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Principles of pharmacology
ANS3007 Principles of pharmacology in veterinary setting - geared to the canine behaviorist
255
Pharmacology
Undergraduate 1
12/20/2010

Additional Pharmacology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Definition of depression in refernce to drugs:
Definition

- decrease in activity of cells which is caused by the action of the drug

Term
pharmacological definition of palliative:
Definition

- agent or measure that relieves symptoms

Term
pharmacological definition of therapeutic:
Definition

- treatment of a disease

Term
pharmacological term definition of prophylactic:
Definition

- agent or measure used to prevent disease

Term
pharmacological term definition of synergistic:
Definition

- joint action of agents in which their combined effects are more intense or longer in duration than the sum of the individual effects.

Term
what is a controlled drug?
Definition

- Controlled Substance Act U.S. 1971 defines 5 drug schedules

- classified in accordance with the potential for human abuse

- controlled = locked up and controlled. Not accessable to general public

- set by the DEA

- all drugs goverened by the DEA

 

Term
Name two schedule 1 drugs
Definition

- LSD

-heroine

 

- no current acceptable use in the USA

 

Term
Name two schedule II drugs:
Definition

- morphine

- Tramadol - very common in veterinary hospitals

 

- high risk, but has a currently acceptable medical use in USA

- severe restrictions

- may lead to severe psychological and physical dependence.

Term
List three schedule III drugs:
Definition

- Ketamine HCL - common in veterinary

- Telazol

- Hydrocone cough syrup

 

Has the risk for abuse. Currently acceptable medical use in USA

- may lead to moderate or low physical dependence

- may lead to high psychological dependence

Term
Name two schedule IV drugs:
Definition

- Diazepam (valium) - commonly used in veterinary

- Alprazolam (Xanax) - commonly used for noise/thunder phobia in dogs

Term
Name 1 schedule V drug:
Definition

- Lomotil - opiate GI motility modifyer used primarily in dogs to treat diarrhea.

- low risk of abuse

 

Term
what is the abbreviation for right ear
Definition
ad
Term
what is the abbrev. for left ear
Definition
as
Term
abbrev. for both ears
Definition
au
Term
abbrev. for left eye
Definition
os
Term
abbrev. for right eye
Definition
od
Term
abbrev. for both eyes
Definition
ou
Term
what is IV
Definition
intravenous
Term
what is SQ
Definition
subcutanious
Term
what is IM
Definition
intramuscular
Term
what is po
Definition
per mouth
Term
what is prn
Definition
as needed
Term
abbrev. for every eight hours
Definition
TID
Term
abbrev. for every twelve hours
Definition
BID
Term
capsule
Definition
powederd drug/liquid contained in a gelatin container
Term

ointment

List two used in veterinary practice

Definition

mixture of drugs with a fatty base -external application on skin or into ear.

Animax

Mometamax

Term
Powder
Definition
single-dose quantity of a drug or mixture of drugs in powedered form wrapped in individual powder papers
Term
solution
Definition

 

aqueous liquid preparations containing one or more substances completely dissolved.
 two parts: the solute (the dissolved substance)
                  the solvent (the substance doing the dissolving)
Most solutions used in dogs are specifically compounded such as crushing up a tablet and dissolving it in water for ease of administration
Term
What is ISMP and why problems with abbreviations?
Definition

- joint commission and the institute for safe medical practice

- misread

- copied or transcribed improperly

- U and IU

- IU and IV

- q.o.d. and q.i.d. and q.d. - better to write daily or every other day

- not to use trailing zeros

 

 

Term
What are the 5 Rights of Drug Administration?
Definition

- right Drug

- right Dose

- right Time of admin

- right Route of admin

- right Patient

 

6th right - right documentation

 

 

Do Drugs Rowse the Patient in Time?

Term
List 8 factors affecting drug distribution
Definition

1. Temperature

2. Method of Admin

3. Genetic factors - herding breeds don't metabolize Ivermectin

4. Body weight - especially respiratory depressants/ anesthesia

5. Age

6. Sex

7. Condition of patient

8. Psychological factors - not a factor for animals

Term

 Most common routes of administration in animals?

