Term

Definition


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Probability values are between... 

Definition


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Probabilities or expected frequencies of an event sum up to... 

Definition
ONE
P(1) + P(2)+P(3)+...+P(n) = 1 


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Definition
the occurrence of one event has no influence on the occurrence of the other event 


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when to use multiplication rule 

Definition
when the probability uses the word and
P(A and B) = P(A) x P(B) 


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The probability of independent events occurring together 

Definition
the product of their separate probabilities.
P(4 and Tail) = P(4) x P(Tail) = 1/6 x 1/2 = 1/12. 


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Definition
Nonoverlapping, which means the two events cannot both occur at the same time 


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when to use the addition rule 

Definition
when the probability uses the word or
P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) 


Term
The probability that either event A or event B will occur 

Definition
the sum of their separate probabilities.
P(Even) = P(2) or P(4) or P(6) P (Even) = P(2) + P(4) + P(6) = 1/6 + 1/6 + 1/6 = 1/2 


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The probability that either event A or event B will occur when mutually exclusive 

Definition


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Definition
when 2 events have one or more outcomes in common 


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probability of event A and event B occurring when they're nonmutually exclusive 

Definition
P(A or B)=P(A) + P(B)P(A and B) 


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Definition
our estimate of the probability on an event B will be modified based on partial information that we have or because we know a particular event A has taken place 


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Definition
the probability of B given A, where the '' means 'given' 


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the probability of B given A 

Definition
P(B  A)
the '' means 'given' 


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P(B  A) if A and B are independent 

Definition


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P(B  A) if A and B are mutually exclusive 

Definition


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probability of both A and B occurring when A and B are dependent 

Definition


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Baye's theorem for conditional probabilities 

Definition
P(B  A ) = P(A and B)/P(A)
P(SecondFirst)=P(First and Second)/P(First) 


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modified Baye's theorem for conditional probabilities (one that makes sense to me) 

Definition


Term
The probability of obtaining exactly n successes in N trials is given by... 

Definition
the limit of binomial distribution 


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the binomial expression when n = 2 

Definition
(p + q)^{2} = p^{2} + 2pq + q^{2} = 1
p and q represent mutually exclusive events 


Term
the binomial expression when n > 2, in this case, n = 5 

Definition
(p + q)^{5} = p^{5} + 5p^{4}q^{1} + 10p^{3}q^{2} + 10p^{2}q^{3} + 5p^{1}q^{4} + q^{5} 


Term
what does each letter in this equation represent? [image] DRAW THIS! 

Definition
p = probability of dominant q = probability of recessive N = number of times k = number of dominants being tested for Nk = expected number of recessives 


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the number of chromosomes in birds 

Definition


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the sex chromosomes in birds 

Definition


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Definition


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Definition


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which chromosome is bigger? Z or W? 

Definition


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Definition
traits linked to the Z chromosome 


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why all sexlinked genes are dominant 

Definition
because there are no alleles of the same gene on the W chromosome to offer dominance 


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Definition
Having one pair of a gene, e.g. a gene on the Z chromosome 


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Definition
type of inheritance in which phenotypic expression is limited to one sex, e.g., egg production and milk yield 


Term
sexinfluenced inheritance 

Definition
type of inheritance where mode of gene expression differs between males and females 


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sex linkage or sexlinked inheritance 

Definition
pattern of inheritance for genes located on sex chromosomes 


Term
examples of sexlimited inheritance 

Definition
egg production milk yield 


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example of how dayold chicks can be sexed with minimum labor cost 

Definition
Barring is dominant over nonbarring (solid black). late feathering dominant over early feathering 


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Definition
the determination of relative positions of genes along the chromosome 


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Definition
Genes that are located on the same chromosome and do not undergo independent assortment but are instead transmitted together
they have less than 50% recombination frequency 


Term
coupling or cis heterozygote 

Definition


Term

Definition
coupling or cis heterozygote 


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repulsive or trans heterozygote 

Definition


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Definition
repulsive or trans heterozygote 


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Definition
crossing over; this happens during meiosis 


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Recombination fraction (r) 

Definition
the fraction of chromosomes that are recombinants, in an experiment to measure recombination rate 


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Definition


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Definition
have genotype that results from recombination 


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maximum frequency of recombinants for genes on the same chromosome 

Definition


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maximum frequency of recombinants for genes on separate chromosomes 

Definition


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some characteristics of linked genes 

Definition
located on same chromosome transmitted together less than 50% recombination frequency 


Term
when 2 genes on the same chromosome have recombination frequency < 50%,... 

