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A probability sample that is used when no list of elements exists. The sampling frame initially consists of clusters of elements. 


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The degree of belief that an estimated range of values more specifically, a high or low value includes or covers the population parameter. 


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A nonprobability sample in which the selection of elements is determined by the researcher's convenience. 


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A stratified sample in which elements sharing a characteristic are underrepresented or overrepresented in the sample. 


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A particular case or entity about which information is collected; the unit of analysis. 


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A statistic based on sample observations that is used to estimate the numerical value of an unknown population parameter. 


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The mean or average value of a sample statistic based on repeated samples from a population. 


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A sample for which each element in the total population has an unknown probability of being selected. 


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All the cases or observations covered by a hypothesis; all the units of analysis to which a hypothesis applies. 


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The incidence of a characteristic or an attribute in a population (not a sample). 


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A sample for which each element in the total population has a known probability of being selected. 


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A probability sample that draws elements from a stratified population at a rate proportional to the size of the samples. 


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Definition
A nonprobability sample in which a researcher uses discretion in selecting elements for observation. 


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A nonprobability sample in which elements are sampled in proportion to their representation in the population. 


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Definition
A procedure used to improve the representativeness of telephone samples by giving both listed and unlisted numbers a chance of selection. 


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A subset of observations or cases drawn from a specified population. 


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Definition
Selection of a number at random to determine where to start selecting elements in a systematic sample. 


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Definition
The bias that occurs whenever some elements of a population are systematically excluded from a sample. It is usually do to an incomplete sampling frame or a nonprobability method of selecting elements. 


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Definition
The estimator of a population characteristicor attribute that is calculated from sample data. 


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Definition
A theoretical (nonobserved) distribution of sample statistics calculated on samples of size N that, if known, permits the calculation of confidence intervals and the test of statistical hypotheses. 


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Definition
The difference between a sample element and a corresponding population parameter that arises because only a portion of a population is observed. 


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Definition
The proportion of the population included in a sample. 


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Definition
The population from which a sample is drawn. Ideally it is the same as the total population of interest to a study. 


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Definition
The number of elements in a sampling frame divided by the desired sample size. 


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Definition
The entity listed in a sampling frame. It may be the same as an element, or it may be a group or a cluster of elements. 


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Definition
A probability sample in which each element has an equal chance of being selected. 


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A sample in which respondents are asked to identify additional members of a population. 


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Definition
The standard deviation or measure of variability or dispersion of a sampling distribution. 


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Definition
The mathematical theory and techniques for making conjectures about the unknown characteristics (parameters) of populations based on samples. 


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Definition
A probability sample in which elements sharing one or more characteristics are grouped, and elements are selected from each group in proportion to the group's representation in the total population. 


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Definition
A subgroup of a population that shares one or more characteristics. 


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Definition
A probability sample in which elements are selected from a list at predetermined intervals. 


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Definition
A mathematical factor used to make a disproportionate sample representative. 


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Definition
Measures of phenomena through indirect observation of the accumulation of materials. 


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Definition
Observation in which the observer's presence or purpose is kept secret from those being observed. 


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Definition
Actual observation of behavior. 


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Definition
measures of phenomena through indirect observation of selective wear of some material. 


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Definition
Observation in a natural setting. 


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Definition
Observation of physical traces of behavior. 


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Person who helps a researcher employing participant observation methods interpret the activities and behavior of the informant and the group to which the informant belongs. 


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Definition
Procedures that inform potential research subjects about the proposed research in which they are being asked to participate. the principle that researchers must obtain the freely given consent of human subjects before they participate in a research project. 


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Institutional Review Board 

Definition
panel to which researchers must submit descriptions of proposed research involving human subjects for the purpose of ethics review. 


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Definition
Observation in which those being observed are informed of the observer's presence and purpose. 


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Definition
Observation in which the observer becomes a regular participant in the activities of those being observed. 


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Definition
Data recorded and used by the researcher who is making the observations. 


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Definition
Data used by a researcher that was not personally collected by the researcher. 


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Definition
Systematic observation and recording of the incidence of specific behaviors. 


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Definition
Observation in which all behavior and activities are recorded. 


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Definition
A procedure by which verbal, nonquantitative records are transformed into quantitative data. 


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Definition
the portion of the written record that is not part of a regular, ongoing recordkeeping enterprise. 


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Definition
Demonstration that multiple analysts, following the same content analysis procedure, agree and obtain the same measurements. 


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Definition
The portion of the written record that is enduring and covers an extensive period of time. 


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Definition
Documents, reports, statistics, manuscripts, and other recorded materials available and useful for empirical research. 