 

Pros and cons:

Definition

Oral route: tablets, capsules, liquids, powders

 

Pros: 

may be easy to administer

inexpensive

adjust dose quickly

 

cons:  

first pass effect

side effect of vomitting

not palitable

may be difficult to administer

Term

Rectal route:

Give 2 veterinary examples

List Pros and Cons:

Definition

1. Capstar for maggots and fleas

2. Diazepam suppositories for seizures

Pros:

easy to administer in dogs (difficult in cats)

 

Cons:

"ick" factor

slow onset of action

Term
Pros and cons of SQ route:
Definition

Pros:

- very easy to administer

- animals have a handy pocket of space under the dermis

- used to admin fluids/injectable medications

- owners can be taught to give injections at home

 

Cons:

- slow onset

- may be painful

- comfort level of owners

Term
Name 3 examples of SQ drugs:
Definition

- Saline /lacerated Ringer solution

- vaccines

- antibiotics

Term
Pros and Cons for IM
Definition

Pros

- tolerable

- relatively easy to admin

- faster onset than SQ

- bypass the FPE (first pass effect)

Cons

- hard on thin animals

- quite painful

- temporary paralysis (Sciatic nerve - stay away)

Term
Name four examples of IM drugs:
Definition

- anesthesia

- heartworm treatment

- steroids

-antibiotics

Term
Pros and Cons of IV drugs:
Definition

- fastest onset of admin

- quickest results

bypass FPE

 cons:

- costly

- difficult to admin

- painful

- may need a catheter

- may be toxic if leak out of the vein

Term
pros and cons of inhalant route
Definition

pros

- quick absorbtion

- rapid recovery from anesthesia

cons

- difficult to admin

- animals can smell the anesthesia

- staff gets high

 

Term
Which route used with pediatric patients -blood transfusion:
Definition

interosseous

in the bone -use the femur with a 20 gauge needle

Term
List 10 factors that affect bioavailability of drug
Definition

1. age

2. sex

3. condition of patient

4. psychological factors

5. environmental factors

6. temperature

7. genetic factors

8. body weight

9. protein level

10. method of administration

 

Term
What is first pass effect?
Definition

- drug swallowed

- absorbed by digestive system

- carried through portal vein into liver

- liver metabolizes the drug

- small amount of drug reaches the circulatory system

Term
What are the four primary systems that affect First Pass Effect?
Definition

1. Gastrointestinal lumen enzymes

2. Gut wall enzymes

3. Bacterial enzymes

4. Hepatic enzymes

 

 

 

 

 

use GAS to GUTaWALL in the BACK to a HEAP

Term
List six modes of drug elimination:
Definition

1. Lungs

2. Renal (urine)

3. Bile (processed by the liver)

4. Sweat

5. Breast Milk

Term
Name two organs that affect drug excretion:
Definition

Liver: if not functioning properly, less drug will be broken down, and more durg will remain in body.

 

Kidney: Kidneys need to be working in order to excrete the drugs, otherwise elevated level of drugin the body.

Term
Name the four steps of pain perception
Definition

1. transduction

2. transmisson

3. modulation

4. perception

Term
Define nocioception
Definition

- processing of a noxious stimulus (medical, chemical or thermal) resulting in the perception of painby the brain.

Term
Define transduction
Definition

- conversion of a noxious stimulus into electrical energy by a peripheral nocioceptor.

Term
Define nocioceptor
Definition

- free afferent nerve ending

Term
name 3 ways to block pain at the location of transduction
Definition

1. NSAID's

2. opiods

3. local blocks

Term
Define transmission
Definition

- electrical impulse is transmitted via the propogation through the peripheral nervous system via first-order neurons.

- electrical impulse travels along the nerves to the area of the spinal cord via transmission.

Term
Define modulation
Definition

- occurs when first-order neurons synapse with secon-order neurons in the dorsal horn cells of the spinal cord.

Term
Name 6 ways to control pain at the level of modulation
Definition

1. opiods

2. NSAID's

3. SSRI's

4. TCA's

5. alpha -2 agonists

6. NMDA antagonists

 

Term
Define perception
Definition

- the cerebral cortical response to nocioceptive signals projected by third-order neurons to the brain.

Term
Define multi-modal approach to pain management
Definition

 

more than one drug is used at the same time at different levels.
Usually the best approach.
Can have up to 5 drugs/supplements concurrently.
Example: Codeine/Tylenol, etc.
Animals: Rimadyl, Tramadol, Adequan and Duralactin at the same time
Term
Give an example of a multimodal approach for chronic arthritis in the dog:
Definition

NSAID - Rimadyl

 

Opiod - Tramadol

 

NMDA - Aman

 

Supplement - Duralactin

 

Oral Joint Supplement - Phycox, Synovil, Cosequin

 

PSAG's - Adequan (steroid)

Term
Define Wind Up
Definition

- over time with repeated signals to brain, there is a state of neuroplasticity.