Definition


Term
when 2 genes on the same chromosome have recombination frequency ≥ 50%,... 

Definition


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chisquare test that says genes assort independently 

Definition


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chisquare test that says genes do not assort independently 

Definition


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degrees of freedom when you're doing a chisquare for 1 locus 

Definition


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Linkage between two genes is a measure of... 

Definition
the probability that the two genes are being transmitted together to the offspring 


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Definition
illustrates the linear order of genes along the chromosome with distances between adjacent genes proportional to the recombination frequency between them 


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The unit of distance on a genetic map 

Definition


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Definition
The unit of distance on a genetic map 


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One map unit represents... 

Definition
1% recombination or crossing over event 


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how to calculate recombination frequency 

Definition
Recombination frequency = (total number of recombinants)/(total number of individuals) 


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map unit is also called... 

Definition


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Definition


Term
how double recombinants are counted to estimate distance between A and C 

Definition
To estimate the distance between A and C, double recombinants are counted twice 


Term
how to calculate expected number of double crossover 

Definition
expected double crossing over = P(co AB) x P(co BC)
then you multiply by population size to get the expected number 


Term
when the observed number of double crossover is lower than the expected, this indicates... 

Definition


Term

Definition
crossing over in one region reducing the probability of crossing over in the adjacent region 


Term
coefficient of coincidence 

Definition
the ratio of the observed number of double crossovers to the expected number of double crossovers 


Term
how to calculate coefficient of coincidence 

Definition
coefficient of coincidence = (observed double crossovers)/(expected double crossovers)
express it as a percent 


Term
how to calculate interference 

Definition
Interference = 1 – Coefficient of coincidence
express it as a percent 


Term
two initial goals that a primary breeder needs to accomplish before improving trait(s) 

Definition
(1) Establish a population with no inbreeding. (2) Establish a population with maximum heterozygosity. 


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Definition
mating of individuals that are related to each other by ancestry or through a common ancestor 


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Definition
an ancestor common to the parents of an inbred individual 


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when an individual is not inbred 

Definition
when its parents do not have a common ancestor 


Term
inbreeding coefficient (F) 

Definition
The probability that two alleles at any locus in an individual are identical by descent. 


Term
The inbreeding coefficient, F, compares... 

Definition
the population in question with some specified or implied BASE Population. 


Term
inbreeding coefficient (F) of the base population 

Definition


Term

Definition
inbreeding coefficient at generation 0 (t=0), and is equal to ZERO 


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Definition
the inbreeding in a population at generation t 


Term
F_{t} estimates the inbreeding in a population at generation t, by... 

Definition
comparing the degree of relationship between individuals at generation t, and the base population 


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the chance of a gamete uniting with another of the same type 

Definition


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Probability that 2 alleles drawn at random are the same 

Definition


Term
Probability that 2 alleles drawn at random are different 

Definition


Term
Inbreeding at any generation is made up two parts, which are... 

