# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Poultry Breeding Chapter 11
Poultry Breeding Chapter 11
51
Agriculture
03/10/2018

Term
 Mendelian Traits
Definition
 Traits or Characters that are affected by one or few genes, and follow a discontinuous variation.
Term
 Mendelian traits aka...
Definition
 -discontinuous traits-quantitative traits
Term
 distribution of genotypes is affected by...
Definition
 the number of genes involved
Term
 what happens as the number of genes affecting a trait increases?
Definition
 the transition between each genotypic class becomes less distinct, such that it resembles a bell curve, known as normal distriibution
Term
 Quantitative Traits
Definition
 Traits that are affected by many genes, and exhibit continuous variation
Term
 some examples of quantitative traits
Definition
 -growth-egg weight-breast meat yield
Term
 Quantitative traits are...
Definition
 polygenic
Term
 polygenic traits
Definition
 traits affected by many genes
Term
 other than each other, what do alleles interact with to produce traits?
Definition
 the environment
Term
 The analysis of a quantitative trait starts by...
Definition
 describing the phenotype of a given trait in a population
Term
 the distribution most quantitative traits follow
Definition
 normal distribution
Term
 the statistical parameters that govern normal distribution
Definition
 -mean-standard deviation
Term
 standard normal distribution
Definition
 A normal distribution with a mean of zero and a variance of 1
Term
 amount of population within 1 standard deviation of the mean in a standard normal distribution (μ – 1σ and μ + 1σ)
Definition
 68%
Term
 amount of population within 2 standard deviation of the mean in a standard normal distribution (μ – 2σ and μ + 2σ)
Definition
 95%
Term
 amount of population within 3 standard deviation of the mean in a standard normal distribution (μ – 3σ and μ + 3σ)
Definition
 99.7%
Term
 how to calculate proportions of a normal distribution
Definition
 Z = (Xi - μ) / σ then find probability of it on the Z score table
Term
 symbols for mean, variance, and standard deviation for population and sample
Definition
 [image]
Term
 μ
Definition
 population mean
Term
 x
Definition
 sample mean
Term
 σ2
Definition
 population variance
Term
 s2
Definition
 sample variance
Term
 σ
Definition
 population standard deviation
Term
 s
Definition
 sample standard deviation
Term
 mean
Definition
 An arithmetic average
Term
 how to calculate mean
Definition
 Mean = x̄ = (ΣX) / n x̄ = mean phenotypic value of the sample Xi = the ith phenotypic value Σ = the summation sign
Term
 variation
Definition
 in the breeding context, this refers to differences among individuals in a population
Term
 Variation is the source of...
Definition
 genetic change
Term
 the raw material for geneticists
Definition
 variation
Term
 The most commonly used measures for variation
Definition
 -variance-standard deviation
Term
 Variation is measured by...
Definition
 variance or standard deviation
Term
 how to calculate variance
Definition
 σ2 = Σ(Xi - μ)2 / N N = number of individuals in that population
Term
 the best estimate of population variance
Definition
 sample variance, s2
Term
 how to calculate sample variance
Definition
 S2 = Σ(Xi - x̄)2 / (n - 1) or S2 = (ΣXi2 - ((ΣXi)2 / n)) / (n - 1)
Term
 how to calculate standard deviation
Definition
 square root of variance
Term
 positive covariation
Definition
 Y increases as X increases
Term
 negative covariation
Definition
 Y decreases as X increases
Term
 no covariation
Definition
 Y stays the same as X increases or decreases
Term
 3 basic concepts of covariation
Definition
 1.The direction or sign of the relationship, i.e. whether the relationship is positive, negative or non-existence.2.The strength of the relationship.3.The amount of change in one variable that can be expected for a given amount of change in another variable.
Term
 Measures of Covariation
Definition
 1. Covariance2. Correlation3. Regression
Term
 covariance
Definition
 the average product of deviation from the means of two variables
Term
 how to calculate covariance
Definition
 Cov(X,Y) = (Σ(XiYi - n *X̄*Ȳ)) / (n-1)
Term
 Linear correlation
Definition
 a measure of the degree of the relationship between two variables; indicates relationship and strength of it
Term
 how to calculate linear corelation
Definition
 rxy = (Cov(x,y)) / (sx * sy) rxy = ryx
Term
 The simplest functional relationship of one variable to another
Definition
 the simple linear regression
Term
 Regression measures
Definition
 the quantitative change in one variable that can be expected for a unit change in another variable
Term
 the variables involved in linear correlation
Definition
 -dependent variable-independent variable
Term
 relationship between dependent and independent variable
Definition
 the magnitude of the dependent variable is determined by the magnitude of the independent variable
Term
 the relationship between dependent and independent variables if they're linearly related
Definition
 Y = a + byxX this is Y on X, i.e. byx ≠ bxy Y = the dependent variable X = the independent variable b = regression coefficient a = point of intersection (the value of Y when X =0)
Term
 linear regression on a graph
Definition
 [image]
Term
 how to calculate regression variable
Definition
 byx = (Cov(X,Y)) / (Var(X)) bxy = (Cov(X,Y)) / (Var(Y)) byx ≠ bxy
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