- spinal cord and cells change in response to constant pain signals.

- results in even normal stimuli producing pain sensation.

Term
List 3 signs that an animal is in pain
Definition

- heat rate

- respiration rate

- pupil dilation

Term
List 8 signals animal is in pain
Definition

1. guarding

2. vocalizing

3. licking, biting, scratching, shaking

4. restlessness, pacing

5. lack of mobility

6. failure to groom

7. abnormal resting postures

8. failure to show normal patterns of inquisitiveness

 

Term
Define dendrite
Definition

- used to send and receive messages from other neurons.

- brain neurons- both ends have dendrites

- neurons controlling muscles: one dendrite and a terminal button that communicates with muscle.

Term

Define myelin sheath

 

Define synapse

Definition

- covers the axon

- gap between dendrites of different neurons

Term
Name parts of a neuron
Definition

axon

dendrite

terminal button

myelin sheath

soma

synapse

 

Term
define neuron pathway
Definition

- series of neurons connected for one dedicated purpose

Term
Why are neural pathways important in learning?
Definition

- learn a response to a stimulus repeatedly: this will establish a neural  pathway

- to "unlearn" a problem behavior, the neural pathway needs to be abolished and a new pathway needs to be created.

Term
Describe communication between neurons:
Definition

- electric signala transmitted down axon

- signal reaches dendrites

- causes neuron to release chemical

- chemical = neurotransmitter

- neurotransmitters float across synapse and bind to the next neuron in the chain

Term
What do the neurotransmitters attach to?
Definition

- bind to proteins called receptors.

- receptors are shape specific to the neurotransmitter which will bind to it

Term
What is the receptor for serotonin
Definition

- 5-HT

- 12 different types

- most important are  5-HT2a and 5-HT reuptake

Term

GABA

 

Glutamate

Definition

- GABAreceptor

- glutamate receptor

Term

What is the neurotransmitter that pairs with

adrenergic receptor?

Definition

- Noradrenaline

Term
Which receptor pairs with dopamine?
Definition

- dopamine receptor (D1 or D2)

Term

Opiates

 

Substance P

Definition

- opiod receptor also known as mu receptor

 

- substance P has no speciic receptor, gets absorbed into the cell

Term
Describe the action of serotonin
Definition

- excites the postsynaptic cell

- very extensive pathways

- effects most of the brain

- lack of serotonin causes depression

- responsible for healthy functioning of executive brain centers

Term
Describe effect of too much serotonin
Definition

- toxic to cells (Seotonin syndrome) therefore tightly controlled

- excess is re-absorbed

 

- two distinct 5-HT receptors

 

- 5-HT on post synaptic cell allows electrical signal to be generated

- 5-HT uptake receptor: found on the releasing cell. Take back up any leftover serotonin to prevent toxicity.

Term
Which NT is the main inhibitor in the brain?
Definition

GABA

Term
Describe effect of unresponsive GABA
Definition

- too much excitation

 -thought to cause mania in bipolar disorder

 

Term
Why is GABA important to learning?
Definition

 

  animal  nervous all the time: establishes pathways that are detrimental. 

- By suppressing these pathways, or inhibiting them, we have a better chance of creating newer, more appropriate pathways. 

- a chance to learn a new response.

Term
What is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the whole body?
Definition

- glutamate

Term
Which NT is excitatory and found both in the body and in the brain?
Definition

- noradrenaline

 

- brain: acts similar to serotonin

- body: part of fight or flight response.

- Also released in response to stress

Term
Describe damage caused by too much noradrenaline:
Definition

- damage to the hypothalamic- pituitaryadrenal axis (HPA)

Term
Name two reasons why dopamine is important:
Definition

1. controls plesure and reward:causes euphoria, and is involved in addiction

 

2. invovled in movement

 

Term
Too little dopamine causes which disease?
Definition
Parkinson's
Term
What naturally occuring brain chemical acts like morphine?
Definition
opiate
Term
opiates are produced in response to:
Definition
pain and distress
Term
How do opiates create a feeling of general pain relief?
Definition

- block other NT's from binding

- block central pain

- brain unable to process information re: pain

Term
Which brain chemical is similar to morphine?
Definition
endorphins
Term
When do animals release endorphins?
Definition