Definition
1. An increment of 1/2N attributed to new inbreeding 2. Remainder, attributed to previous inbreeding 


Term
general equation for inbreeding 

Definition
F_{t} = 1  (1  (1 / 2N))^{t} 


Term

Definition
1. An increment of 1/2N attributed to new inbreeding 2. Remainder, attributed to previous inbreeding 


Term
increment attributed to new inbreeding 

Definition
1/2N
the remainder is attributed to previous inbreeding 


Term

Definition
I think this is increment or rate of inbreeding 


Term
how to calculate rate of inbreeding (ΔF) 

Definition
ΔF = (1/2N)
F_{t} = ΔF + (1  ΔF)F_{t1}
ΔF = (F_{t}  F_{t1}) / (1  F_{t1}) 


Term
main effect of inbreeding 

Definition
decreases heterozygousity 


Term
Steps to determine inbreeding of an individual when doing a pedigree 

Definition
1. Identify the parents of individual I. 2. Identify the common ancestor of the parents of I. 3. Determine the number of generation between the common ancestor and the first parent (n) 4. Determine the number of generation between the common ancestor and the second parent (n’) 


Term
how to determine the inbreeding coefficient of individual, I 

Definition
1. The parents of I are B and C 2. The common ancestor of B and C is A 3. The number of generation between A and B, i.e. n=1 4. The number of generation between A and C, i.e. n’=1 


Term
how to calculate The additive genetic relationship (a) between two collateral relatives 

Definition
a = (1/2)^{n+n’} (1 + F)
F = inbreeding coefficient of the common ancestor of the two collateral relatives 


Term
value of F when the inbreeding coefficient of the common ancestor is unknown 

Definition


Term
the additive relationship between B and C in a pedigree 

Definition
a_{BC} = (1/2)^{n+n’} (1 + F_{A}) 


Term
Inbreeding coefficient of an individual is... 

Definition
half of the additive relationship between its parents 


Term
inbreeding coefficient of I 

Definition


Term
depiction of the tabular method 

Definition


Term
2 key concepts in the tabular method 

Definition
1. The additive relationship between an individual and itself 2. The additive relationship between an individual and another individual. 


Term
Additive relationship between an individual i and itself 

Definition
a_{ii} = 1 + (1/2) a_{sidi} = 1 + F_{i} 


Term
Additive relationship between an individual i and individual j 

Definition
a_{ij} = (1/2) (a_{isj} + a_{idj} ) = a_{ji} 


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Definition
the relationship between j and the sire of i 


Term

Definition
the relationship between j and the dam of i 


Term
value of a_{isj} and a_{idj} when the parents are absent 

Definition
set to zero
unidentified parents are assumed to be unrelated 


Term
rules for doing a table relating to a pedigree 

Definition
1. Write down animals from oldest to youngest in the first row 2. Write down animals from oldest to youngest in the first column 3. Write down the parents of animal in the first row on top of them. 


Term
depiction of a table based on a pedigree 

Definition


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Definition
A measure of the level or frequency of heterozygous genotypes in the population 


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relationship between allele and genotype frequency 

Definition


Term
when the frequency of heterozygotes is maximum 

Definition


Term
relationship between heterozygosity, inbreeding, and allele frequency 

Definition


Term

Definition
The unit of distance on a genetic map equivalent to 1% of recombination; also called a map unit. 


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Definition
The ratio of observed double crossover to the expected double crossovers. 


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Definition
The arrangement of linked genes in the double heterozygote in which both the dominant or recessive alleles are located on one chromatid. 


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Definition
An exchange of nonsister chromatids of a pair of homologous chromosomes that results in the recombination of linked genes. 


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Definition
A gene that is represented only on one sex chromosome and has no alternative allele on the other sex chromosome. 


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Definition
A measure of the level or frequency of heterozygous genotypes in the population. 


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Definition
Mating of individuals related by ancestry. 


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Definition
The ability of crossover in one region to inhibit crossover in the adjacent region. 


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Definition
The probability that two genes located on the same chromosome are transmitted together. 


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Definition
Alleles present in an offspring chromosome that are the same as that found in one of the parents. 


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Definition
A chromosome that results from crossing over, and carries allele combination that differ from that found in both parents. 


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Definition
The ratio of recombinants to the total number of gametic chromosomes. 


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Definition
The arrangement of linked genes in the double heterozygote in which one dominant and one recessive allele are located on one chromatid. 


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Definition
Traits determined by genes on the sex chromosome. 

