  humid areas (pools),

breath through nose



List 6 exercise guidelines for participants with heart disease


- CVD participants should be screened (release form)

2- comply w/target heart rate and RPE guidelines

3- Alert instructor w/signs or symptoms

4- don't exceed level of expertise

5- intensity should start low and work higher

6- guidelines from physician should be followed




list 4 exercise guidelines for participants with arthritis


-low impact exercise should be encouraged
-frequent low intensity exercise should be performed often
-decrease exercise/intensity during flare up
-stretch daily if possible
-isometric exercises may be preferred
-extended warmup/cooldown
-if pain lasts 2 hours after exercise, decrease intensity
-obesity/overweight are risk factors



List 4 precautions that should be taken for diabetic participants who are attending a group exercise class


-blood glucose should be monitored
-insulin should be injected into a muscle not being used
-exercise should be avoided during peak insulin production
-always carry a carb snack
-type 1 should exercise at the same time each day


list 8 exercise guide lines for a participant with hypertension

1-emphasize cardio activity

2-exercise should be performed on most days for 30-60 minutes

3-high intensity activities/isometric activities should be avoided

4– Resistance training reps high, weight remains low

5-avoid valsalva maneuver

6-utilize RPE- meds may alter heart rate

7-avoid positions w/ feet higher than head

8- teach relaxation and stress management techniques



No one rule necessarily applies to all large sized adults in terms of exercise precautions because ________

Each person is different


what is preferred method of monitoring exercise intensity in the older adult population and what is the appropriate range

cardio @ low to moderate pace
-rating of perceived exertion 5-6
noticeable increases heart rate and breathing


what method of resistance training would be appropriate for older adults with arthritis and osteoporosis

slow stretching, isometric exercises


list 2 methods of stretching that are recommended for older adults

static and slow dynamic


list at least 4 program design guidelines for the older adult

-participants should know how to monitor workload
-be alert to overexertion
-monitor intensity every 4-5 minutes
-slow/controlled movement w/ full ROM recommended


List 3 exercise considerations during pregnancy


cardio changes- blood volume increases , causing increased demands
- hormonal/anatomical changes- special attention to stretching/strengthening
-pelvic/floor muscles-- maintaining is essential



list 5 things a fitness professional should consider prior to working with pregnant women


1-goal is renewed energy
2-what is 9 months? slow down
3- signs of over exertion
4- monitor for signs of modification
5- uncertain/adverse reactions should be referred to physician




list 3 exercise modalities that pregnant women can perform along with any risks and modifications that should be taken



-high impact to low impact
-modify tough movements
-no supine weight work after 20 weeks- roll on side



list 4 exercise recommendations outlined by USDHHS, ACSM


- 60 minutes of activity 3-4 days/week
- should encourage activities that use large muscle groups
- incorporate other sports and fun activities
-heart rate monitoring is optional, OMNI scale is preferable



list 3 general guidelines to resistance training in children and adolescents


-resistance training movements
-free weight training
-manual resistance training
-weight training machines
-isometric training



list 3 special considerations regarding resistance training in children and adolescents



-activity should be appropriate and varied
-training should be comprehensive to increase motor skills/level
-only when using good form should resistance /weights be added
-focus should be on participation and technique, not weight



discuss 4 way to ensure a successful substitute teaching



having consistent policies in place
-evaluating the situation
-developing self-confidence
-making the right connection



list 7 service group exercise instructors should deliver in order to adhere to the standard of care outlined by the fitness industry




-recommendation of activities
-recordation of activities
-record keeping
-emergency response concerns


List three physiological adaptations that occur to improve exercise performance?
Increased maximal blood flow

Increased O2 delivery and CO2 removal

Increased maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic power
Excess Post-Pxygen Consumption (EPOC)
refers to oxygen uptake remaining elevated above resting levels for several minutes during exercise recovery
Oxygen Deficit
A period in which the level of Oxygen consumption is below  what is necessary to supply appropriate ATP production required of any exercise
Anaerobic Threshold
The point at which the body can no longer meet its demand for Oxygen and anaerobic metabolism is accelerated

Aerobic Capacity

The ability of the body to remove Oxygen from the air and transfer it through the lungs and blood to the working muscles; related to cardiorespiratory endurance
Lactic Acid 
The by- product of anerobic metabolism of glucose or glycogen in muscle

Aerobic vs. Anaerobic difference in the breakdown of glucose?


*Aerobic- complete breakdown of glucose


*Anaerobic- partial breakdown of glucose



Aerobic vs. Anaerobic difference in source of fuel


Aerobic- can use carbs, proteins, and fats as source of fuel


Anaerobic- can only use carbs



Aerobic vs. Anaerobic difference in duration of activities


Aerobic- Long-duration


Anaerobic- short-duration



Aerobic vs. Anaerobic difference with EPOC





Aerobic- smaller EPOC


Anaerobic- Larger EPOC


Aerobic vs. Anaerobic difference in intensity





Aerobic- sub maximal work (moderate intensity)


Anaerobic- maximal output (high intensity)


Aerobic vs. Anaerobic difference in usage of Oxygen for chemical breakdown





Aerobic- uses O2 for chemical breakdown


Anaerobic- doesn't need O2 for chemical breakdown



Aerobic vs. Anaerobic difference in by-products




Aerobic- CO2 and H2O are end products


Anaerobic- Lactic acid is the by-product



What is the average resting blood pressure of a healthy person?



120/80 mmHg  




High Blood Pressure?




140/90 mmHg

Pre hypertension



Pectoralis Major


Eternal oblique
Rectus Abdominis
Internal Oblique
Tensor Fasciae Latae
Quadriceps group
Name the quadriceps goup

Rectus Femoris

Vastus laterlis

Vastus Medialis

Vastus Intermedius ( located under femoris)

Tibilas Anterior

Quadratus Lumborum



What two muscles are considered the hip flexor and the Lateral Spinal Flexor?



Lateral Spinal Flexor- Quadratus Lumborum


Hip Flexor- Iliopsoas


Lattissimus Dorsi
Erector Spinae
Gluteus Maximus


Gluteus Medius

Muscle contraction in which tension developes by the muscle  while shortening at a constant speed is maximal over the full range of motion.

Which 3 muscle contractions are used in a group exercise setting?





Concentric, eccentric and isometric

Musculoskeletal benefits of weight bearing activities




increase bone density

Musculoskeletal benefits of increased muscular strength



Increase both physical appearance and physical performance



Musculoskeletal benefits of increased muscular flexibility



improves tissues elasticity and helps facilitate movement



Define the stretch reflex, its purpose, and when it occurs


Muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle maintains a constantly length


Explain why ballistic movements can be dangerous
The muscle spindles will sense quick changes in muscle length and cause muscular contraction