- in response to stereotypic behavior (ALD)

Term
Name a  phenothiazine blocks dopamine?
Definition

acepromazine

Term
Does acepromazine reduce the amount of dopamine?
Definition

no

perceived dopamine depletion and norepinephrine depletion

dopamine blocked from binding to the receptor, but still present

Term
True or false: acepromazine reduces pain sensitivity
Definition
false
Term

True or false:

acepromazine has a sedative effect

Definition
true
Term
what is an appropriate use for acepromazine in veterinary use?
Definition
in conjunction with anesthetic preoperatively
Term
describe effect of blocked norepinephrine by acepromazine
Definition
 reduces fight or flight reflex :do not increase heart rate
Term
common use for acepromazine that is unwarranted in veterinary usage:
Definition
storm /noise phobias
Term
name 5 common antipsychotics:
Definition

1. acepromazine

2.azeperone

3. clozapine

4. haloperidol

5. thioridazine

 

Term
Name 4 opiate receptors
Definition

Noceptin

Mu

Delta

Kappa

(opiate)

 

 

 

 

 

No More Dope Kay? Oops!

Term

Which opiate agonist causes all 4:

respiratory depression

decreased motility

analgesia

pupil contraction

Definition
Mu agonist
Term
Why do different opiate receptors cause different cellular response?
Definition

more densely found in different parts of the brain

 

acts on different parts of brain/spinal cord

Term
True or false: There is only one mu agonist
Definition

false

 

 

Term

which opiate agonist causes

euphoric effects

analgesia

Definition
delta
Term
name 3 opiates that will react with any opiate receptor agonist:
Definition

encephalin

endorphin

endomorphin

 

(all endogenous)

Term
Define endogenous
Definition
produced naturally by the body
Term
define exogenous
Definition
opiods given (from source outside the body)
Term
List 5 exogenous opiods
Definition

morphine

buprenorphine

codeine

hydrocodone

fentenyl

Term
list 2 opiod antagonists
Definition

naloxone

buprenorphine - both agonist and antagonist (used with felines)

Term
true or false: opiates bind competatively
Definition
true
Term
true or false: some opiates are both agonists and antagonists depending on the dosage
Definition
true
Term
What is the risk of giving too low a dose of some antagonist opiates?
Definition
will act as an agonist and block even natural endorphins
Term
which opiate binds strongly to receptors?
Definition
naloxone
Term
true or false:large amounts of naloxone are needed beacuse the opiate binds so strongly to its receptor
Definition
false
Term
list 2 reasons why opiates are important for behavior issues in animals:
Definition

1. useful for short term management of anxiety

2. may be root cause of sterotypic behavior. (ALD)

Term
define endorphin activity
Definition
released by the pituitary and hypothalmus directly into the blood and brain
Term
name 4 effects of endorphins:
Definition

1. analgesia

2. increase in dopamine

3. fever reducer

4. euphoria

Term
Name 3 receptors that endorphins bind to:
Definition

1. mu

2. delta

3. kappa

 

 

 

 

 

 

More Dope Kay! Endorse!

Term
Name 4 ways endorphins are released:
Definition

1. exercise

2. injury

3. disease

4. repetative/stereotypic behavior

Term

define anxioloytic:

Give example:

Definition

class of drugs that alleviate anxiety

example: benzopiazepine

Term
Which receptor does benzodiazepine bind to?
Definition
GABA
Term
True or false? Benzopiazepine antagonizes the GABA receptor:
Definition

false

 

 

 

Term
Describe how the action of benzodiazepine is important to learning behavior?
Definition

1. agonist - binds to GABA receptors - inhibits response

2. weaken neuron pathway which has established a behavior response (acral lick = inappropriate response)

3. by weakening pathway, allows another more appropriate pathway through behavior training to be established.

Term
outline 8 steps in mechanism of action for benzodiazepine:
Definition

1.nerve impulse

2. release of GABA from storage site on neuron 1

3.GABA released into syaptic cleft

4. GABA reacts with receptors on neuron 2 

5. allows CI to enter neuron

6. Inhibits further progress of nerve impluse

7. Benzodiazepine reacts with GABAa receptor complex

8. enhances the inhibatory effect of GABA, may completely block impulse

Term
True or false?  benzodiapineis a schedule IV drug:
Definition
true
Term
name 2 uses for benzodiazepine in veterinary setting:
Definition

- short term anti-anxiety while SSRI's are building up

-  as a sedative in higher doses to be used as part of an anesthesia regime.

