# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

POS secound semester exam review
coolest
52
Science
05/24/2009

## Additional Science Flashcards

Term
 Displacement
Definition
 - the change in position of an object
Term
 Acceleration-
Definition
 the rate at which velocity changes over time; an ovject accelerates if it’s speed direction or both change
Term
 Force
Definition
 an action exerted on a body in order to change the body’s state of rest or motion; force has magnitude and direction
Term
 Friction
Definition
 a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact
Term
 Static V.S Kinetic Friction
Definition
 Static friction is the force that resist the initalition of sliding motion between tow surfaces that are in contact and at rest, and kinetic friction is the force that opposes the movement of two surfaces that are in contact and are sliding over each over
Term
 Newton's First Law
Definition
 An object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion maintains its velocity it experiences an unbalanced force
Term
 Inertia
Definition
 the the tendency of an object to resist being moved or if the object is moving to resist a change in speed or direction until an outside force acts on the object
Term
 Newton's Secound Law
Definition
 The unbalanced force acting on an object equals the object’s mass times it’s acceleration
Term
 Law of universal gravitation
Definition
 Free fall and weight- the motion of a body when only the force of gravity is acting on the body
Term
 Projectile motion
Definition
 the curved path that an object follows when thrown launched or otherwised projected near the surface of earth, the motion of objects that are moving is two dimensions under the influence of gravity
Term
 Newton's third Law
Definition
 For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction force
Term
 Momentum
Definition
 a quantity defined as the product of the mass and velocity of an objectFormula:Momentum= mass*velocity
Term
 Work
Definition
 - the transfer of energy to a body by the application of a force that causes the body to move in the direction of the forceFormula: Work= Force * Distance
Term
 power
Definition
 - a quantity that measures the rate at which work is done or energy is transformedFormula: WOrk/time=power
Term
 machinese
Definition
 Machines- Machines help us do work by redistributing the work that we put into them. Machines can change the direction of an input force.
Term
Definition
 a quantity that measures how much a machine multiplies foce or distanceFormula:= Output force/ input force or input distance/ output distance
Term
 First class lever
Definition
 first class lever has it's fulcrum located in the middle
Term
 Secound class lever
Definition
 in a second class lever the fulcrum is at one end of the arm and the input force is applied to the other end. The wheel of a wheel barrow is a fulcrum( wheel of wheel barrow)
Term
 third class levers
Definition
 third class levers multiply distance rather than force. As result they have a mechanical advantage of less that one, the human body contains many third class lever.
Term
 inclined plane
Definition
 - inclined plane changes both the magnitude and the direction of force
Term
 wedge
Definition
 : a wedge turns a downward force into two forces directed out to the sides
Term
 Screw
Definition
 A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder
Term
 Law of enegy conservation
Definition
 energy can't be destroyed nor created
Term
 Potential energy
Definition
 the energy that an object has because of the position shape, or condition of the object
Term
 Kinetic energy
Definition
 the energy of a moving object due to the object due to the object's motion
Term
 Kinetic energy
Definition
 the energy of a moving object due to the object due to the object's motion
Term
 thermal conduction
Definition
 the transfer of energy as heat through a material
Term
 convection
Definition
 the movement of matter due to diffrences in density that are caused by tempature vibrations
Term
Definition
 the energy that is transferred as electromagnetic waves, scuh as visale light and infared waves
Term
 good conductors vs Bad conductors
Definition
 good conductors can conduct heat and electricity well but bad conductors can't, good conductors are usally made of metal
Term
 heating systmes
Definition
 are used to raise the indoor temperature on cooler days, energy must by transferred into a room’s air by a heating system. Most heating systems use a source of energy to raise the tempature of a substance such as air or water
Term
 cooling systems
Definition
 in all cooling systems, energy is tansferred as heat from one substance to another leaving the first substance with less energy and thus a lower tempature
Term
 waves
Definition
 a wave is caused by a vibration of some sort, there are two kinds of waves, Mechanical waves and Electomagnetic wave
Term
 medium
Definition
 is a place where the wave travels through( example- sesmic waves medium is earth)
Term
 mechanical wave
Definition
 Wave that require a medium is called a mechanical wave( example- water wave)
Term
 electromagnetic wave
Definition
 Electromagnetic wave- a wave that doesn’t require a medium( example- light waves)
Term
 Wave and energy transfer
Definition
 waves transfer energy from one place to the other
Term
 Vibrations and waves-
Definition
 vibrations cause waves to start
Term
 Vibrations and waves-
Definition
 vibrations cause waves to start
Term
 transverse waves
Definition
 Transverse waves move in a perpendicular motion( water waves)
Term
 Longitudinal waves
Definition
 Longitudinal waves move in a parallel motion( sound waves)
Term
 reflection
Definition
 reflection is the bouncing back of a ray of light, sound heat, when the ray hits a surface that it does not go through
Term
 diffraction
Definition
 - a change in direction of a wave when the wave finds an obstacle or edge such as an opening
Term
 refraction
Definition
 bending of a wave front as the wave front passes between two substances in which the speed of the wave differs
Term
 interfearnce
Definition
 the combination of two or more wave of the same frequency results in a single wave, it could be a constructive or a destructive wave. A constructive wave is formed when two waves that are moving at the same direction and same frequency bumps to each other making the two waves combine so that the wave is bigger than the original wave. A destructive wave is formed by a wave that is not travelling the same direction resulting the two waves combing but the result is smaller than the original larger wave
Term
 standing wave
Definition
 standing waves are a pattern of waves/ vibrations that look like the wave is standing still( not moving)
Term
 ultrasound
Definition
 any sound wave with frequencies higer than 20000hertz
Term
 infrasound
Definition
 any sound wave with frequencies lower than 20hertz
Term
 resonance
Definition
 a phenomenon that occurs when two objects vibrate at the same frequency
Term
 Sonar
Definition
 sound navigation and ranging, a system that uses acoustic sgnals and echo returns to determine the location fo objects or to communicate
Term
 Sonar
Definition
 sound navigation and ranging, a system that uses acoustic sgnals and echo returns to determine the location fo objects or to communicate
Term
 intensity
Definition
 the rate at which energy flows through a given area of space
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