# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Poultry Breeding Exam 2
Info for Poultry Breeding Exam 2
124
Agriculture
01/05/2018

Term
 P(A)
Definition
 Probability of A
Term
 Probability values are between...
Definition
 ZERO and ONE (0—1)
Term
 Probabilities or expected frequencies of an event sum up to...
Definition
 ONEP(1) + P(2)+P(3)+...+P(n) = 1
Term
 independent events
Definition
 the occurrence of one event has no influence on the occurrence of the other event
Term
 when to use multiplication rule
Definition
 when the probability uses the word and P(A and B) = P(A) x P(B)
Term
 The probability of independent events occurring together
Definition
 the product of their separate probabilities.P(4 and Tail) = P(4) x P(Tail) = 1/6 x 1/2 = 1/12.
Term
 mutually exclusive
Definition
 Non-overlapping, which means the two events cannot both occur at the same time
Term
 when to use the addition rule
Definition
 when the probability uses the word or P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)
Term
 The probability that either event A or event B will occur
Definition
 the sum of their separate probabilities.P(Even) = P(2) or P(4) or P(6)P (Even) = P(2) + P(4) + P(6)= 1/6 + 1/6 + 1/6 = 1/2
Term
 The probability that either event A or event B will occur when mutually exclusive
Definition
 P(A or B)=P(A) + P(B)
Term
 non-mutually exclusive
Definition
 when 2 events have one or more outcomes in common
Term
 probability of event A and event B occurring when they're non-mutually exclusive
Definition
 P(A or B)=P(A) + P(B)-P(A and B)
Term
 conditional probability
Definition
 our estimate of the probability on an event B will be modifiedbased on partial information that we have or because we know a particular event A has taken place
Term
 P(B | A)
Definition
 the probability of B given A, where the '|' means 'given'
Term
 the probability of B given A
Definition
 P(B | A)the '|' means 'given'
Term
 P(B | A) if A and B are independent
Definition
 P(B | A) = P(B)
Term
 P(B | A) if A and B are mutually exclusive
Definition
 P(B | A) = 0
Term
 probability of both A and B occurring when A and B are dependent
Definition
 P(A and B) = P(A) P(B|A)
Term
 Baye's theorem for conditional probabilities
Definition
 P(B | A ) = P(A and B)/P(A)P(Second|First)=P(First and Second)/P(First)
Term
 modified Baye's theorem for conditional probabilities (one that makes sense to me)
Definition
 P(B | A ) = P(B)/P(A)
Term
 The probability of obtaining exactly n successes in N trials is given by...
Definition
 the limit of binomial distribution
Term
 the binomial expression when n = 2
Definition
 (p + q)2 = p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 p and q represent mutually exclusive events
Term
 the binomial expression when n > 2, in this case, n = 5
Definition
 (p + q)5 = p5 + 5p4q1 + 10p3q2 + 10p2q3 + 5p1q4 + q5
Term
 what does each letter in this equation represent?[image]DRAW THIS!
Definition
 p = probability of dominantq = probability of recessiveN = number of timesk = number of dominants being tested forN-k = expected number of recessives
Term
 the number of chromosomes in birds
Definition
 78
Term
 the sex chromosomes in birds
Definition
 Z and W
Term
 homogametic
Definition
 ZZ (male)
Term
 heterogametic
Definition
 ZW (female)
Term
 which chromosome is bigger? Z or W?
Definition
 Z
Term
Definition
 traits linked to the Z chromosome
Term
 why all sex-linked genes are dominant
Definition
 because there are no alleles of the same gene on the W chromosome to offer dominance
Term
 hemizygous
Definition
 Having one pair of a gene, e.g. a gene on the Z chromosome
Term
 sex-limited inheritance
Definition
 type of inheritance in which phenotypic expression is limited to one sex, e.g., egg production and milk yield
Term
 sex-influenced inheritance
Definition
 type of inheritance where mode of gene expression differs between males and females
Term
Definition
 pattern of inheritance for genes located on sex chromosomes
Term
 examples of sex-limited inheritance
Definition
 -egg production-milk yield
Term
 example of how day-old chicks can be sexed with minimum labor cost
Definition
 -Barring is dominant over non-barring (solid black).-late feathering dominant over early feathering
Term
 genetic mapping
Definition
 the determination of relative positions of genes along the chromosome
Term
Definition
 Genes that are located on the same chromosome and do not undergo independent assortment but are instead transmitted togetherthey have less than 50% recombination frequency
Term
 coupling or cis heterozygote
Definition
 AB/ab
Term
 AB/ab
Definition
 coupling or cis heterozygote
Term
 repulsive or trans heterozygote
Definition
 Ab/aB
Term
 Ab/aB
Definition
 repulsive or trans heterozygote
Term
 recombination
Definition
 crossing over; this happens during meiosis
Term
 Recombination fraction (r)
Definition
 the fraction of chromosomes that are recombinants, in an experiment to measure recombination rate
Term
 parental gametes
Definition
 same genotype as parent
Term
 recombinant gametes
Definition
 have genotype that results from recombination
Term
 maximum frequency of recombinants for genes on the same chromosome
Definition
 50%
Term
 maximum frequency of recombinants for genes on separate chromosomes
Definition
 50%
Term
Definition
 -located on same chromosome-transmitted together-less than 50% recombination frequency
Term
 when 2 genes on the same chromosome have recombination frequency < 50%,...