Term
Name a short acting benzodiazepine
Definition
Diazepam
Term
What would a better shocie than Diazepam be for long term use with dog behavioral issues?
Definition
alprazolam
Term
Describe a good use for diazepam
Definition

- for inappropriate urination in cats: works as a skeletal muscle relaxer and can relax the urethral sphincter

Term
Define SARI
Definition
serotonin- 2 antagonist reuptake inhibitor
Term
which class of drugs is a SARI
Definition
phenylperazine
Term
Name a derivative of phenylperazine:
Definition
Trazadone
Term
What is Trazadone used to treat:
Definition

-anxiety or phobias

 

generalized anxiety

separation anxiety

travel anxiety

storm phobia

noise phobia

Term
List side effects of Trazadone
Definition

vomiting

gagging

colitis

increased excitement

sedation

increased appetite

preceived behavioral disinhibition

Term
Define serotonin toxicosis
Definition

too much serotonin in system:

 

hyperthermia

tremors

seizures

Term
What dietary essential amino acid is used to in the synthesis of serotonin?
Definition
tryptophan
Term
what foods contain tryptophan
Definition

egg whites

soybean

cheese

trukey

pork

etc.

Term
Describe serotonin function:
Definition

1. pre-synaptic cell utilizes tryptophan -synthesizes serotonin

2. travel outside the pre-synaptic neuron to the syaptic area

3. receptors capture seotonin and transport them to post synaptic neuron

4. the serotonin not transported return and  re-uptake at the pre-syaptic neuron occurs, or serotonin is destroyed

Term
How many seotonin receptors are there?
Definition
7
Term
Name two serotonin receptors that are of much interest for behavior drugs:
Definition

5-HT1A

5-HT1D

Term
which seotonin receptor is found mostly in the brain
Definition
5-HT1A
Term
Which serotonin receptor affects behavior:
Definition
5-HT1A
Term
Which serotonin receptor affects cerebral blood vessels?
Definition
5-HT1D
Term
Which serotonin receptor affects smooth muscles/platelets that is linked to behavioral effects under LSD:
Definition
5-HT2A
Term
Which serotonin receptor is linked to food intake regulation?
Definition
5-HT2C
Term
Which seotonin receptor is linked to nocioceptive sensory neurons?
Definition
5-HT3
Term
Which sorotonin receptor is linked to GI tract where cAMP production is increased:
Definition
5-HT4
Term
Define serotonergic system:
Definition
main route through the brain that the neurons that use serotonin use.
Term
Where does the serotonergic path go:
Definition

 to front of the brain:

executive functions

emotions

intentional behavior

 

Term
List 5 symtoms of serotonin syndrome:
Definition

muscle rigitdity

myoclonus

salivation

agitation

hyerthermia

Term
What is the minimum toxic dose and the minimum lethal dose of 5-HT hydroxytrptophan?
Definition

toxic dose: 23.6 mg/lk

lethal dose: 128 mg/kg

Term
Describe the synergistic effect fo MAOI and SSRI causing srotonin syndrome:
Definition

- MAOI increases concentration of seotonin

- SSRI increases half lie of serotonin producing longer activation of multiple receptors.

- increase stim to seotonin receptors =  serotonin syndrome

Term
List 4 treatments for serotonin syndrome
Definition

decontamination

anticonvulsants

thermoregulation

fluid therapy

Term
Define canine cognitive dysfunction
Definition

can be compared to human alzheimer's

 

disorientation

indifference to owners

sleep wake cycles

house soiling

also:

vocalization

phobias

anxiety

 

 

D.I.S.H

Term
Physiology of CCD
Definition

 

}The cause of CCD is thought to arise from two mechanisms
Amyloid (a protein) plaque that builds up in the brain
Interferes with “signal” or neurotransmitter transmission
The canine  analogue is not exactly the same but looks similar)to Alzheimer’s disease
Some of the plaques in the brain seem to be the same protein structure
The plaques seem to attack the same parts of the brain.
Alterations in the dopamine concentration in the brain.
}Both cause dementia
Term
define amyloid
Definition
plaque that builds up in the brain
Term
Define MAOI
Definition
a class of powerful antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression
Term
what is the mode of action for MAOI's
Definition

inhibiting monamine oxidase

preventing breakdown of NT's thereby increasing their availability

Term

True or false:

