# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

POS 301
Final exam vocab
53
Political Studies
04/28/2009

Term
 Cluster Sample
Definition
 A probability sample that is used when no list of elements exists. The sampling frame initially consists of clusters of elements.
Term
 Confidence
Definition
 The degree of belief that an estimated range of values-- more specifically, a high or low value-- includes or covers the population parameter.
Term
 Convenience Sample
Definition
 A nonprobability sample in which the selection of elements is determined by the researcher's convenience.
Term
 Disproportionate Sample
Definition
 A stratified sample in which elements sharing a characteristic are underrepresented or overrepresented in the sample.
Term
 Element
Definition
 A particular case or entity about which information is collected; the unit of analysis.
Term
 Estimator
Definition
 A statistic based on sample observations that is used to estimate the numerical value of an unknown population parameter.
Term
 Expected Value
Definition
 The mean or average value of a sample statistic based on repeated samples from a population.
Term
 Nonprobability Sample
Definition
 A sample for which each element in the total population has an unknown probability of being selected.
Term
 Population
Definition
 All the cases or observations covered by a hypothesis; all the units of analysis to which a hypothesis applies.
Term
 Population Parameter
Definition
 The incidence of a characteristic or an attribute in a population (not a sample).
Term
 Probability Sample
Definition
 A sample for which each element in the total population has a known probability of being selected.
Term
 Proportionate Sample
Definition
 A probability sample that draws elements from a stratified population at a rate proportional to the size of the samples.
Term
 Purposive Sample
Definition
 A nonprobability sample in which a researcher uses discretion in selecting elements for observation.
Term
 Quota Sample
Definition
 A nonprobability sample in which elements are sampled in proportion to their representation in the population.
Term
 Random Digit Dialing
Definition
 A procedure used to improve the representativeness of telephone samples by giving both listed and unlisted numbers a chance of selection.
Term
 Sample
Definition
 A subset of observations or cases drawn from a specified population.
Term
 Random Start
Definition
 Selection of a number at random to determine where to start selecting elements in a systematic sample.
Term
 Sample Bias
Definition
 The bias that occurs whenever some elements of a population are systematically excluded from a sample. It is usually do to an incomplete sampling frame or a nonprobability method of selecting elements.
Term
 Sample Statistic
Definition
 The estimator of a population characteristicor attribute that is calculated from sample data.
Term
 Sampling Distribution
Definition
 A theoretical (nonobserved) distribution of sample statistics calculated on samples of size N that, if known, permits the calculation of confidence intervals and the test of statistical hypotheses.
Term
 Sampling Error
Definition
 The difference between a sample element and a corresponding population parameter that arises because only a portion of a population is observed.
Term
 Sampling Fraction
Definition
 The proportion of the population included in a sample.
Term
 Sampling Frame
Definition
 The population from which a sample is drawn. Ideally it is the same as the total population of interest to a study.
Term
 Sampling Interval
Definition
 The number of elements in a sampling frame divided by the desired sample size.
Term
 Sampling Unit
Definition
 The entity listed in a sampling frame. It may be the same as an element, or it may be a group or a cluster of elements.
Term
 Simple Random Sample
Definition
 A probability sample in which each element has an equal chance of being selected.
Term
 Snowball Sample
Definition
 A sample in which respondents are asked to identify additional members of a population.
Term
 Standard Error
Definition
 The standard deviation or measure of variability or dispersion of a sampling distribution.
Term
 Statistical Inference
Definition
 The mathematical theory and techniques for making conjectures about the unknown characteristics (parameters) of populations based on samples.
Term
 Stratified Sample
Definition
 A probability sample in which elements sharing one or more characteristics are grouped, and elements are selected from each group in proportion to the group's representation in the total population.
Term
 Stratum
Definition
 A subgroup of a population that shares one or more characteristics.
Term
 Systematic Sample
Definition
 A probability sample in which elements are selected from a list at predetermined intervals.
Term
 Weighting Factor
Definition
 A mathematical factor used to make a disproportionate sample representative.
Term
 Accretion Measures
Definition
 Measures of phenomena through indirect observation of the accumulation of materials.
Term
 Covert Observation
Definition
 Observation in which the observer's presence or purpose is kept secret from those being observed.
Term
 Direct Observation
Definition
 Actual observation of behavior.
Term
 Erosion measures
Definition
 measures of phenomena through indirect observation of selective wear of some material.
Term
 Field Study
Definition
 Observation in a natural setting.
Term
 Indirect Observation
Definition
 Observation of physical traces of behavior.
Term
 Informant
Definition
 Person who helps a researcher employing participant observation methods interpret the activities and behavior of the informant and the group to which the informant belongs.
Term
 Informed Consent
Definition
 Procedures that inform potential research subjects about the proposed research in which they are being asked to participate. the principle that researchers must obtain the freely given consent of human subjects before they participate in a research project.
Term
 Institutional Review Board
Definition
 panel to which researchers must submit descriptions of proposed research involving human subjects for the purpose of ethics review.
Term
 Overt Observation
Definition
 Observation in which those being observed are informed of the observer's presence and purpose.
Term
 Participant Observation
Definition
 Observation in which the observer becomes a regular participant in the activities of those being observed.
Term
 Primary Data
Definition
 Data recorded and used by the researcher who is making the observations.
Term
 Secondary Data
Definition
 Data used by a researcher that was not personally collected by the researcher.
Term
 Structured Observation
Definition
 Systematic observation and recording of the incidence of specific behaviors.
Term
 Unstructured Observation
Definition
 Observation in which all behavior and activities are recorded.
Term
 Content Analysis
Definition
 A procedure by which verbal, nonquantitative records are transformed into quantitative data.
Term
 Episodic Record
Definition
 the portion of the written record that is not part of a regular, ongoing record-keeping enterprise.
Term
 Intercoder Reliability
Definition
 Demonstration that multiple analysts, following the same content analysis procedure, agree and obtain the same measurements.
Term
 Running Record
Definition
 The portion of the written record that is enduring and covers an extensive period of time.
Term
 Written Record
Definition
 Documents, reports, statistics, manuscripts, and other recorded materials available and useful for empirical research.
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