Definition
Term
 when 2 genes on the same chromosome have recombination frequency ≥ 50%,...
Definition
 the assort independently
Term
 chi-square test that says genes assort independently
Definition
 accept null hypothesis
Term
 chi-square test that says genes do not assort independently
Definition
 reject null hypothesis
Term
 degrees of freedom when you're doing a chi-square for 1 locus
Definition
 df = 1
Term
 Linkage between two genes is a measure of...
Definition
 the probability that the two genes are beingtransmitted together to the offspring
Term
 genetic map
Definition
 illustrates the linear order of genes along the chromosome with distances between adjacent genes proportional to the recombination frequency between them
Term
 The unit of distance on a genetic map
Definition
 map unit (mu)
Term
 map unit (mu)
Definition
 The unit of distance on a genetic map
Term
 One map unit represents...
Definition
 1% recombination or crossing over event
Term
 how to calculate recombination frequency
Definition
 Recombination frequency = (total number of recombinants)/(total number of individuals)
Term
 map unit is also called...
Definition
 centimorgan (cM)
Term
 centimorgan (cM)
Definition
 map unit
Term
 how double recombinants are counted to estimate distance between A and C
Definition
 To estimate the distance between A and C, double recombinants are counted twice
Term
 how to calculate expected number of double crossover
Definition
 expected double crossing over = P(co A-B) x P(co B-C)then you multiply by population size to get the expected number
Term
 when the observed number of double crossover is lower than the expected, this indicates...
Definition
 chromosome interference
Term
 chromosome interference
Definition
 crossing over in one region reducing the probability of crossing over in the adjacent region
Term
 coefficient of coincidence
Definition
 the ratio of the observed number of double crossovers to the expected number of double crossovers
Term
 how to calculate coefficient of coincidence
Definition
 coefficient of coincidence = (observed double crossovers)/(expected double crossovers)express it as a percent
Term
 how to calculate interference
Definition
 Interference = 1 – Coefficient of coincidenceexpress it as a percent
Term
 two initial goals that a primary breeder needs to accomplish before improving trait(s)
Definition
 (1) Establish a population with no inbreeding.(2) Establish a population with maximum heterozygosity.
Term
 inbreeding
Definition
 mating of individuals that are related to each other by ancestry or through a common ancestor
Term
 common ancestor
Definition
 an ancestor common to the parents of an inbred individual
Term
 when an individual is not inbred
Definition
 when its parents do not have a common ancestor
Term
 inbreeding coefficient (F)
Definition
 The probability that two alleles at any locus in an individual are identical by descent.
Term
 The inbreeding coefficient, F, compares...
Definition
 the population in question with some specified or implied BASE Population.
Term
 inbreeding coefficient (F) of the base population
Definition
 F = 0, i.e. (F0 =0)
Term
 F0
Definition
 inbreeding coefficient at generation 0 (t=0), and is equal to ZERO
Term
 Ft estimates...
Definition
 the inbreeding in a population at generation t
Term
 Ft estimates the inbreeding in a population at generation t, by...
Definition
 comparing the degree of relationship between individuals at generation t, and the base population
Term
 the chance of a gamete uniting with another of the same type
Definition
 (1/2N)th
Term
 Probability that 2 alleles drawn at random are the same
Definition
 1/2N
Term
 Probability that 2 alleles drawn at random are different
Definition
 1 - 1/2N
Term
 Inbreeding at any generation is made up two parts, which are...