 

all species have identical ratios of MAO-A and MAO-B

Definition
false
Term
true or false: blocking the MAO enzyme in one species will not necessarily have the same effect in another species:
Definition
true
Term
WHich MAO deanimates serotonin, melatonin, epinephrine and nrepinephrine?
Definition
MAO-A
Term
Which MAO deanimates phenylethylamine and trace amines?
Definition
MAO-B
Term
Which MAO deanimates dopamine?
Definition
both MAO-A and MAO-B
Term
Describe mechanism of action for MAOI
Definition

MAOI stops the degredation of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine

More NT in the cell for release

fewer end products (toxic)

also inhibit the reuptake receptors

Term
What type of inhibitor is selegiline?
Definition
MAO-B
Term
What is the veterinary approved version of selegiline?
Definition
anapryl
Term
What is Anapryl perscribed for?
Definition
CCD
Term
List the contradictions of selegiline
Definition

- concurrent TCA, SSRI therapy

- can cause serotonin syndrome

- dogs on prednisone (steroid)

trimethoprim (antibiotic)

metronidazole (antibiotic)

Term
Define a multimodal approach for the treatment of CCD
Definition

drug therapy (Anapryl)

environmental enrichment

diets rich in antioxidents

supplements (Anxitane)

Term
Define TCA
Definition

tricyclic antidepressant

 

contain three rings of atoms

Term

True or false:

TCA's affect more than one NT

Definition
true
Term
describe mechanism of action of TCA
Definition

- inhibition of norepinephrine and serotonin reputake receptors

- blocks reuptake of both NT increasing NT concentration

Term
which TCA strongly inhibits 5-HT but not noripiephrine?
Definition
amitriptyline
Term
Which TCA strongly inhibits norepinephrine reuptake receptors but not the 5-HT reuptake receptors?
Definition
desipramine
Term
Which TCA has a strong affect on 5-HT and a mocerate affect on norepinephrine?
Definition
clomipramine
Term
Which receptors do all TCA's agonize?
Definition
histamine and muscarinic
Term
Why use TCA's instead of SSRI's?
Definition
stronger effect because they work on seotonin and norepinephrine
Term
Which is the only TCA licensed for use in veterinary medicine?
Definition
clomipramine
Term
List the side effects of TCA's:
Definition

sedation

weight gain

decreased grooming

cardiovascular effects

cause an increasein adrenaline in the body

Term
Do not use TCA's if:
Definition

concurrent MAOI user

history of seizure, glaucoma or cardiac problems

Term
Which TCA is used for inappropriate urination in cats?
Definition
amitriptyline
Term
What is the number 1 perscribed class of drugs for dogs?
Definition
NSAID's
Term
Define NSAID
Definition
non-steroid anti-inflamatory drug
Term
Describe mechanism of action for NSAID's:
Definition

- member of the coxib class of non-narcotic non-steroid cyclooxygenase-inhibiting anti-inflamatory

cox-1

cox-2

Term
which coxib is the enzyme responsible for normal physiological processes?
Definition
COX-1
Term
List 3  physiological processes controlled by COX-1
Definition

1. platelet aggregation (blood clotting)

2. gastric mucosal protection (digestion)

3. renal perfusion (blood flows to the kidneys)

Term
which xocib is responsible for the synthesis of inflamatory mediators?
Definition
COX-2
Term
Define prostaglandins
Definition

-produced by cox-1 and cox-2

 

- any member of a group of lipid compounds that are made from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body.

Term
Where are COX-1 and COX-2 located?
Definition

blood vessels

stmoach

kidneys

Term
Mechanism of action of NSAID's:
Definition
block COX-2 and thus block the production of protaglandins
Term
Why are the kidneys and the GI tract so sensitive to NSAID's?
Definition

- prostaglandins are a normal part of physiological functioning.

- when disrupted, can affect kidney function, cause vomitting, diarrhea, blood clotting, etc.

Term
List averse affects of NSAID's:
Definition

- can cause dilation of renal blood vessels allowing perfusion despite decreased blood pressure

 

kidney cell death is only an issue if blood pressure is low.

- importance of keeping animal well hydrated during surgery.

Term
What is the danger of NSAID's for felines?
Definition

- lack enzyme to metabolize NSAID

easy to overdose

Term
List common uses for NSAID's
Definition

- arthritis

- surgical pain

- preoperative/postoperative

-for any inflamatory process

Term
List 4 side effects of NSAID's
Definition

1. GI: vomitting, diarrhea

2. bleeding disorders

3. renal/liver problems

4. Meacam off label for felines

Term
Define glucocorticoids
Definition

steroids essential for maintenance of everyday functioning;

ability for body to respond to stress of any nature

Term
Describe mechanism of action for steroids:
Definition

- every cell in body has a receptor for GC

- GC binds to receptor

- activated GR complex up-regulates anti-inflamatory proteins i the nucleus of the cell

- represses (down-regulates) the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins in the cell.

Term
List four drug delivery systems for steroids:
Definition

1. Oral (liquid and tablet) - prednisone

2. Injectable - dexamethaxone, Depo-Medrol

3. Topical ointment - Animax, Mometamax

4. Topical Spray - Betajen

Term
True or false: dexamethasone is more potent than prednisone:
Definition
true
Term
Name an injectable long acting steroid:
Definition
Depo-Medrol
Term
Name a rapid acting steroid:
Definition
prednisone
Term
How does prednisone affect the body positively:
Definition

sense of euphoria

increase appetite

increase water consumption

increase mobility

Term
List 5 side effects of steroids
Definition

1. increased water consumption - polydysia

2. increased urination - polyuria

3. loss of bladder control

4. ravenous appetite

5. increased panting

Term
Describe the connection between steroids and behavior:
Definition

- even topical steroids can have an effect on behavior

Term
List 10 long term side effects of steroids:
Definition

1. weight gain

2. diabetes

3. liver changes

4. increased protein in urine

5. calcium oxalate crystals

6. increased blood pressure

7. delayed wound healing

8. GI bleeding ulcer

9. Melena

10. changes in behavior - increased aggression

Term
list contraindications of steroid use:
Definition

- do not administer with aspirin, any other NSAID or with other steroids

NSAID plus steroid can cause abdominal bleed

Term
Describe the size and shape of the molecules that are needed to synthesize many hormones:
Definition

cholesterol

ringed shape

Term
How is estrogen synthesized?
Definition
from testosterone
Term
where and how is cortisol produced?
Definition

adrenal glands

on top of each kidney

Term
estrogen is produced by:
Definition
ovarian follicles
Term
which hormone is known as the stress hormone?
Definition
cortisol
Term
What is the result of persistenly low cortisol?
Definition
animalwill expire
Term
explain why dogs in heat have no appetite:
Definition

estrogen  produced in the ovarian follicles therefore levels fluctuate with estrus cycle.

in dogs, cycle is only every 6-7 months.

Term

True or false:

hyperestrogenism can mask smptoms of hyperthyroidism:

Definition
true
Term
What condition are spayed female dogs prone to and why?
Definition

spay = lack of estrogen

decrease strength of urethral sphincter,

causes urinary incontinence

Term
where is progesterone produced?
Definition
ovulated follicle - progesterone
Term
ture or false: progesterone inhibits estrogen production
Definition
true
Term
true or false: dominance is less likely to occur in female dogs during ovulation.
Definition
false
Term
Name 3 uses for progestin treatment:
Definition

1. aggression

2. millary eczema in cats

3. stress induced overgrooming

Term
what side effect does progestin cause in cats:
Definition
severe nervous problems
Term
testosterone (androgen) causes what 3 effects:
Definition

1. increased alertness

2.intensity of response

3. strength of the dog

Term
true or false: androgenous female pups can be caused by testosterone leaking across the placenta from two male pups in utero
Definition
true
Term
fear aggression is more prominant in neutered or intact dogs?
Definition
neutered
Term
true or false: lack of libido is a result of low testosterone
Definition
false
Term
dominance aggression is more common in intact or neutered dogs?
Definition
intact
Term

how do sex hormones relate to behavior

 

Definition

causes different brain development in all animals.

estrogen causes different development than testosterone

behaviors and thoughts modifed stronly by sex hormones

Term
where and how are thyroid hormones produced:
Definition

thyroid gland

produced in a cyclical fashion

Term
Give a resaon why thyroid disease hard to diagnose
Definition
thyroid hormone affect by any illness in the body
Term
name 6 areas where thyroid hormone regulates metabolism
Definition