Definition
 1. An increment of 1/2N attributed to new inbreeding2. Remainder, attributed to previous inbreeding
Term
 general equation for inbreeding
Definition
 Ft = 1 - (1 - (1 / 2N))t
Term
 Generation of Inbreeding
Definition
 1. An increment of 1/2N attributed to new inbreeding2. Remainder, attributed to previous inbreeding
Term
 increment attributed to new inbreeding
Definition
 1/2Nthe remainder is attributed to previous inbreeding
Term
 ΔF
Definition
 I think this is increment or rate of inbreeding
Term
 how to calculate rate of inbreeding (ΔF)
Definition
 ΔF = (1/2N) Ft = ΔF + (1 - ΔF)Ft-1 ΔF = (Ft - Ft-1) / (1 - Ft-1)
Term
 main effect of inbreeding
Definition
 decreases heterozygousity
Term
 Steps to determine inbreeding of an individual when doing a pedigree
Definition
 1. Identify the parents of individual I.2. Identify the common ancestor of the parents of I.3. Determine the number of generation between the common ancestor and the first parent (n)4. Determine the number of generation between the common ancestor and the second parent (n’)
Term
 how to determine the inbreeding coefficient of individual, I
Definition
 1. The parents of I are B and C2. The common ancestor of B and C is A3. The number of generation between A and B, i.e. n=14. The number of generation between A and C, i.e. n’=1
Term
 how to calculate The additive genetic relationship (a) between two collateral relatives
Definition
 a = (1/2)n+n’ (1 + F) F = inbreeding coefficient of the common ancestor of the two collateral relatives
Term
 value of F when the inbreeding coefficient of the common ancestor is unknown
Definition
 F is set to 0
Term
 the additive relationship between B and C in a pedigree
Definition
 aBC = (1/2)n+n’ (1 + FA)
Term
 Inbreeding coefficient of an individual is...
Definition
 half of the additive relationship between its parents
Term
 inbreeding coefficient of I
Definition
 FI = (1/2) aBC
Term
 depiction of the tabular method
Definition
 [image]
Term
 2 key concepts in the tabular method
Definition
 1. The additive relationship between an individual and itself2. The additive relationship between an individual and another individual.
Term
 Additive relationship between an individual i and itself
Definition
 aii = 1 + (1/2) asidi = 1 + Fi
Term
 Additive relationship between an individual i and individual j
Definition
 aij = (1/2) (aisj + aidj ) = aji
Term
 aisj
Definition
 the relationship between j and the sire of i
Term
 aidj
Definition
 the relationship between j and the dam of i
Term
 value of aisj and aidj when the parents are absent
Definition
 set to zerounidentified parents are assumed to be unrelated
Term
 rules for doing a table relating to a pedigree
Definition
 1. Write down animals from oldest to youngest in the first row2. Write down animals from oldest to youngest in the first column3. Write down the parents of animal in the first row on top of them.
Term
 depiction of a table based on a pedigree
Definition
 [image]
Term
 Heterozygosity
Definition
 A measure of the level or frequency of heterozygous genotypes in the population
Term
 relationship between allele and genotype frequency
Definition
 [image]
Term
 when the frequency of heterozygotes is maximum
Definition
 when p=q=0.5
Term
 relationship between heterozygosity, inbreeding, and allele frequency
Definition
 [image]
Term
 Centimorgan
Definition
 The unit of distance on a genetic map equivalent to 1% of recombination; also called a map unit.
Term
 Coincidence
Definition
 The ratio of observed double crossover to the expected double crossovers.
Term
 Coupling heterozygote
Definition
 The arrangement of linked genes in the double heterozygote in which both the dominant or recessive alleles are located on one chromatid.
Term
 Crossover
Definition
 An exchange of non-sister chromatids of a pair of homologous chromosomes that results in the recombination of linked genes.
Term
 Hemizygous gene
Definition
 A gene that is represented only on one sex chromosome and has no alternative allele on the other sex chromosome.
Term
 Heterozygosity
Definition
 A measure of the level or frequency of heterozygous genotypes in the population.
Term
 Inbreeding
Definition
 Mating of individuals related by ancestry.
Term
 Interference
Definition
 The ability of crossover in one region to inhibit crossover in the adjacent region.
Term
Definition
 The probability that two genes located on the same chromosome are transmitted together.
Term
 Parental combination
Definition
 Alleles present in an offspring chromosome that are the same as that found in one of the parents.
Term
 Recombinant
Definition
 A chromosome that results from crossing over, and carries allele combination that differ from that found in both parents.
Term
 Recombination frequency
Definition
 The ratio of recombinants to the total number of gametic chromosomes.
Term
 Repulsive heterozygote
Definition
 The arrangement of linked genes in the double heterozygote in which one dominant and one recessive allele are located on one chromatid.
Term