1. skin health

2. heart rate

3. brain function

4. weight

5. body control

6. activity level

Term
true or false: when thyroid level goes up, cortisol level goes down
Definition
true
Term
why would low thyroid hormone cause aggression?
Definition

low thyroid=high cortisol

may lead to aggression

or

thyroid hormone suspected of having a relationship with normal functioning of the serotonin-dopamine pathway

 

Term
true or false: hypothyroidism can be the cause of aggression in dogs
Definition
true
Term
List signs of hypothyroidism
Definition

cold

lethargic

overweight

Term
signs of hyperthyroidism in cats
Definition

excessive vocalization

loss of litter box training

begging for food

aggression

apathy

Term
List 3 synthetic thyroid hormone meds:
Definition

soloxine

levothyroxine

synthroid

Term
mechanism of action of levothyroxine:
Definition
direct effect on the entire body at the cellular level
Term
side effects of levothyroxine
Definition

potential to OD dog

need to be positive that dog IS hypotyroid

panting

increase appetite

restlessness

increased water consumption

 

Term
generic name for Adequan
Definition

polysulphated glycoxaminoglycan

Proteolytic enzyme

inhibitor for arthritis

 

 

 

is it ADEQuate to be PROlific when it comes to arthritis? POLY GLYCO thinks so.

Term
what is Morphine
Definition
opiate agonist C-2
Term
Generic name for Neurontin
Definition

gabapentin

anti-convulsant

neuropathic pain analgesic

 

 

 

 

makes you NEUrotic to GAB a lot; will need  ANTI-CONversation

Term
what is Ultram/Tramal
Definition

tramadol

mu opiate receptor agonist

 

 

 

 

the ULtimate TRAM ride is on MU opiate

Term
generic name for Valium:
Definition

diazepam

 

 

 

No VALUe in DIeing

Term

Generic name for Xanax:

 

Definition

alprazolam

benzodiazepam/ sedative

 

 

 

ZANa needed AL to calm down and talk to BENny

Term
generic name for Elavil:
Definition

amitriptyline

TCA

 

 

 

because it ELAvates AMy's mood (anti-depressant)

Term
generic name for Clomicalm
Definition

clomipramine

TCA

 

 

 

 

because it keeps CLOe CALM - anti-depressant

Term
generic name for Paxil
Definition

paroxetine

SSRI

 

 

 

 

Packs a punch; and no PAROdox : anti-depressant

Term
generic name for Prozac
Definition

fluoxetine

SSRI

 

 

 

 

SuRIwas a PRO at fighting the FLU

Term
generic name for Rimadyl
Definition

carprofen

NSAID

 

 

 

N SAID the RIM of the CAR was PRO

Term
generic name for Anipryl
Definition

selegiline

MAOI

 

 

 

ANnie PRIL saw MAO SELL to GIL

 

Term
what is prednisone
Definition

prednisone/prednisolone

GC

glucocorticoid

 

 

 

the PREsiDent could GLUe the CORd oy!

Term
generic name for PromAce
Definition

acepromazine

phenothiazine sedative

 

 

 

PHone THIA to SEDATE her from going to the PROM with ACE

Term
generic for Soloxone
Definition

levothyroxine

thyroid hormone

 

 

 

Sol's OX will LEaVe the THYROID HORMONE alone

Term
List 5 clinical signs of hypothyroidism in dogs:
Definition

1. excessive weight gain

2. lack of normal hair sheen

3. hair loss

4. poor exercise tolerance

5. moodiness

Term
What is the common cause of hyperthyroidism in dogs and cats, and what are the clinical symptoms:
Definition

- thyroid carcinoma

- hyperactivity and nervousness

- uncommon in cats

Term
Describe the use of Naloxone as part of a drug protocol for ALD:
Definition

short term use will give immediate benefit while the use of fluoxetine or Clomicalm is built up in the system to clinically significant levels.

Term
Name 3 side effects of clomipramine:
Definition

- anorexia

- emesis

-elevation of lever enzymes

Term
Which drug is commonly used to treat OCD in dogs?
Definition
Clomicalm for ALD (OCD)
Term
Which drug is used to treat storm phobias in dogs:
Definition

Elavil

Tricyclic Behavior Modifier

Term
What foods have tyramine, and what is the issue with tyramine and certain drugs:
Definition

aged cheese

grapes

chocolate

 

react with Clomipramine and make the drug toxic

Term
List 4 side effects of amitrityline:
Definition

sedation,

constipation,

urinary retention

hyperexcitability

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